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CELL DIVISION
BY:- Miss. J. Y. Burade
(Lecturer)
Dr. Rajendra Gode College of
Pharmacy , Amravti
Lesson overview
Cells are the main building material of all living creatures. Whenever you zoom with a microscope into the flesh of a
chicken or human, or into the leaf of a dandelion, you will definitely find cells. In a human body, there are
approximately 220 different types of cells. Each cell have the self replicating properties.
• Taking the complete information of cell
division.
• Discussing about the phases of cell division
Somatic cell, Plant cell, Cell Wall, Cell membrane,
Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi, Vacuole, Nucleus,
Nucleolus, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Free Ribosomes,
Cytoskeleton, Interphase, Mitosis.
Learning objectives
Keywords
Standards
Name Memorable phrase Description
Plasma membrane Cell’s fortification
Separates the interior of the cell from the outside
environment
Cytoplasm Cell’s environment Fluid part enclosed by the membrane, contains organelles
Nucleus Cell’s brain
Contains most of the genetic material, in the form of
DNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum Cell’s pipe system
System of metabolic processes (smooth ER), protein
manufacturing ribosomes (rough ER)
Golgi apparatus Cell’s delivery center
It tags vesicles and proteins to help them get carried to
their correct destinations
Centrosome Cell’s anchor
Organizes and produces the microtubules
of the cell’s cytoskeleton
Mitochondria Cell’s powerplant
Produce energy for the cell, break down carbohydrates
and some Durations lipids to form molecule ATP
Ribosome Cell’s factories Translate RNA into proteins
Lysosome Cell’s stomach
Vesicles filled with digestive proteins, can absorb
something and break it down into recyclable pieces
Peroxisome Cell’s firemen
Vesicles that defend (or neutralize) the cell from free
radicals
Cytoskeleton Cell’s shapeshifter
It modifies the cell’s shape and ensures mechanical
resistance to deformation
Vacuole Cell‘s compartments
Enclosed storage vessels which are filled with water
containing inorganic and organic molecules
Introduction to cells
A somatic (from the Greek word meaning “body”) cell is any biological cell forming the shape of its organism, except for those cells
involved in sexual reproduction (called gem cells). They are found in all living creatures of varying shapes and sizes. They contain two
copies of each of their chromosomes (one received from each parent). Humans are a diploid (having pairs of chromosomes) organism,
having 23 pairs of chromosomes in each somatic cell. Somatic cells also differ in their functions, and may include additional parts that
make them sophisticated, e.g., plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are crucial
for photosynthesis.
Cell division/ Cell cycle
3.
• Cell division is an important part of the all living processes.
• At the time of cell division, RNA replication is a natural process.
• The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell that cause it to divide into two daughter cells.
• These events include the duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and some of its organelles, and subsequently the partitioning of its
cytoplasm and other components into two daughter cells in a process called cell division.
Types of cell division
There are two types of cell division
A) Mitosis and Binary fission – (Asexual
reproduction)
involves a (somatic cell ) single cell dividing to
make two new identical daughter cells.
Diploid - 46 chromosomes
B) Meiosis – (Sexual reproduction)
involves two cell (egg and sperm) joining to make
a new cell (zygote) that is not identical to the
original cell.
Haploid – 23 chromosomes
• In prokaryotic cell, the cell division occurs via a
process termed as Binary fission.
• In eukaryotic cell, the cell cycle can be divided in
two periods i.e Interphase and Mitosis.
• During Interphase, the cell grows and DNA is
replicated.
• During Mitotic phase, the replicated DNA and
cytoplasmic contents are separated, and cell divides.
• The duration of cycle varies from hours to years. A
typical human cell cycle has duration of 24 hours.
• Some cells, such as skin cells, are constantly going
through cell cycle, while other cells may divide rarely.
• Some cells don’t grow and divide once they mature
for ex. Neuron
• Eukaryotic cell have a more complex cell cycle than
prokaryotic cell.
The eukaryotic cell cycle
consist of four distinct phases
:
1)G0 phase
2) Interphase
–G1 phase
- S phase
- G2 phase
3) M phase
- Prophase
- Metaphase
- Anaphase
- Telophase
4) Cytokinesis phase
G0 phase
• Go is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped
dividing.
• The word “post-mitotic” is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and
senescent cells.
• Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes
generally enter the quiescent Go state from G 1 and may remain quiescent
for long periods Of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for
neurons). This is very common for cells that are fully differentiated.
• Cellular senescence occurs in response to DNA damage and external
stress that would make a cell’s progeny nonviable; it is often a
biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by
apoptosis.
Interphase
• It is also called as preparatory phase or intermitotic.
• During Interphase, cell grows, make copies of their DNA and prepare to
divide into two new daughter cell.
• Cell prepare itself so that it can be divided into daughter cell.
• Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell
and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again.
• It convers about 90% of cell cycle.
Interphase proceed in three phages :
- G1 phase
- S phase
- G2 phase
G1 (Gap 1) Phase
• The first phase within interphase, from the end of the previous M phase until the
beginning of DNA synthesis, is called G1 phase.
• During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which slowed down
during M phase, resume at a high rate and the cell increases its supply of proteins
and the number organelles, and grows in size.
In Gl phase, a cell has three options:
1)To continue cell cycle and enter S phase
2)Stop cell cycle and enter Go phase for undergoing differentiation
3)Become arrested in G1 phase hence it may enter Go phase or re-enter cell cycle.
S (Synthesis) Phase
• The ensuing S phase starts, when DNA synthesis commences; when it is
complete, all of the chromosomes have been replicated, i.e, each
chromosome consists of two sister chromatids.
• Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has doubled.
• Rates of RNA transcription and protein synthesis are very low during this
phase.
G2 (Gap 2) Phase
• G2 phase occurs after DNA replication and is a period of protein synthesis
and rapid cell growth to prepare the cell for mitosis.
• During this phase microtubules begin to reorganize to form a spindle.
• Before proceeding to mitotic phase, cells must be checked at the G2
checkpoint for any DNA damage within the chromosomes.
• The G2 checkpoint is mainly regulated by the tumor protein p53.
• If the DNA is damaged, p53 will either repair the DNA or trigger the
apoptosis of the cell.
Mitotic phase
• Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell
nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei (karyokinesis).
• During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to
microtubules that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell.
• It is a relatively short period of the cell cycle and is complex and highly regulated.
• Errors in mitosis can result in cell death through apoptosis or cause mutations that may
lead to cancer.
• The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set
of activities and the start of the next.
These phases are sequentially known as:
• Prophase
• Metaphase
• Anaphase
• Telophase
Prophase
• The nuclear envelope is broken down, long
strands of chromatin condense to form shorter
more visible strands called chromosomes, the
nucleolus disappears, and microtubules attach to
the chromosomes at the kinetochores present in
the centromere.
• Microtubules associated with the alignment
and separation of chromosomes are referred to
as the spindle and spindle fiber.
• Chromosomes will also be visible under a
microscope and will be connected at the
centromere.
Metaphase
• In metaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes
convene themselves on the metaphase plate, an
imaginary line that is equidistant from the two
centrosome poles and held together by complex
complexes known as cohesions.
•Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by
microtubule organizing centers pushing and pulling on
centromeres of both chromatids thereby causing the
chromosome to move to the center.
• At this point the chromosomes are still condensing
and the spindle fibers have already connected to the
kinetochores.
• Now, the chromosomes are ready to split into poles of
the cell towards the spindle to which they are
connected
Anaphase • Once the final chromosome is properly aligned and
attached the final signal dissipates and triggers the
abrupt shift to anaphase and this is caused by the
activation of the anaphase-promoting complex.
• One of these proteins that is broken down is securin
which through its breakdown releases the enzyme
separate that cleaves the cohesion rings holding
together the sister chromatids thereby leading to the
separating.
• After the chromosomes line up in the middle of the
cell, the spindle fibers will pull them apart and
chromosomes are split apart as the sister chromatids
move to opposite sides of the cell, this makes the cell
and plasma elongated by nonkinetochore
microtubules.
Telophase
• Telophase is the last stage of the cell
cycle in which a cleavage furrow splits the
cells cytoplasm and chromatin.
• This occurs through the synthesis of a
new nuclear envelopes that forms around
the chromatin gathered at each pole and the
reformation of the nucleolus as the
chromosomes decondense their chromatin
back to the loose state it possessed during
interphase.
• Thus two daughter nuclei are formed.
• The division of the cellular contents is not
always equal and can vary by cell type.
Cytokinesis phase
• Mitosis is immediately followed by cytokinesis,
which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and
cell membrane into two cells containing roughly
equal shares of these cellular components.
• Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the
division of the mother cell into two daughter cells,
genetically identical to each other and to their
parent cell.
• This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell
cycle.
Interphase: The cell is undertaking metabolic activity
and preparing for the asexual reproduction (mitosis).
Prophase: Chromatin in the nucleus starts to condense,
resulting in the nucleolus disappearing. Centrioles move
to opposite ends of the cell.
Prometaphase: Prometaphase is marked by the
dissolution of the nuclear membrane.
Kinetochores are created by proteins attached to
the centromeres. Chromosomes start to move.
Metaphase: Chromosomes are aligned by spindle fibers
along the center of the cell nucleus. This ensures the
proper chromosome separation for each new nucleus.
Anaphase: The paired chromosomes separate
and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase: Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of the
cell, new membranes form around the nuclei.
Telophase: Chromatids arrive at opposite poles
of the cell, new membranes form around the nuclei.
Thank You!

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cell division.pptx

  • 1. CELL DIVISION BY:- Miss. J. Y. Burade (Lecturer) Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy , Amravti
  • 2. Lesson overview Cells are the main building material of all living creatures. Whenever you zoom with a microscope into the flesh of a chicken or human, or into the leaf of a dandelion, you will definitely find cells. In a human body, there are approximately 220 different types of cells. Each cell have the self replicating properties. • Taking the complete information of cell division. • Discussing about the phases of cell division Somatic cell, Plant cell, Cell Wall, Cell membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi, Vacuole, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Free Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Interphase, Mitosis. Learning objectives Keywords Standards
  • 3. Name Memorable phrase Description Plasma membrane Cell’s fortification Separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment Cytoplasm Cell’s environment Fluid part enclosed by the membrane, contains organelles Nucleus Cell’s brain Contains most of the genetic material, in the form of DNA Endoplasmic Reticulum Cell’s pipe system System of metabolic processes (smooth ER), protein manufacturing ribosomes (rough ER) Golgi apparatus Cell’s delivery center It tags vesicles and proteins to help them get carried to their correct destinations Centrosome Cell’s anchor Organizes and produces the microtubules of the cell’s cytoskeleton Mitochondria Cell’s powerplant Produce energy for the cell, break down carbohydrates and some Durations lipids to form molecule ATP Ribosome Cell’s factories Translate RNA into proteins Lysosome Cell’s stomach Vesicles filled with digestive proteins, can absorb something and break it down into recyclable pieces Peroxisome Cell’s firemen Vesicles that defend (or neutralize) the cell from free radicals Cytoskeleton Cell’s shapeshifter It modifies the cell’s shape and ensures mechanical resistance to deformation Vacuole Cell‘s compartments Enclosed storage vessels which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules
  • 4. Introduction to cells A somatic (from the Greek word meaning “body”) cell is any biological cell forming the shape of its organism, except for those cells involved in sexual reproduction (called gem cells). They are found in all living creatures of varying shapes and sizes. They contain two copies of each of their chromosomes (one received from each parent). Humans are a diploid (having pairs of chromosomes) organism, having 23 pairs of chromosomes in each somatic cell. Somatic cells also differ in their functions, and may include additional parts that make them sophisticated, e.g., plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are crucial for photosynthesis. Cell division/ Cell cycle 3. • Cell division is an important part of the all living processes. • At the time of cell division, RNA replication is a natural process. • The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell that cause it to divide into two daughter cells. • These events include the duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and some of its organelles, and subsequently the partitioning of its cytoplasm and other components into two daughter cells in a process called cell division.
  • 5. Types of cell division There are two types of cell division A) Mitosis and Binary fission – (Asexual reproduction) involves a (somatic cell ) single cell dividing to make two new identical daughter cells. Diploid - 46 chromosomes B) Meiosis – (Sexual reproduction) involves two cell (egg and sperm) joining to make a new cell (zygote) that is not identical to the original cell. Haploid – 23 chromosomes
  • 6. • In prokaryotic cell, the cell division occurs via a process termed as Binary fission. • In eukaryotic cell, the cell cycle can be divided in two periods i.e Interphase and Mitosis. • During Interphase, the cell grows and DNA is replicated. • During Mitotic phase, the replicated DNA and cytoplasmic contents are separated, and cell divides. • The duration of cycle varies from hours to years. A typical human cell cycle has duration of 24 hours. • Some cells, such as skin cells, are constantly going through cell cycle, while other cells may divide rarely. • Some cells don’t grow and divide once they mature for ex. Neuron • Eukaryotic cell have a more complex cell cycle than prokaryotic cell. The eukaryotic cell cycle consist of four distinct phases : 1)G0 phase 2) Interphase –G1 phase - S phase - G2 phase 3) M phase - Prophase - Metaphase - Anaphase - Telophase 4) Cytokinesis phase
  • 7.
  • 8. G0 phase • Go is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. • The word “post-mitotic” is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent Go state from G 1 and may remain quiescent for long periods Of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). This is very common for cells that are fully differentiated. • Cellular senescence occurs in response to DNA damage and external stress that would make a cell’s progeny nonviable; it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis.
  • 9. Interphase • It is also called as preparatory phase or intermitotic. • During Interphase, cell grows, make copies of their DNA and prepare to divide into two new daughter cell. • Cell prepare itself so that it can be divided into daughter cell. • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. • It convers about 90% of cell cycle. Interphase proceed in three phages : - G1 phase - S phase - G2 phase
  • 10. G1 (Gap 1) Phase • The first phase within interphase, from the end of the previous M phase until the beginning of DNA synthesis, is called G1 phase. • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate and the cell increases its supply of proteins and the number organelles, and grows in size. In Gl phase, a cell has three options: 1)To continue cell cycle and enter S phase 2)Stop cell cycle and enter Go phase for undergoing differentiation 3)Become arrested in G1 phase hence it may enter Go phase or re-enter cell cycle.
  • 11. S (Synthesis) Phase • The ensuing S phase starts, when DNA synthesis commences; when it is complete, all of the chromosomes have been replicated, i.e, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. • Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has doubled. • Rates of RNA transcription and protein synthesis are very low during this phase.
  • 12. G2 (Gap 2) Phase • G2 phase occurs after DNA replication and is a period of protein synthesis and rapid cell growth to prepare the cell for mitosis. • During this phase microtubules begin to reorganize to form a spindle. • Before proceeding to mitotic phase, cells must be checked at the G2 checkpoint for any DNA damage within the chromosomes. • The G2 checkpoint is mainly regulated by the tumor protein p53. • If the DNA is damaged, p53 will either repair the DNA or trigger the apoptosis of the cell.
  • 13. Mitotic phase • Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei (karyokinesis). • During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to microtubules that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. • It is a relatively short period of the cell cycle and is complex and highly regulated. • Errors in mitosis can result in cell death through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer. • The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These phases are sequentially known as: • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase
  • 14. Prophase • The nuclear envelope is broken down, long strands of chromatin condense to form shorter more visible strands called chromosomes, the nucleolus disappears, and microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochores present in the centromere. • Microtubules associated with the alignment and separation of chromosomes are referred to as the spindle and spindle fiber. • Chromosomes will also be visible under a microscope and will be connected at the centromere.
  • 15. Metaphase • In metaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene themselves on the metaphase plate, an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles and held together by complex complexes known as cohesions. •Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by microtubule organizing centers pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids thereby causing the chromosome to move to the center. • At this point the chromosomes are still condensing and the spindle fibers have already connected to the kinetochores. • Now, the chromosomes are ready to split into poles of the cell towards the spindle to which they are connected
  • 16. Anaphase • Once the final chromosome is properly aligned and attached the final signal dissipates and triggers the abrupt shift to anaphase and this is caused by the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex. • One of these proteins that is broken down is securin which through its breakdown releases the enzyme separate that cleaves the cohesion rings holding together the sister chromatids thereby leading to the separating. • After the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, the spindle fibers will pull them apart and chromosomes are split apart as the sister chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell, this makes the cell and plasma elongated by nonkinetochore microtubules.
  • 17. Telophase • Telophase is the last stage of the cell cycle in which a cleavage furrow splits the cells cytoplasm and chromatin. • This occurs through the synthesis of a new nuclear envelopes that forms around the chromatin gathered at each pole and the reformation of the nucleolus as the chromosomes decondense their chromatin back to the loose state it possessed during interphase. • Thus two daughter nuclei are formed. • The division of the cellular contents is not always equal and can vary by cell type.
  • 18. Cytokinesis phase • Mitosis is immediately followed by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. • Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. • This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle.
  • 19. Interphase: The cell is undertaking metabolic activity and preparing for the asexual reproduction (mitosis). Prophase: Chromatin in the nucleus starts to condense, resulting in the nucleolus disappearing. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell. Prometaphase: Prometaphase is marked by the dissolution of the nuclear membrane. Kinetochores are created by proteins attached to the centromeres. Chromosomes start to move. Metaphase: Chromosomes are aligned by spindle fibers along the center of the cell nucleus. This ensures the proper chromosome separation for each new nucleus. Anaphase: The paired chromosomes separate and move to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase: Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of the cell, new membranes form around the nuclei. Telophase: Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of the cell, new membranes form around the nuclei.