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Challenges in Archiving Social Media
Data for Research:
The Case of Twitter
Dr. Katrin Weller
GESIS – Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences
Data Archive for the Social Sciences / Computational Social Science
Cologne, Germany
●
Digital Studies Fellow at John W. Kluge Center
Library of Congress
Washington D.C.
E-Mail: katrin.weller@gesis.org ●Twitter: @kwelle ● Web: www.katrinweller.net
Slides are available at: http://de.slideshare.net/katrinweller
2
SERIOUSLY? DO THEY NOT REALIZE THAT 99%
OF TWEETS ARE WORTHLESS BABBLE THAT
READ SOMETHING LIKE ‘JUST WOKE UP. GOING
TO STARBUCKS NOW. GETTING LATTE.’
READER’SCOMMENTFOUNDINTHECOMMENTSECTIONFORGROSS,D.(2010,APRIL14).LIBRARYOFCONGRESSTOARCHIVEYOURTWEETS.CNN.RETRIEVEDFROMHTTP://EDITION.CNN.COM/2010/TECH/04/14/LIBRARY.CONGRESS.TWITTER/,
RETRIEVEDNOVEMBER19.
PHOTOS:HTTPS://WWW.FLICKR.COM/SEARCH/?TEXT=COFFEE&LICENSE=4%2C5%2C6%2C9%2C10
Background
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Twitter
Facebook
YouTube
Blogs
Wikis
Foursquare
LinkedIn
MySpace
Number of publications per year, which mention the respective social media platform‘s name in their title. Scopus
Title Search. For details: http://kwelle.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/bibliometric-analysis-of-social-media-research/
Twitter research until 2013 by discipline
4
Chances in Social Media Research
• Researchers value social media as a new type of data
• Previously „ephemeral data“ become visible
• Immediate – quick reaction to events
• Structured
• „natural“ data
5
“What I find really interesting is that structure becomes manifest in
internet communication. So it’s the first time in history actually that
we can, that social structures between people become manifest
within a technology. (...) They become visible, they become
crawlable, they become analyzable.”
Kinder-Kurlanda, Katharina E., and Katrin Weller. 2014. "'I always feel it must be great to be a hacker!': The role of interdisciplinary work
in social media research." In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM conference on Web Science, 91-98. New York: ACM.
One of the Challenges: Data Sharing
6
“But you can’t make your data available for others to look at, which means both
your study can’t really be replicated and it can’t be tested for review. But also it
just means your data can’t be made available for other people to say, Ah you
have done this with it, I’ll see what I can do with it, (…) There is no open data.”
Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2015. "Uncovering the Challenges in Collection, Sharing and Documentation: The Hidden
Data of Social Media Research?." In Standards and Practices in Large-Scale Social Media Research: Papers from the 2015 ICWSM
Workshop. Proceedings Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media Oxford University, May 26, 2015 – May 29, 2015,
28-37. Ann Arbor, MI: AAAI Press.
What is Twitter data?
“I actually only use [other researcher’s datasets] where I’m very sure about
where it comes from and how it was processed and analyzed. There is too
much uncertainty in it.”
7
Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2015. "Uncovering the Challenges in Collection, Sharing and Documentation: The Hidden
Data of Social Media Research?." In Standards and Practices in Large-Scale Social Media Research: Papers from the 2015 ICWSM
Workshop. Proceedings Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media Oxford University, May 26, 2015 – May 29, 2015,
28-37. Ann Arbor, MI: AAAI Press.
8
Different methods and types of datasets, examples from popular social science papers
Weller, K. (2014). What do we get from Twitter – and what not? A close look at Twitter research in the social sciences.
Knowledge Organization. 41(3), 238-248
Example 2008-2013 papers on Twitter and elections:
data sources
Weller, K. (2014). Twitter und Wahlen: Zwischen 140 Zeichen und Milliarden von Tweets. In: R. Reichert (Ed.), Big
Data: Analysen zum digitalen Wandel von Wissen, Macht und Ökonomie (pp. 239-257). Bielefeld: transcript.
9
Data source number
No information 11
Collected manually from Twitter website (Copy-Paste /
Screenshot)
6
Twitter API (no further information) 8
Twitter Search API 3
Twitter Streaming API 1
Twitter Rest API 1
Twitter API user timeline 1
Own program for accessing Twitter APIs 4
Twitter Gardenhose 1
Official Reseller (Gnip, DataSift) 3
YourTwapperKeeper 3
Other tools (e.g. Topsy) 6
Received from colleagues 1
Archiving Twitter Datasets?
Current approaches
10
11
12
13
Format supported by
Twitter Terms of services
Available datasets
• From individual researchers/groups (sometimes
„black market“).
• From conferences: e.g. ICWSM
• Archival institutions? GESIS working on first release.
14
Challenges in Archiving Twitter Data
15
Sources for Challenges
(1) the Twitter Terms of Services
(2) ethical challenges
(3) lack of standard metadata
(4) the ever changing nature of Twitter – and
Twitter users
16
Sources for Challenges
(1) the Twitter Terms of Services
(2) ethical challenges
(3) lack of standard metadata
(4) the ever changing nature of Twitter – and
Twitter users
17
The changing nature of Twitter
in 5 examples
18
#1
Deleted content
19
#2
Lost context: interfaces, look and feel
20
#3
Lost context: stories, meanings
21
#4
Lost context: user names
22
#5
URLs and images
23
Supplement: some useful references
Tools / Methods for collecting tweets:
• Borra, E., & Rieder, D. (2014). Programmed method: developing a toolset
for capturing and analyzing tweets, Aslib Journal of Information
Management, 66(3), 262 – 278. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-09-
2013-0094
• Bruns, A., & Liang, Y. E. (2012). Tools and methods for capturing Twitter
data during natural disasters. First Monday, 17(4).
doi:10.5210/fm.v17i4.3937
• Gaffney, D., & Puschmann, C. (2014). Data collection on Twitter. In Weller,
A. Bruns, J. Burgess., M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Ed.), Twitter and
Society (pp. 55–68). New York: Peter Lang.
[There are much more tools, though. See, e.g. collection at:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit (curated by D. Freelon).
24
Supplement: some useful references
Challenges in collecting tweets / data quality:
• Bruns, A. (2011, June 21). Switching from Twapperkeeper to yourTwapperkeeper. Retrieved
January 31, 2015 from http://www.mappingonlinepublics.net/2011/06/21/switching-from-
twapperkeeper-to-yourtwapperkeeper/.
• Bruns, A. and Stieglitz, S. (2014), “Twitter data: what do they represent?” IT Information
Technology, Vol. 59 No. 5, pp. 240-5, [online], available at:
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/itit.2014.56.issue-5/itit-2014-1049/itit-2014-1049.xml
(accessed 28 February 2015), DOI: 10.1515/itit-2014-1049.
• Jungherr, A., Jurgens, P. and Schoen, H. (2012), “Why the Pirate Party won the German
Election of 2009 or The trouble with predictions: a response to Tumasjan, A., Sprenger, T. O.,
Sander, P. G. and Welpe, I. M. Predicting elections with Twitter: what 140 characters reveal
about political sentiment”, Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 229-34,
[online], available at: http://ssc.sagepub.com/content/30/2/229 (accessed 28 February
2015), DOI: 10.1177/0894439311404119.
• Morstatter, Fred, Jürgen Pfeffer, Huan Liu, and Kathleen M. Carley. 2013. “Is the Sample Good
Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter’s Streaming API with Twitter’s Firehose.”
http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.5204.
• Sumers, E. (2015). Tweets and Deletes. Retrieved, June 9, 2015 from:
https://medium.com/on-archivy/tweets-and-deletes-727ed74f84ed (see also:
https://github.com/edsu/twarc) 25
Supplement: some useful references
Bibliometric studies of Twitter researchers:
• Williams, S. A., Terras, M. M., & Warwick, C. (2013a). What do people study when
they study Twitter? Classifying Twitter related academic papers. Journal of
Documentation, 69(3): 384-410.
• Williams, S. A., Terras, M. M., & Warwick, C. (2013b). How Twitter Is Studied in the
Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed. In Med
2.0 2013. doi: 10.2196/med20.2269.
• Weller, K. (2014b). What do we get from Twitter – and what not? A close look at
Twitter research in the social sciences. Knowledge Organization 41(3), 238-248.
• Zimmer, M., & Proferes, J.N. (2014). A topology of Twitter research: disciplines,
methods, and ethics. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 250–261.
doi:10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0083
26
Supplement: some useful references
Critical perspectives on data access and inequalities:
• Boyd, D. and Crawford, K. (2012), “Critical questions for Big Data: provocations for
a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon”, Information,
Communication & Society, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 662-79, [online], available at:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878#abstract
(accessed 28 February 2015), DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878.
27
Supplement: some useful references
Legal and ethical challenges:
• Beurskens, M. (2014). Legal Questions of Twitter Research. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess.,
M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 123-133). New York: Peter Lang.
• Markham, A. and Buchanan, E. (2012), “Ethical decision-making and internet research 2.0:
recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee”, available at:
http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf (accessed 28 February 2015).
• Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2014. "I love thinking about ethics:
Perspectives on ethics in social media research." In Selected Papers of Internet Research
(SPIR). Proceedings of ir15 - Boundaries and Intersections,
http://spir.aoir.org/index.php/spir/article/view/997.
• Zimmer, M. & Proferes, J.N. (2014). Privacy on Twitter, Twitter on privacy. In Weller, A. Bruns,
J. Burgess., M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter & Society (pp. 169-182), New York:
Peter Lang.
• Zimmer, M. (2010), “But the data is already public: on the ethics of research in Facebook”,
Ethics and Information Technology, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 313-25, DOI: 10.1007/s10676-010-
9227-5.
28
Supplement: some useful references
Twitter‘s activities:
• Krikorian, R. (2014a), “Introducing Twitter Data Grants”, [online], available at:
https://blog.twitter.com/2014/introducing-twitter-data-grants (accessed 28
February 2015).
• Krikorian, R. (2014b), “Twitter #DataGrants selections”, available at:
https://blog.twitter.com/2014/twitter-datagrants-selections (accessed 28
February 2015).
• Stone, B. (2010). Tweet Preservation. Blog post, April 14, 2010. Retrieved from
https://blog.twitter.com/2010/tweet-preservation
• Twitter (2014). Developer Agreement & Policy. Twitter Developer Agreement,
retrieved January 31, 2015 from
https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/agreement-and-policy.
• Twitter (no date). Guidelines for using Tweets in broadcast, retrieved January 31,
2015, from https://support.twitter.com/articles/114233.
29
Supplement: some useful references
Library of Congress‘ activities:
• Allen, E. (2013, January 4). Update on the Twitter Archive at the Library of
Congress. Retrieved January 31, 2015 from
http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2013/01/update-on-the-twitter-archive-at-the-
library-of-congress/
• McLemmee, S. (2015). The Archive is closed. Inside Higher Education.
Retrieved June 9, 2015 from:
https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2015/06/03/article-difficulties-
social-media-research
• Raymond, M. (2010). How Tweet It Is! Library Acquires Entire Twitter
Archive. Retrieved January 31, from
http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2010/04/how-tweet-it-is-library-acquires-entire-
twitter-archive/
30
Supplement: some useful references
Examples of Twitterdatasets shared publicly:
• CrisisLex on Github: https://github.com/sajao/CrisisLex/tree/master/data/CrisisLexT26/
• Hadgu & Jäschke 2014 dataset on Github: https://github.com/L3S/twitter-researcher
• ICWSM 2012 datasets: http://www.icwsm.org/2012/submitting/datasets/ ICWSM 2014
datasets: http://www.icwsm.org/2014/datasets/datasets/
• MPI-SWS (no date). The Twitter Project Page at MPI-SWS. Retrieved January 26, 2015
from http://twitter.mpi-sws.org/ (Archived by WebCite® at
http://www.webcitation.org/6VsuuxQlU)
• TREC 2011: http://trec.nist.gov/data/tweets/
• sananalytics (2011). Public domain twitter sentiment corpus. Post in Twitter Developers
Forums. Retrieved Jan 31, 2015 from https://twittercommunity.com/t/public-domain-
twitter-sentiment-corpus/13290
31
GREETINGS FROM COLOGNE
QUESTIONS AND FEEDBACK
katrin.weller@gesis.org
@kwelle
http://katrinweller.net

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Challenges in-archiving-twitter

  • 1. Challenges in Archiving Social Media Data for Research: The Case of Twitter Dr. Katrin Weller GESIS – Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences Data Archive for the Social Sciences / Computational Social Science Cologne, Germany ● Digital Studies Fellow at John W. Kluge Center Library of Congress Washington D.C. E-Mail: katrin.weller@gesis.org ●Twitter: @kwelle ● Web: www.katrinweller.net Slides are available at: http://de.slideshare.net/katrinweller
  • 2. 2 SERIOUSLY? DO THEY NOT REALIZE THAT 99% OF TWEETS ARE WORTHLESS BABBLE THAT READ SOMETHING LIKE ‘JUST WOKE UP. GOING TO STARBUCKS NOW. GETTING LATTE.’ READER’SCOMMENTFOUNDINTHECOMMENTSECTIONFORGROSS,D.(2010,APRIL14).LIBRARYOFCONGRESSTOARCHIVEYOURTWEETS.CNN.RETRIEVEDFROMHTTP://EDITION.CNN.COM/2010/TECH/04/14/LIBRARY.CONGRESS.TWITTER/, RETRIEVEDNOVEMBER19. PHOTOS:HTTPS://WWW.FLICKR.COM/SEARCH/?TEXT=COFFEE&LICENSE=4%2C5%2C6%2C9%2C10
  • 3. Background 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Twitter Facebook YouTube Blogs Wikis Foursquare LinkedIn MySpace Number of publications per year, which mention the respective social media platform‘s name in their title. Scopus Title Search. For details: http://kwelle.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/bibliometric-analysis-of-social-media-research/
  • 4. Twitter research until 2013 by discipline 4
  • 5. Chances in Social Media Research • Researchers value social media as a new type of data • Previously „ephemeral data“ become visible • Immediate – quick reaction to events • Structured • „natural“ data 5 “What I find really interesting is that structure becomes manifest in internet communication. So it’s the first time in history actually that we can, that social structures between people become manifest within a technology. (...) They become visible, they become crawlable, they become analyzable.” Kinder-Kurlanda, Katharina E., and Katrin Weller. 2014. "'I always feel it must be great to be a hacker!': The role of interdisciplinary work in social media research." In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM conference on Web Science, 91-98. New York: ACM.
  • 6. One of the Challenges: Data Sharing 6 “But you can’t make your data available for others to look at, which means both your study can’t really be replicated and it can’t be tested for review. But also it just means your data can’t be made available for other people to say, Ah you have done this with it, I’ll see what I can do with it, (…) There is no open data.” Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2015. "Uncovering the Challenges in Collection, Sharing and Documentation: The Hidden Data of Social Media Research?." In Standards and Practices in Large-Scale Social Media Research: Papers from the 2015 ICWSM Workshop. Proceedings Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media Oxford University, May 26, 2015 – May 29, 2015, 28-37. Ann Arbor, MI: AAAI Press.
  • 7. What is Twitter data? “I actually only use [other researcher’s datasets] where I’m very sure about where it comes from and how it was processed and analyzed. There is too much uncertainty in it.” 7 Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2015. "Uncovering the Challenges in Collection, Sharing and Documentation: The Hidden Data of Social Media Research?." In Standards and Practices in Large-Scale Social Media Research: Papers from the 2015 ICWSM Workshop. Proceedings Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media Oxford University, May 26, 2015 – May 29, 2015, 28-37. Ann Arbor, MI: AAAI Press.
  • 8. 8 Different methods and types of datasets, examples from popular social science papers Weller, K. (2014). What do we get from Twitter – and what not? A close look at Twitter research in the social sciences. Knowledge Organization. 41(3), 238-248
  • 9. Example 2008-2013 papers on Twitter and elections: data sources Weller, K. (2014). Twitter und Wahlen: Zwischen 140 Zeichen und Milliarden von Tweets. In: R. Reichert (Ed.), Big Data: Analysen zum digitalen Wandel von Wissen, Macht und Ökonomie (pp. 239-257). Bielefeld: transcript. 9 Data source number No information 11 Collected manually from Twitter website (Copy-Paste / Screenshot) 6 Twitter API (no further information) 8 Twitter Search API 3 Twitter Streaming API 1 Twitter Rest API 1 Twitter API user timeline 1 Own program for accessing Twitter APIs 4 Twitter Gardenhose 1 Official Reseller (Gnip, DataSift) 3 YourTwapperKeeper 3 Other tools (e.g. Topsy) 6 Received from colleagues 1
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 13 Format supported by Twitter Terms of services
  • 14. Available datasets • From individual researchers/groups (sometimes „black market“). • From conferences: e.g. ICWSM • Archival institutions? GESIS working on first release. 14
  • 15. Challenges in Archiving Twitter Data 15
  • 16. Sources for Challenges (1) the Twitter Terms of Services (2) ethical challenges (3) lack of standard metadata (4) the ever changing nature of Twitter – and Twitter users 16
  • 17. Sources for Challenges (1) the Twitter Terms of Services (2) ethical challenges (3) lack of standard metadata (4) the ever changing nature of Twitter – and Twitter users 17
  • 18. The changing nature of Twitter in 5 examples 18
  • 20. #2 Lost context: interfaces, look and feel 20
  • 24. Supplement: some useful references Tools / Methods for collecting tweets: • Borra, E., & Rieder, D. (2014). Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing tweets, Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 262 – 278. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-09- 2013-0094 • Bruns, A., & Liang, Y. E. (2012). Tools and methods for capturing Twitter data during natural disasters. First Monday, 17(4). doi:10.5210/fm.v17i4.3937 • Gaffney, D., & Puschmann, C. (2014). Data collection on Twitter. In Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess., M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Ed.), Twitter and Society (pp. 55–68). New York: Peter Lang. [There are much more tools, though. See, e.g. collection at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit (curated by D. Freelon). 24
  • 25. Supplement: some useful references Challenges in collecting tweets / data quality: • Bruns, A. (2011, June 21). Switching from Twapperkeeper to yourTwapperkeeper. Retrieved January 31, 2015 from http://www.mappingonlinepublics.net/2011/06/21/switching-from- twapperkeeper-to-yourtwapperkeeper/. • Bruns, A. and Stieglitz, S. (2014), “Twitter data: what do they represent?” IT Information Technology, Vol. 59 No. 5, pp. 240-5, [online], available at: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/itit.2014.56.issue-5/itit-2014-1049/itit-2014-1049.xml (accessed 28 February 2015), DOI: 10.1515/itit-2014-1049. • Jungherr, A., Jurgens, P. and Schoen, H. (2012), “Why the Pirate Party won the German Election of 2009 or The trouble with predictions: a response to Tumasjan, A., Sprenger, T. O., Sander, P. G. and Welpe, I. M. Predicting elections with Twitter: what 140 characters reveal about political sentiment”, Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 229-34, [online], available at: http://ssc.sagepub.com/content/30/2/229 (accessed 28 February 2015), DOI: 10.1177/0894439311404119. • Morstatter, Fred, Jürgen Pfeffer, Huan Liu, and Kathleen M. Carley. 2013. “Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter’s Streaming API with Twitter’s Firehose.” http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.5204. • Sumers, E. (2015). Tweets and Deletes. Retrieved, June 9, 2015 from: https://medium.com/on-archivy/tweets-and-deletes-727ed74f84ed (see also: https://github.com/edsu/twarc) 25
  • 26. Supplement: some useful references Bibliometric studies of Twitter researchers: • Williams, S. A., Terras, M. M., & Warwick, C. (2013a). What do people study when they study Twitter? Classifying Twitter related academic papers. Journal of Documentation, 69(3): 384-410. • Williams, S. A., Terras, M. M., & Warwick, C. (2013b). How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed. In Med 2.0 2013. doi: 10.2196/med20.2269. • Weller, K. (2014b). What do we get from Twitter – and what not? A close look at Twitter research in the social sciences. Knowledge Organization 41(3), 238-248. • Zimmer, M., & Proferes, J.N. (2014). A topology of Twitter research: disciplines, methods, and ethics. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 250–261. doi:10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0083 26
  • 27. Supplement: some useful references Critical perspectives on data access and inequalities: • Boyd, D. and Crawford, K. (2012), “Critical questions for Big Data: provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon”, Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 662-79, [online], available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878#abstract (accessed 28 February 2015), DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878. 27
  • 28. Supplement: some useful references Legal and ethical challenges: • Beurskens, M. (2014). Legal Questions of Twitter Research. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess., M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 123-133). New York: Peter Lang. • Markham, A. and Buchanan, E. (2012), “Ethical decision-making and internet research 2.0: recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee”, available at: http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf (accessed 28 February 2015). • Weller, Katrin, and Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda. 2014. "I love thinking about ethics: Perspectives on ethics in social media research." In Selected Papers of Internet Research (SPIR). Proceedings of ir15 - Boundaries and Intersections, http://spir.aoir.org/index.php/spir/article/view/997. • Zimmer, M. & Proferes, J.N. (2014). Privacy on Twitter, Twitter on privacy. In Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess., M. Mahrt and C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter & Society (pp. 169-182), New York: Peter Lang. • Zimmer, M. (2010), “But the data is already public: on the ethics of research in Facebook”, Ethics and Information Technology, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 313-25, DOI: 10.1007/s10676-010- 9227-5. 28
  • 29. Supplement: some useful references Twitter‘s activities: • Krikorian, R. (2014a), “Introducing Twitter Data Grants”, [online], available at: https://blog.twitter.com/2014/introducing-twitter-data-grants (accessed 28 February 2015). • Krikorian, R. (2014b), “Twitter #DataGrants selections”, available at: https://blog.twitter.com/2014/twitter-datagrants-selections (accessed 28 February 2015). • Stone, B. (2010). Tweet Preservation. Blog post, April 14, 2010. Retrieved from https://blog.twitter.com/2010/tweet-preservation • Twitter (2014). Developer Agreement & Policy. Twitter Developer Agreement, retrieved January 31, 2015 from https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/agreement-and-policy. • Twitter (no date). Guidelines for using Tweets in broadcast, retrieved January 31, 2015, from https://support.twitter.com/articles/114233. 29
  • 30. Supplement: some useful references Library of Congress‘ activities: • Allen, E. (2013, January 4). Update on the Twitter Archive at the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 31, 2015 from http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2013/01/update-on-the-twitter-archive-at-the- library-of-congress/ • McLemmee, S. (2015). The Archive is closed. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved June 9, 2015 from: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2015/06/03/article-difficulties- social-media-research • Raymond, M. (2010). How Tweet It Is! Library Acquires Entire Twitter Archive. Retrieved January 31, from http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2010/04/how-tweet-it-is-library-acquires-entire- twitter-archive/ 30
  • 31. Supplement: some useful references Examples of Twitterdatasets shared publicly: • CrisisLex on Github: https://github.com/sajao/CrisisLex/tree/master/data/CrisisLexT26/ • Hadgu & Jäschke 2014 dataset on Github: https://github.com/L3S/twitter-researcher • ICWSM 2012 datasets: http://www.icwsm.org/2012/submitting/datasets/ ICWSM 2014 datasets: http://www.icwsm.org/2014/datasets/datasets/ • MPI-SWS (no date). The Twitter Project Page at MPI-SWS. Retrieved January 26, 2015 from http://twitter.mpi-sws.org/ (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6VsuuxQlU) • TREC 2011: http://trec.nist.gov/data/tweets/ • sananalytics (2011). Public domain twitter sentiment corpus. Post in Twitter Developers Forums. Retrieved Jan 31, 2015 from https://twittercommunity.com/t/public-domain- twitter-sentiment-corpus/13290 31