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Linguistic roots
 English is part of the Indo-European language
group (443 lgs &3 billion speakers).
 Major language families of Europe & Western Asia.
 Included families are –B,E,F,G,H,P
 Part of the West Germanic : Flemish, Dutch,
Danish.
Old English
• Celtic language Germanic tribes
• Latin language The Romans
• Scandinavian /Viking language
Norseman
Impact of Those Language
Celtic Language
During the 5th century AD the Saxons the Jutes the
Angles the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic
language.
For example: be , to , water ,love
Tuesday ,house , Friday
Latin Language
The roman came in43.A.D and went back
410 A.D this time they put impact on
English language of ;
 Educatıon
Goverment
Written language
Celtic languages the native language so this way pre-
English.After going back Roman the various dialects spoken by
the Germanic tribes are known as old English. These dialects
are;
 Mercian
Kentish
West Saxon
Northumbrian
Runic Inscriptions
The earliest written records of English are
inscriptions on hard material made in a special
alphabet known as the runes.
This system of written is called Runic inscription.
By Runic we got Anglo-Saxon alphabets and these
different from O. E. alphabet or present Alphabets.
CHANGESIN OLD ENGLISH
 æ
 It was used as “ai”
 That means changed to “e”
Example: before = næver
now= never
 we got indefinite articles, a and an
were introduced.
Old English Alphabet
About verb:
o At first verb is placed at the end of sentence.
ex: that be no justice did.
o Then verb is placed after pronoun.
ex: still they ploughfed their lands.
About Consonants:
In Old English period all consonants were pronounced.
Old English Modern English
a: u
stan stone
ham home
wrat wrote
About I-mutation:
Changing sound of vowel in the care of showing singular, plural
as well as noun, pronoun is called I-mutation. for example;
Blood=Bleed
full=Fill
Goose=Geese
In I-mutation back vowel is raised and front vowels sound became
change.
There are no a lot of impacts of Scandinavian language in
English because,
I. Old Norse and old English are
Germanic language.
II. Lack of writing
III. Viking were not literate
IV. The Norman conquest.
IMPACT OF SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGE IN
ENGLISH
But in old English
there are many
Viking words like; lift,
take , give, sky , leg
4
dads
Celtic
Latin
Norse
Germanic
origins
 Here some pairs of modern English
word the first of each pair is drive from
OE and the second of Anglo Norman
origin.
pig/pork
chicken/poultry
freedom/liberty
• “William” the duke of Normandy
conquered England in 1066 from
this year the language was
changing. Because-
• Government officials began
speaking French
• English became language of the
poor.
I. Peasants
II. Butchers
III. Servants
• People adapted French
language because of
declining of English
• Church speaks Latin and French
Bilingual:
English children became bilingual.in bilingual people used
two languages. These are
English
Latin
French
Examples:
kingly(old Eng.)
royal (French)
regal (Latin)
One meaning but three different words,
Beef (French)
Cow (Latin)
Cattle (English)
Likewise, Norman and later French influences let to some
interesting word pair in English. Example:
wander (Norman)
Guardian (French)
Great Vowel shift
 Grammar is simplified
 Case and number endings are reduced
 Fixed word order is developed
• The Great Vowel Shift was a change in
pronunciation that began ground 1400 and
separated middle English . For example:
Middle Eng.
MI
Fet Fit
Mai
Early
modern Eng.
Late modern
Eng.
My
feet
/a/ became rounded
after /w/
warm, water, wall
/a/ > /e/ did not round
wager
silent e
1. mad
2. made
3. maddening
•Sudden and major change how vowels are
pronounced
•The vowel shift as a process which led to a long
vowel sounds being raised and diphthongized.
example: Chaucer's Lye (pronounced/life/),and it
become “life "in modern.
modern English (1500- PRESENT)
TWO TYPES
Early Modern English
From 1500 to 1800s
Late modern English
1800s until today
Early Modern English
• The Renaissance brought the revival
of classical scholarship and brought
many classical Latin and Greek words
into the Language.
Many English words are not pronounced as they used to be
• Listening and writing of a word was difficult.
example: House and mouse used to rhyme with moose.
Sonnets and novels were written from this period.
Greated new by new words, like; leapfrog,critical,dividle,pedant.
CHANGES
ANDDIFFICULTIES
 Got indium from this time. For example;
I. All that glitters is not gold.
II. Bag and baggage .
III. Beggar all description.
 The printing press was introduction in modern period.
So,
-text books were sold at cheap prices
-English grammar, spelling and vocabulary were
standardized.
• 1604 first English dictionary was published.
Result of Printing Press
1. Freezing of English spelling
2.Books in English are more available
3.Strengthening of the London dialect.
4. A table of alphabeticall.
Late Modern English
• There are a lot of vocabulary in late modern English.
• Pronunciation grammar and spelling are largely the same.
• English language adopted more foreign words from many
countries. example: pajamas from Hindi from, tycoon from
Japanese, and sauna from Finnish
O Many words from Latin or Greek roots
-biology,
-oxygen
O Military slang words were created in late modern English
-blockbuster
-nosedive
-spearhead
O There are 600.000 words are from late modern English
today.
Change of language in english

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Change of language in english

  • 1.
  • 2. Linguistic roots  English is part of the Indo-European language group (443 lgs &3 billion speakers).  Major language families of Europe & Western Asia.  Included families are –B,E,F,G,H,P  Part of the West Germanic : Flemish, Dutch, Danish.
  • 3.
  • 4. Old English • Celtic language Germanic tribes • Latin language The Romans • Scandinavian /Viking language Norseman
  • 5. Impact of Those Language Celtic Language During the 5th century AD the Saxons the Jutes the Angles the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. For example: be , to , water ,love Tuesday ,house , Friday
  • 6. Latin Language The roman came in43.A.D and went back 410 A.D this time they put impact on English language of ;  Educatıon Goverment Written language
  • 7. Celtic languages the native language so this way pre- English.After going back Roman the various dialects spoken by the Germanic tribes are known as old English. These dialects are;  Mercian Kentish West Saxon Northumbrian
  • 8. Runic Inscriptions The earliest written records of English are inscriptions on hard material made in a special alphabet known as the runes. This system of written is called Runic inscription. By Runic we got Anglo-Saxon alphabets and these different from O. E. alphabet or present Alphabets.
  • 9. CHANGESIN OLD ENGLISH  æ  It was used as “ai”  That means changed to “e” Example: before = næver now= never  we got indefinite articles, a and an were introduced.
  • 11. About verb: o At first verb is placed at the end of sentence. ex: that be no justice did. o Then verb is placed after pronoun. ex: still they ploughfed their lands. About Consonants: In Old English period all consonants were pronounced. Old English Modern English a: u stan stone ham home wrat wrote
  • 12. About I-mutation: Changing sound of vowel in the care of showing singular, plural as well as noun, pronoun is called I-mutation. for example; Blood=Bleed full=Fill Goose=Geese In I-mutation back vowel is raised and front vowels sound became change.
  • 13. There are no a lot of impacts of Scandinavian language in English because, I. Old Norse and old English are Germanic language. II. Lack of writing III. Viking were not literate IV. The Norman conquest. IMPACT OF SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGE IN ENGLISH
  • 14. But in old English there are many Viking words like; lift, take , give, sky , leg
  • 16.  Here some pairs of modern English word the first of each pair is drive from OE and the second of Anglo Norman origin. pig/pork chicken/poultry freedom/liberty
  • 17.
  • 18. • “William” the duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066 from this year the language was changing. Because- • Government officials began speaking French • English became language of the poor. I. Peasants II. Butchers III. Servants • People adapted French language because of declining of English • Church speaks Latin and French
  • 19. Bilingual: English children became bilingual.in bilingual people used two languages. These are English Latin French
  • 20. Examples: kingly(old Eng.) royal (French) regal (Latin) One meaning but three different words, Beef (French) Cow (Latin) Cattle (English) Likewise, Norman and later French influences let to some interesting word pair in English. Example: wander (Norman) Guardian (French)
  • 21.
  • 22. Great Vowel shift  Grammar is simplified  Case and number endings are reduced  Fixed word order is developed
  • 23. • The Great Vowel Shift was a change in pronunciation that began ground 1400 and separated middle English . For example: Middle Eng. MI Fet Fit Mai Early modern Eng. Late modern Eng. My feet
  • 24. /a/ became rounded after /w/ warm, water, wall /a/ > /e/ did not round wager silent e 1. mad 2. made 3. maddening •Sudden and major change how vowels are pronounced •The vowel shift as a process which led to a long vowel sounds being raised and diphthongized. example: Chaucer's Lye (pronounced/life/),and it become “life "in modern.
  • 25.
  • 26. modern English (1500- PRESENT) TWO TYPES Early Modern English From 1500 to 1800s Late modern English 1800s until today
  • 27.
  • 28. Early Modern English • The Renaissance brought the revival of classical scholarship and brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the Language.
  • 29. Many English words are not pronounced as they used to be • Listening and writing of a word was difficult. example: House and mouse used to rhyme with moose. Sonnets and novels were written from this period. Greated new by new words, like; leapfrog,critical,dividle,pedant. CHANGES ANDDIFFICULTIES
  • 30.  Got indium from this time. For example; I. All that glitters is not gold. II. Bag and baggage . III. Beggar all description.  The printing press was introduction in modern period. So, -text books were sold at cheap prices -English grammar, spelling and vocabulary were standardized.
  • 31. • 1604 first English dictionary was published.
  • 32.
  • 33. Result of Printing Press 1. Freezing of English spelling 2.Books in English are more available 3.Strengthening of the London dialect. 4. A table of alphabeticall.
  • 34. Late Modern English • There are a lot of vocabulary in late modern English. • Pronunciation grammar and spelling are largely the same. • English language adopted more foreign words from many countries. example: pajamas from Hindi from, tycoon from Japanese, and sauna from Finnish
  • 35. O Many words from Latin or Greek roots -biology, -oxygen O Military slang words were created in late modern English -blockbuster -nosedive -spearhead O There are 600.000 words are from late modern English today.