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Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Communications and Services
     Certifications




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Networks

Sharing data through the use of floppy disks is not an efficient or
cost-effective manner in which to operate businesses.

Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the
following three problems:
•       How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources
•       How to communicate efficiently
•       How to set up and manage a network

Businesses realized that networking technology could increase
productivity while saving money.


                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Networking Devices

Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred
to as a device.

These devices are broken up into two classifications.
•      end-user devices
•      network devices

End-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, and other
devices that provide services directly to the user.

Network devices include all the devices that connect the end-user
devices together to allow them to communicate.
                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Interface Card
A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that
provides network communication capabilities to and from a
personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Networking Device Icons




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Cisco Icons and Symbols


 Router              Wireless         Secure Router          Firewall        Home Office
                     Router




Workgroup              Access Point        IP Phone             Mobile           Small
 Switch                                                         Access          Business
                                                                Phone




              Wireless                        Line: Serial               Line: Ethernet
            Connectivity
                                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Repeater

A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal.
Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by
transmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does not perform
intelligent routing.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Hub
Hubs concentrate connections.
In other words, they take a
group of hosts and allow the
network to see them as a single
unit.

This is done passively, without
any other effect on the data
transmission.

Active hubs not only
concentrate hosts, but they
also regenerate signals.
                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bridge

Bridges convert network transmission data formats as well as
perform basic data transmission management. Bridges, as the
name implies, provide connections between LANs. Not only do
bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a check on the data to
determine whether it should cross the bridge or not. This makes
each part of the network more efficient.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Workgroup Switch


Workgroup switches add more
intelligence to data transfer
management.

Switches can determine
whether data should remain
on a LAN or not, and they can
transfer the data to the
connection that needs that
data.

                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Router
Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routers can
regenerate signals, concentrate multiple connections, convert data
transmission formats, and manage data transfers.They can also
connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect LANs that are
separated by great distances.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
“The Cloud”
The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where the connection to
the internet is.
It also represents all of the devices on the internet.




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Topologies
Network topology defines the structure of the network.

One part of the topology definition is the physical topology, which is
the actual layout of the wire or media.

The other part is the logical topology,which defines how the media
is accessed by the hosts for sending data.




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Physical Topologies




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bus Topology
A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at
both ends.

All the hosts connect directly to this backbone.




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Ring Topology
A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to
the first.

This creates a physical ring of cable.




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Star Topology
A star topology connects all cables to a central point of
concentration.




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Extended Star Topology
An extended star topology links individual stars together by
connecting the hubs and/or switches.This topology can extend the
scope and coverage of the network.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Hierarchical Topology


A hierarchical topology is similar to an extended star.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mesh Topology
A mesh topology is implemented to provide as much
protection as possible from interruption of service.
Each host has its own connections to all other hosts. Although
the Internet has multiple paths to any one location, it does
not adopt the full mesh topology.




                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
LANs, MANs, & WANs

One early solution was the creation of local-area network (LAN)
standards which provided an open set of guidelines for creating
network hardware and software, making equipment from different
companies compatible.

What was needed was a way for information to move efficiently and
quickly, not only within a company, but also from one business to
another.

The solution was the creation of metropolitan-area networks
(MANs) and wide-area networks (WANs).

                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Examples of Data Networks




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
LANs




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Cellular Topology for Wireless




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
WANs




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
SANs


A SAN is a dedicated, high-
performance network used to
move data between servers and
storage resources.

Because it is a separate,
dedicated network, it avoids any
traffic conflict between clients
and servers.

                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Virtual Private Network
A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network
infrastructure such as the global Internet. Using VPN, a telecommuter can
access the network of the company headquarters through the Internet by
building a secure tunnel between the telecommuter’s PC and a VPN router in
the headquarters.




                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bandwidth




  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Measuring Bandwidth




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Understanding Host-to-Host
       Communications



– Older model
   • Proprietary
   • Application and combinations software controlled by one
     vendor
– Standards-based model
   • Multivendor software
   • Layered approach


                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Why do we need the OSI Model?

To address the problem of networks increasing in size and
in number, the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) researched many network schemes
and recognized that there was a need to create a network
model that would help network builders implement
networks that could communicate and work together and
therefore, released the OSI reference model in 1984.




                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
OSI Model
 Reduces complexity
 Standardizes interfaces
 Ensures interoperable technology
 Accelerates evolution
 Simplifies teaching and learning




 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Don’t Get Confused.

ISO - International Organization for Standardization

OSI - Open System Interconnection

IOS - Internetwork Operating System

The ISO created the OSI to make the IOS more efficient.
The “ISO” acronym is correct as shown.

To avoid confusion, some people say “International
Standard Organization.”
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The OSI Reference Model
7 Application       The OSI Model will be used
                    throughout your entire
6 Presentation
                    networking career!
5 Session
4 Transport
3 Network
                      Memorize it!
2 Data Link
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 7 - The Application Layer
7 Application       This layer deal with
                    networking applications.
6 Presentation
5 Session           Examples:
4 Transport             Email
                        Web browsers
3 Network
2 Data Link         PDU - Data
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer
7 Application       This layer is responsible for
                    presenting the data in the
6 Presentation
                    required format which may
5 Session           include:
4 Transport               Encryption
                          Compression
3 Network
2 Data Link         PDU - Data
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 5 - The Session Layer
7 Application        This layer establishes, manages,
                     and terminates sessions
6 Presentation
                     between two communicating
5 Session            hosts.
4 Transport
3 Network            PDU - Data
2 Data Link
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 4 - The Transport Layer
7 Application        This layer breaks up the data
                     from the sending host and then
6 Presentation
                     reassembles it in the receiver.
5 Session
4 Transport          It also is used to insure reliable
                     data transport across the
3 Network            network. Also provide error
2 Data Link          correction.
1 Physical
                     PDU - Segments

                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 3 - The Network Layer
7 Application
                     Makes “Best Path
6 Presentation
                     Determination” decisions based
5 Session            on logical addresses (usually IP
4 Transport          addresses).

3 Network            PDU - Packets
2 Data Link
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 2 - The Data Link Layer
7 Application        This layer provides reliable
                     transit of data across a physical
6 Presentation
                     link “error detection”.
5 Session
4 Transport          Makes decisions based on
                     physical addresses (usually MAC
3 Network            addresses).
2 Data Link
                     PDU - Frames
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 1 - The Physical Layer
                     This is the physical media
7 Application        through which the data,
6 Presentation       represented as electronic signals,
                     is sent from the source host to
5 Session
                     the destination host.
4 Transport
3 Network
                     PDU - Bits
2 Data Link
1 Physical


                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host Layers
7 Application         These layers only
                      exist in the source
6 Presentation
                      and destination
5 Session             host computers.
4 Transport
3 Network
2 Data Link
1 Physical


                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Media Layers
7 Application
6 Presentation
5 Session
4 Transport
                          These layers manage the
3 Network
                          information out in the
2 Data Link               LAN or WAN between the
1 Physical                source and destination
                          hosts.

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Encapsulation




     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data De-Encapsulation




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Peer-to-Peer Communication




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Flow Through a Network




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Cabling the Campus




                                              Core_
                                              Server
                           core_sw_a




                               Leased Line/
ISDN Cloud                     Frame Relay



             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable




–   Speed and throughput: 10 to 1000 Mb/s
–   Average cost per node: Least expensive
–   Media and connector size: Small
–   Maximum cable length: Varies
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
RJ-45 Connector




   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
RJ-45 Jack




 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
UTP Implementation (Straight-Through)
      Cable 10BASE-T/
 100BASE-TX Straight-Through                          Straight-Through Cable




  Pin Label        Pin Label
  1   TX+     1    TX+
  2   TX-     2    TX-
  3   RX+     3    RX+
  4   NC      4    NC
  5   NC      5    NC
  6   RX-     6    RX-
  7   NC      7    NC                                  Wires on cable ends
  8   NC      8    NC                                  are in same order.
                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
UTP Implementation (Crossover)
    Cable 10BASE-T or
100BASE-TX Straight-Through                            Crossover Cable



                                          EIA/TIA T568A            EIA/TIA T568B



 Pin Label        Pin Label
 1   TX+     1    TX+
 2   TX-     2    TX-
 3   RX+     3    RX+
 4   NC      4    NC
 5   NC      5    NC
 6   RX-     6    RX-
 7   NC      7    NC                                 Some wires on cable
 8   NC      8    NC                                  ends are crossed.
                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Ethernet Standards

The Ethernet standard specifies that each of the pins on an RJ-45
connector have a particular purpose. A NIC transmits signals on
pins 1 & 2, and it receives signals on pins 3 & 6.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Remember…

A straight cable has T568B or T568A on both ends. A crossover (or cross-
connect) cable has T568B on one end and T568A on the other. A console
cable had T568B on one end and reverse T568B on the other, which is
why it is also called a rollover cable.




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
UTP Implementation: Straight-Through vs. Crossover




                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using Varieties of UTP




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Coaxial Cable




   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Fiber Optic Cable




    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Fiber Optic Connectors

Connectors are attached to the fiber ends so that the fibers can be
connected to the ports on the transmitter and receiver.
The type of connector most commonly used with multimode fiber is
the Subscriber Connector (SC connector).On single-mode fiber, the
Straight Tip (ST) connector is frequently used




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Cable Specifications

10BASE-T
The T stands for twisted pair.
10BASE5
The 5 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 500
meters 10BASE5 is often referred to as Thicknet.
10BASE2
The 2 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 200
meters 10BASE2 is often referred to as Thinnet.

All 3 of these specifications refer to the speed of transmission at 10 Mbps
and a type of transmission that is baseband, or digitally interpreted. Thinnet
and Thicknet are actually a type of networks, while 10BASE2 & 10BASE5 are
the types of cabling used in these networks.

                                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Comparing Ethernet Media
     Requirements




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
LAN Physical Layer Implementation




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
WAN Physical Layer Implementations

  • Physical layer implementations vary
  • Cable specifications define speed of link

                     Frame
       HDLC


              PPP



                     Relay          ISDN BRI (with PPP)


            EIA/TIA-232                       RJ-45
            EIA/TIA-449
          X.21 V.24 V.35
               HSSI


                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Serial Point-to-Point Connections




             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Serial Implementation of DTE & DCE
When connecting directly to a service provider, or to a device
such as a CSU/DSU that will perform signal clocking, the router is
a DTE and needs a DTE serial cable.
This is typically the case for routers.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Back-to-Back Serial Connection

When performing
a back-to-back
router scenario in
a test
environment, one
of the routers will
be a DTE and the
other will be a
DCE.



                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Repeater
A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal.
Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by
transmission loss due to attenuation.Repeater is a Physical Layer
device




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The 4 Repeater Rule
The Four Repeater Rule for 10-Mbps Ethernet should be used as a
standard when extending LAN segments.

This rule states that no more than four repeaters can be
used between hosts on a LAN.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Hub
Hubs concentrate
connections.In other words,
they take a group of hosts and
allow the network to see them
as a single unit.
Hub is a physical layer device.




                                     All devices in the same collision domain.
                                     All devices in the same broadcast domain.
                                     Devices share the same bandwidth.


                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Interface Card
The function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the network medium.

A NIC is a printed circuit board that fits into the expansion slot on the motherboard or
peripheral device of a computer. The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter.

NICs are considered Data Link Layer devices because each NIC carries a unique code called a
MAC address.




                                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
MAC Address
MAC address is 48 bits in length and expressed as twelve hexadecimal
digits.MAC addresses are sometimes referred to as burned-in addresses (BIA)
because they are burned into read-only memory (ROM)




                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bridge

Bridges are Data Link layer devices.Connected host
addresses are learned and stored on a MAC address
table.Each bridge port has a unique MAC address




                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bridges




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Bridging Graphic




    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Switch


Switches are Data Link layer
devices.

Each Switch port has a unique
MAC address.

Connected host MAC
addresses are learned and
stored on a MAC address
table.

                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• No. of broadcast domain=No. of router interfaces
• Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain.
Routers provide a separate broadcast domain for each interface.




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Hub: One collision domain, one broadcast domain
Bridge: Two collision domains, one broadcast domain
Switch: Four collision domains, one broadcast domain
Router: Three collision domains, three broadcast domains


                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Switching Modes

cut-through
A switch starts to transfer the frame as soon as the destination MAC address is
received. No error checking is available.

store-and-forward
The switch can receive the entire frame before sending it out the destination
port. This gives the switch software an opportunity to verify the Frame Check
Sum (FCS) to ensure that the frame was reliably received before sending it to the
destination.

fragment-free
A compromise between the cut-through and store-and-forward modes.
Fragment-free reads the first 64 bytes, which includes the frame header, and
switching begins before the entire data field and checksum are read.



                                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Full Duplex

Another capability emerges when only two nodes are connected. In a network that uses
twisted-pair cabling, one pair is used to carry the transmitted signal from one node to the
other node. A separate pair is used for the return or received signal. It is possible for signals
to pass through both pairs simultaneously. The capability of communication in both
directions at once is known as full duplex.




                                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Switches – MAC Tables




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Peer-to-Peer Network
In a peer-to-peer network, networked computers act as equal partners, or peers.

As peers, each computer can take on the client function or the server function.

At one time, computer A may make a request for a file from computer B, which responds
by serving the file to computer A. Computer A functions as client, while B functions as the
server. At a later time, computers A and B can reverse roles.

In a peer-to-peer network, individual users control their own resources. Peer-to-peer
networks are relatively easy to install and operate. As networks grow, peer-to-peer
relationships become increasingly difficult to coordinate.




                                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Client/Server Network
In a client/server arrangement, network services are located on a dedicated computer
called a server.

The server responds to the requests of clients.

The server is a central computer that is continuously available to respond to requests from
clients for file, print, application, and other services.

Most network operating systems adopt the form of a client/server relationship.




                                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Why Another Model?
Although the OSI reference model is universally
recognized, the historical and technical open standard
of the Internet is Transmission Control Protocol /
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

The TCP/IP reference model and the TCP/IP protocol
stack make data communication possible between any
two computers, anywhere in the world, at nearly the
speed of light.

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) created the
TCP/IP reference model.
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Don’t Confuse the Models


7 Application
6 Presentation                          Application
5 Session
4 Transport                             Transport
3 Network                               Internet
2 Data Link                             Network
1 Physical                              Access
                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
2 Models
       Side-By-Side
7 Application
6 Presentation             Application
5 Session
4 Transport                Transport
3 Network                  Internet
2 Data Link                Network
1 Physical                 Access

              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The Application Layer
The application
layer of the
TCP/IP model
handles high-
level protocols,
issues of
representation,
encoding, and
dialog control.


                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The Transport Layer




The transport layer provides transport services from
the source host to the destination host. It constitutes
a logical connection between these endpoints of the
network. Transport protocols segment and
reassemble upper-layer applications into the same
data stream between endpoints.

   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The Internet Layer
  The purpose of the Internet layer is to
  select the best path through the network for
  packets to travel. The main protocol that
  functions at this layer is the Internet
  Protocol (IP). Best path determination and
  packet switching occur at this layer.




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The Network Access Layer
      It the layer that is concerned with all of the issues that an
      IP packet requires to actually make a physical link to the
      network media. It includes LAN and WAN details, and all
      the details contained in the OSI physical and data-link
      layers. NOTE: ARP & RARP work at both the Internet and
      Network Access Layers.




             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Introduction to the Transport Layer

The primary duties of the transport layer, Layer 4 of the OSI
model, are to transport and regulate the flow of information from
the source to the destination, reliably and accurately.

End-to-end control and reliability are provided by sliding
windows, sequencing numbers, and acknowledgments.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
More on The Transport Layer

The transport layer provides transport services from the
source host to the destination host.

It establishes a logical connection between the endpoints of
the network.
Transport services include the following basic services:
•       Segmentation of upper-layer application data
•       Transport of segments from one end host to another
        end host
•       Flow control provided by sliding windows
•       Reliability provided by sequence numbers and
        acknowledgments
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Flow Control
As the transport layer sends data segments, it tries to ensure that data is not lost.
A receiving host that is unable to process data as quickly as it arrives could be a
cause of data loss.

Flow control avoids the problem of a transmitting host overflowing the buffers in
the receiving host.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
TCP

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented Layer 4
protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.

TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack. In a connection-oriented
environment, a connection is established between both ends before the
transfer of information can begin.
TCP is responsible for breaking messages into segments, reassembling
them at the destination station, resending anything that is not received,
and reassembling messages from the segments.TCP supplies a virtual
circuit between end-user applications.

The protocols that use TCP include:
•       FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
•       HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
•       SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
•       Telnet               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
TCP Segment Format




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
UDP

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the connectionless transport protocol
in the TCP/IP protocol stack.

UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams, without
acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery. Error processing and
retransmission must be handled by higher layer protocols.

UDP uses no windowing or acknowledgments so reliability, if needed, is
provided by application layer protocols. UDP is designed for applications
that do not need to put sequences of segments together.

The protocols that use UDP include:
•       TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
•       SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
•       DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol)
•       DNS (Domain Name System)
                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
UDP Segment Format




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Well Known Port Numbers

The following port numbers should be memorized:
NOTE:
The curriculum forgot to mention one of the most important port numbers.
Port 80 is used for HTTP or WWW protocols. (Essentially access to the internet.)




                                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
3-Way Handshake
TCP requires connection establishment before data transfer begins.
For a connection to be established or initialized, the two hosts must
synchronize their Initial Sequence Numbers (ISNs).




                CTL = Which control bits in the TCP header
                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Basic Windowing
Data packets must be
delivered to the
recipient in the same
order in which they
were transmitted to
have a reliable,
connection-oriented
data transfer.
The protocol fails if
any data packets are
lost, damaged,
duplicated, or
received in a different
order.
An easy solution is to
have a recipient
acknowledge the
receipt of each packet
before the next
packet is sent.
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Sliding Window




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TCP Sequence & Acknowledgement




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Decimal vs. Binary Numbers
– Decimal numbers are represented by the numbers
  0 through 9.
– Binary numbers are represented by a series of 1s
  and 0s.




                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Decimal and Binary Numbers Chart
Base-10 Decimal Conversion—63204829
                      MSB                                                         LSB
   Baseexponent        107        106       105      104       103    102   101   100
   Column Value         6          3         2        0         4      8    2      9
   Decimal Weight   10000000   1000000 100000 10000 1000              100   10     1
   Column Weight    60000000   3000000 200000         0        4000   800   20     9


    60000000 + 3000000 + 200000 + 0 + 4000 + 800 + 20 + 9 = 63204829
Base-2 Binary Conversion—11101001 (233)
                       MSB                                                        LSB
   Baseexponent         27         26        25       24        23     22   21     20
   Column Value         1          1          1        0         1     0     0     1
   Decimal Weight      128         64        32       16         8     4     2     1
   Column Value        128         64        32        0         8     0     0     1
                     128 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 233
Powers of 2




  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Decimal-to-Binary Conversion




    35   =             25    +     21 + 20
    35   =          (32 * 1) +   (2 * 1) + (1 * 1)
    35   = 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 +1 + 1
    35   = 00100011
                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Binary-to-Decimal Conversion




1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 = (128 * 1) + (64 * 0) + (32 * 1) + (16 * 1) + (8 * 1) + (4 * 0) + (2 * 0) + (1 * 1)
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 = 128 + 0 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 = 185
                                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Why IP Addresses?
– They uniquely identify each device on an IP
  network.
– Every host (computer, networking device,
  peripheral) must have a unique address.
Network Layer Communication Path

A router forwards packets from the originating network to the
destination network using the IP protocol. The packets must
include an identifier for both the source and destination networks.




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network PDU Header




     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network and Host Division
Each complete 32-bit IP address is broken down into a network part
and a host part. A bit or bit sequence at the start of each address
determines the class of the address. There are 5 IP address classes.




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
IP Address Format: Dotted Decimal
             Notation




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
IP Address Ranges
The graphic below shows the IP address range of the first octet
both in decimal and binary for each IP address class.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
IP Address Classes: The First Octet




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
IP Address Ranges




*127 (01111111) is a Class A address reserved for loopback testing and
cannot be assigned to a network.



                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Reserved Address




    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Public IP Addresses
Unique addresses are required for each device on a network.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP
address because public IP addresses are global and standardized.

All machines connected to the Internet agree to conform to the system.

Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider
(ISP) or a registry at some expense.




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Private IP Addresses
Private IP addresses are another solution to the problem of the
impending exhaustion of public IP addresses.As mentioned, public
networks require hosts to have unique IP addresses.

However, private networks that are not connected to the Internet may
use any host addresses, as long as each host within the private
network is unique.

         Class     Private Address Range

           A                10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255

           B               172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255

           C                192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255
                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Address




    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Broadcast Address




     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network/Broadcast Addresses
        at the Binary Level
An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is
reserved for the network address, which identifies the network.
An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is
reserved for the broadcast address, which is used to send data
to all hosts on the network. Here are some examples:

Class        Network Address                    Broadcast Address

A            100.0.0.0                          100.255.255.255

B            150.75.0.0                         150.75.255.255

C            200.100.50.0Mohannad Al-Hanahnah   200.100.50.255
DHCP




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Connection




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ipconfig




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
HOW WILL YOU FIND

 How many bits are NETWORK portion ?

 How many bits are HOST portion ?

 Solution : Using Network Prefix or Subnet
 Mask . . .

                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Subnet mask

Subnet Mask is another common method used
 to identify the network portion and host portion
 of an IP address.

In a subnet mask, All network bits = 1
              All host bits = 0

For example, 172.16.4.0
the subnet mask = 255.255.0.0
                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Default Subnet masks of IPv4 Classes




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Network Prefixes

A Network Prefix is a method to identify the network
 portion and host portion of an IP address.

The prefix length is nothing but the number of
 network bits in the IP address.

For example, in 192.168.1.0 /24, the number 24 is no.
  of network bits.
the subnet mask = 255.255.255.0

                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
How to find the Network address when a Host IP and Subnet mask
 is given …




Any IPv4                                         Network
address                                          Address




                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
AND ing the Host IP and Subnet mask to get Network Address




                                                             0


                                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Introduction to Subnetting
Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to divide the
network and break a large network up into smaller, more efficient and
manageable segments, or subnets.

With subnetting, the network is not limited to the default Class A, B, or
C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design.

Subnet addresses include the network portion, plus a subnet field and
a host field.The ability to decide how to divide the original host portion
into the new subnet and host fields provides addressing flexibility for
the network administrator.



                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Subnetting Review
• To identify subnets, you will “borrow” bits from the host ID
  portion of the IP address:
   – The number of subnets available depends on the number
      of bits borrowed.
       • The available number of subnets = 2s, I which s is the
         number of bits borrowed.
   – The number of hosts per subnet available depends upon
      the number of host ID bits not borrowed.
       • The available number of hosts per subnet = 2h -2, in
         which h is the number of host bits not borrowed.
       • One address is reserved as the network address.
       • One address is reserved as the broadcast address.
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
        Class C Network




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
        Class B Network




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
        Class A Network




             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
To create a subnet follow these steps:

1.Determine the number of required network IDs:
One for each subnet

2.Determine the number of required host IDs per subnet:
One for each host
One for each router interface

3.Based on the above requirements, create the following:
One subnet mask for your entire network
A unique subnet ID for each physical segment
A range of host IDs for each subnet




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
In a Class C address, only 8 bits are available for defining the hosts. Remember
that subnet bits start at the left and go to the right, without skipping bits. This
means that the only Class C subnet masks can be the following:




We can’t use a /31 or /32 because we have to have at least 2 host bits for
assigning IP addresses to hosts.



                                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
When you’ve chosen a possible subnet mask for your network and need to
determine the number of subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast addresses of
a subnet that the mask provides, all you need to do is answer five simple
questions:

• How many subnets does the chosen subnet mask produce?
• How many valid hosts per subnet are available?
• What are the valid subnets?
• What’s the broadcast address of each subnet?
• What are the valid hosts in each subnet?

How many subnets? 2s, I which s is the number of bits borrowed. For example,
in 11000000, the number of 1s gives us 22 subnets. In this example, there
are 4 subnets.
How many hosts per subnet? 2h -2, in which h is the number of host bits not
borrowed. For example, in 11000000, the number of 0s gives us 26 – 2
hosts. In this example, there are 62 hosts per subnet. You need to subtract 2 for
the subnet address and the broadcast address, which are not valid hosts.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What are the valid subnets? 256 – subnet mask = block size, or increment
number. An example would be 256 – 192 = 64. The block size of a 192 mask is
always 64. Start counting at zero in blocks of 64 until you reach the subnet mask
value and these are your subnets. 0, 64, 128, 192.

What’s the broadcast address for each subnet? Since we counted our subnets in
the last section as 0, 64, 128, and 192, the broadcast address is always the
number right before the next subnet. For example, the 0 subnet has a broadcast
address of 63 because the next subnet is 64. The 64 subnet has a broadcast
address of 127 because the next subnet is 128. And so on.

What are the valid hosts? Valid hosts are the numbers between the subnets,
omitting the all 0s and all 1s. For example, if 64 is the subnet number and 127 is
the broadcast address, then 65–126 is the valid host range —it’s always the
numbers between the subnet address and the broadcast address.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
192.168.10.33/28 Calculate all things???

255.255.255.11110000
192.168.10. 00100001


Number of network=16 {0,16,32,48,64,80,96,112,128,144,160
                         176,192,208,224,240}
Number of hosts=16-2=14
block size=16
Network ID      ::192.168.10.32
first usable ::192.168.10.33
last usable   ::192.168.10.46
broadcast address::192.168.10.47




                                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
192.168.10.65/26 (255.255.255.192) Calculate all things?


255.255.255.11000000
192.168.10. 01000001

number of network=4 {0,64,128,192}
number of hosts =64-2=62

Network ID      ::192.168.10.64
first usable ::192.168.10.65
last usable   ::192.168.10.126
broadcast address::192.168.10.127




                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.192.0 = Subnet mask
Calculate every things??

Number Subnets? 22 = 4
Number Hosts? 214 – 2 = 16,382
Valid subnets? 256 – 192= 64 {0, 64, 128, 192}




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.240.0 = Subnet mask
Calculate all things??

Number Subnets? 24 = 16
Number Hosts? 212 – 2 = 4094
Valid subnets? 256 – 240= 16 {0, 16, 32, 48, etc., up to 240}




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Given the Class C network of 204.15.5.0/24, subnet the network in order to create
the network in Figure with the host requirements shown.?




 You need three subnet bits>>> 23 =8 subnetwork
 Number of host >>>> 25 -2=32-2=30 hosts
 Subnetmask >>>>255.255.255.224
 Block size = 256- 25 =256-224=32

 netA: 204.15.5.0/27       host address range 1 to 30
 netB: 204.15.5.32/27      host address range 33 to 62
 netC: 204.15.5.64/27      host address range 65 to 94
 netD: 204.15.5.96/27      host address range 97 to 126
 netE: 204.15.5.128/27     host address range 129 to 158

                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
In this example, you are given two address / mask combinations, written with the
prefix/length notation, which have been assigned to two devices. Your task is to
determine if these devices are on the same subnet or different subnets.??

DeviceA: 172.16.17.30/20
DeviceB: 172.16.28.15/20




  DeviceA and DeviceB have addresses that are part of the same subnet.


                                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
In all of the previous examples of subnetting, notice that the same subnet mask
 was applied for all the subnets.
 This means that each subnet has the same number of available host
 addresses. You can need this in some cases, but, in most cases, having the
 same subnet mask for all subnets ends up wasting address space.




Subnet 172.16.1.0/24 is divided into smaller subnets.
    – Subnet with one mask (/27).
    – Then further subnet one of the unused /27 subnets into multiple /30 subnets

                                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Given the Class C network of 204.15.5.0/24, subnet the network in order to create
  the network in Figure with the host requirements shown.?

netA: 204.15.5.0/27
netB: 204.15.5.32/27
netC: 204.15.5.64/27
netD: 204.15.5.96/27
netE: 204.15.5.128/27




  NetA, NetC, and NetD have a lot of unused host
  address space. It is possible that this was a
  deliberate design accounting for future growth, but
  in many cases this is just wasted address space
  due to the fact that the same subnet mask is being
  used for all the subnets.




                                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution using VLSM::

netA: must support 14 hosts
netB: must support 28 hosts
netC: must support 2 hosts
netD: must support 7 hosts
netE: must support 28 host

Determine what mask allows the required number
of hosts.

netA: requires a /28
netB: requires a /27
netC: requires a /30
netD: requires a /28
netE: requires a /27




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Question: What subnet and broadcast address is the IP address 172.16.66.10 /18
a member of?

Answer: The interesting octet is the third octet instead of the fourth octet.
Block size=256 – 192 = 64.
0, 64, 128. The subnet is 172.16.64.0. The broadcast must be 172.16.127.255
since 128.0 is the next subnet.




Question: A router receives a packet on an interface with a destination address of
172.16.46.191/26. What will the router do with this packet?

 Answer: 172.16.46.191/26 is a 255.255.255.192 mask, which gives us a block
 size of 64. Our subnets are then 0, 64, 128, 192. 191 is the broadcast address of
 the 128 subnet, so a router, by default, will discard any broadcast packets.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
introduced to improve both address space utilization and routing scalability in the
Internet. It was needed because of the rapid growth of the Internet and growth of
the IP routing tables held in the Internet routers.


CIDR moves way from the traditional IP classes (Class A, Class B, Class C, and so
on). In CIDR , an IP network is represented by a prefix, which is an IP address and
some indication of the length of the mask.


This allows for the summarization of the domains to be done at the higher level. For
example, if an ISP owns network 172.16.0.0/16, then the ISP can offer
172.16.1.0/24, 172.16.2.0/24, and so on to customers. Yet, when advertising to
other providers, the ISP only needs to advertise 172.16.0.0/16.




                                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Summarizing Addresses in a
 VLSM-Designed Network




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classful Routing Overview
     – Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the network
       in the routing advertisement.
     – Within the same network, consistency of the subnet masks is assumed, one
       subnet mask for the entire network.
     – Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks.
     – Examples of classful routing protocols include:
         • RIPv1
         • IGRP

•   Note: Classful routing protocols are legacy routing protocols typically used to
    address compatibility issues.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classless Routing Overview
– Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the network in the
  advertisement.
– Classless routing protocols support VLSM; one network can have multiple masks.
– Summary routes must be manually controlled within the network.
– Examples of classless routing protocols include:
    • RIPv2
    • EIGRP
    • OSPF




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Introduction to Routers
A router is a special type of computer. It has the same basic components as a
standard desktop PC. However, routers are designed to perform some very specific
functions. Just as computers need operating systems to run software applications,
routers need the Internetwork Operating System software (IOS) to run configuration
files. These configuration files contain the instructions and parameters that control the
flow of traffic in and out of the routers. The many parts of a router are shown below:




                                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
RAM
Random Access Memory, also called dynamic RAM (DRAM)

RAM has the following characteristics and functions:

•     Stores routing tables
•     Holds ARP cache
•     Performs packet buffering (shared RAM)
•     Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of
      the router while the router is powered on
•     Loses content when router is powered down or restarted




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
NVRAM
Non-Volatile RAM

NVRAM has the following characteristics and functions:

•    Provides storage for the startup configuration file
•    Retains content when router is powered down or
     restarted




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Flash
Flash memory has the following characteristics and
functions:

•    Holds the operating system image (IOS)
•    Allows software to be updated without
     removing and replacing chips on the processor
•    Retains content when router is powered down
     or restarted
•    Can store multiple versions of IOS software



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ROM
Read-Only Memory

ROM has the following characteristics and functions:

•    Maintains instructions for power-on self test
     (POST) diagnostics
•    Stores bootstrap program and basic operating
     system software




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Interfaces
Interfaces have the following characteristics and functions:

•     Connect router to network for frame entry and exit
•     Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module

Types of interfaces:

•     Ethernet
•     Fast Ethernet
•     Serial
•     Token ring
•     ISDN BRI
•     Console
•     Aux
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Internal Components of a 2600 Router




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
External Components of a 2600 Router




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External Connections




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Fixed Interfaces
When cabling routers for serial connectivity, the routers will either have
fixed or modular ports. The type of port being used will affect the syntax
used later to configure each interface.




                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Computer/Terminal Console Connection




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Router Power-On/Bootup
             Sequence
1.   Perform power-on self test (POST).
2.   Load and run bootstrap code.
3.   Find the Cisco IOS software.
4.   Load the Cisco IOS software.
5.   Find the configuration.
6.   Load the configuration.
7.   Run the configured Cisco IOS software.



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Step in Router Initialization




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
show version Command
Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-JS-M), Version 12.0(7a), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 05-Feb-02 01:48 by pwade
Image text-base: 0x80008088, data-base: 0x80B0404C

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

Router uptime is 1 minute
System restarted by reload
System image file is "flash:c2600-js-mz.120-7a.bin"

cisco 2610 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x300) with 53248K/12288K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID JAD06090BMD (2719249260)
M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
SuperLAT software (copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp).
TN3270 Emulation software.
Basic Rate ISDN software, Version 1.1.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
2 Serial(sync/async) network interface(s)
1 ISDN Basic Rate interface(s)
32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)

Configuration register is 0x2102
                                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Overview of Router Modes




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Router Modes




   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
User Mode Commands




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Privileged Mode Commands

                                NOTE:
                                There are
                                many more
                                commands
                                available in
                                privileged
                                mode.




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Specific Configuration Modes




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Saving Configurations


   wg_ro_c#
   wg_ro_c#copy running-config startup-config
   Destination filename [startup-config]?
   Building configuration…

   wg_ro_c#




• Copies the current configuration to NVRAM



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The copy run tftp Command




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The copy tftp run Command




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Router Identification




– Sets the local identity or message for the accessed router or
  interface
                                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring a Router Password




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring an Interface
Router(config)#interface type number
Router(config-if)#

• type includes serial, ethernet, token ring, fddi, hssi, loopback,
  dialer, null, async, atm, bri, tunnel, and so on
• number is used to identify individual interfaces

Router(config)#interface type slot/port
Router(config-if)#

• For modular routers, selects an interface

Router(config-if)#exit

 • Quits from current interface configuration mode

                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring an Interface
           Description
RouterX(config-if)# description string


 string is a comment or a description to help you remember
  what is attached to this interface.
 The maximum number of characters for the string argument
  is 238.




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Disabling or Enabling an Interface
RouterX#configure terminal
RouterX(config)#interface serial 0
RouterX(config-if)#shutdown
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively down
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to down


    Administratively turns off an interface

RouterX#configure terminal
RouterX(config)#interface serial 0
RouterX(config-if)#no shutdown
%LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line Protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up


    Enables an interface that is administratively shut down


                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Serial Interface show controller
             Command

Router#show controller serial 0
HD unit 0, idb = 0x121C04, driver structure at 0x127078
buffer size 1524 HD unit 0, V.35 DTE Cable
                                      cable
              .
              .
              .



      • Shows the cable type of serial cables




                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Setting
                       the Clock
                       with Help




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Interfaces
An interface needs an IP Address and a Subnet Mask to be configured.
All interfaces are “shutdown” by default.
The DCE end of a serial interface needs a clock rate.

Router#config t
Router(config)#interface serial 0/1
Router(config-if)#ip address 200.100.50.75 255.255.255.240
Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000    (required for serial DCE only)
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#int f0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 150.100.50.25 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#exit
Router#




                                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
show and debug Commands




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Examining the show Commands
There are many show commands that can be used to examine the contents of files
in the router and for troubleshooting. In both privileged EXEC and user EXEC
modes, the command show ? provides a list of available show commands. The list
is considerably longer in privileged EXEC mode than it is in user EXEC mode.

show interfaces – Displays all the statistics for all the interfaces on the router.
show int s0/1 – Displays statistics for interface Serial 0/1
show controllers serial – Displays information-specific to the interface hardware
show clock – Shows the time set in the router
show hosts – Displays a cached list of host names and addresses
show users – Displays all users who are connected to the router
show history – Displays a history of commands that have been entered
show flash – Displays info about flash memory and what IOS files are stored there
show version – Displays info about the router and the IOS that is running in RAM
show ARP – Displays the ARP table of the router
show start – Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM
show run – Displays the configuration currently running in RAM
show protocol – Displays the global and interface specific status of any configured
                 Layer 3 protocols
                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Cisco Discovery Protocol “CDP”




– Cisco Discovery Protocol is a proprietary utility that provides
  a summary of directly connected switches, routers, and
  other Cisco devices.
– Cisco Discovery Protocol discovers neighboring devices,
  regardless of which protocol suite they are running.
                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Discovering Neighbors with Cisco
       Discovery Protocol
 – Cisco Discovery Protocol runs on
   Cisco IOS devices.
 – Summary information includes:
    – Device identifiers
    – Address list
    – Port identifier
    – Capabilities list
    – Platform



                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using Cisco Discovery Protocol




RouterA#show cdp ?
  entry      Information for specific neighbor entry
  interface CDP interface status and configuration
  neighbors CDP neighbor entries
  traffic    CDP statistics
  …
RouterA(config)#no cdp run
! Disable CDP Globally
RouterA(config)#interface serial0/0/0
RouterA(config-if)#no cdp enable
! Disable CDP on just this interface
                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using the show cdp neighbors
             Command



RouterA#show cdp neighbors
Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge
                  S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater

Device ID   Local Intrfce   Holdtme      Capability   Platform   Port ID
SwitchA         fa0/0       122            S I        WS-C2960   fa0/2
RouterB         s0/0/0       177           R S I       2811      s0/0/1




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using the show cdp entry
                 Command



Device ID: RouterB
Entry address(es):
  IP address: 10.1.1.2
Platform: Cisco 2811, Capabilities: Router Switch IGMP
Interface: Serial0/0/0, Port ID (outgoing port): Serial0/0/1
Holdtime : 155 sec

Version :
Cisco IOS Software, 2800 Software (C2800NM-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M),
Version 12.4(12), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2006 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 17-Nov-06 12:02 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
                              by prod_rel_team
Additional Cisco Discovery Protocol
             Commands



RouterA#show cdp traffic
CDP counters :
        Total packets output: 8680, Input: 8678
        Hdr syntax: 0, Chksum error: 0, Encaps failed: 5
        No memory: 0, Invalid packet: 0, Fragmented: 0
        CDP version 1 advertisements output: 0, Input: 0
        CDP version 2 advertisements output: 8680, Input: 8678

RouterA#show cdp interface s0/0/0
Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Encapsulation PPP
  Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
  Holdtime is 180 seconds   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Anatomy of an IP Packet
IP packets consist of the data from upper layers plus an IP
header. The IP header consists of the following:




                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Static vs. Dynamic Routes
Routing is the process that a router uses to forward packets toward
the destination network. A router makes decisions based upon the
destination IP address of a packet. All devices along the way use the
destination IP address to point the packet in the correct direction so
that the packet eventually arrives at its destination. In order to make
the correct decisions, routers must learn the direction to remote
networks.


    • Static Route                      • Dynamic Route
                                           –Uses a route that a
        – Uses a route
                                             network routing
          that a network
                                             protocol adjusts
          administrator
                                             automatically for
          enters into the
                                             topology or traffic
          router manually
                                             changes
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Static Routes




• Configure unidirectional static routes to and from a
  stub network to allow communications to occur.


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Static Routes by
Specifying Outgoing Interfaces




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Static Routes by
Specifying Next-Hop Addresses




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Default Routes




• This route allows the stub network to reach all known
  networks beyond router A.
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the Static
                 Route Configuration

router#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
       U - per-user static route

Gateway of last resort is 0.0.0.0 to network 0.0.0.0

     10.0.0.0/8 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0
S*   0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, Serial0




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What Is a Dynamic Routing
                   Protocol?

 Routing protocols are
  used between routers to
  determine paths to remote
  networks and maintain
  those networks in the
  routing tables.
 After the path is determined,
  a router can route a routed
  protocol to the learned networks.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Autonomous Systems: Interior and
    Exterior Routing Protocols




  An autonomous system is a collection of networks within
   a common administrative domain.
  Interior gateway protocols operate within an autonomous system.
  Exterior gateway protocols connect different autonomous systems.
                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Administrative Distance:
   Ranking Routes




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classes of Routing Protocols




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classful Routing Protocol
– Classful routing protocols do not include the
  subnet mask with the route advertisement.
– Within the same network, consistency of the
  subnet masks is assumed.
– Summary routes are exchanged between foreign
  networks.
– These are examples of classful routing protocols:
   • RIPv1
   • IGRP

                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classless Routing Protocol
– Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with
  the route advertisement.
– Classless routing protocols support a variable-length
  subnet mask (VLSM).
– Summary routes can be manually controlled within the
  network.
– These are examples of classless routing protocols:
   • RIPv2
   • EIGRP
   • OSPF
   • IS-IS

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Selecting the Best Route Using
            Metrics




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Distance Vector Routing Protocols




      Routers pass periodic copies of their routing table to
     neighboring routers and accumulate distance vectors.
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Sources of Information and
        Discovering Routes




Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor.

                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Maintaining Routing Information




   Updates proceed step by step from router to router.
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Inconsistent Routing Entries:
Counting to Infinity and Routing Loops




     Each node maintains the distance from itself
     to each possible destination network.

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Counting to Infinity




Slow convergence produces inconsistent routing.

                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Counting to Infinity (Cont.)




   Router C concludes that the best path to
   network 10.4.0.0 is through router B.
                Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Counting to Infinity (Cont.)




    Router A updates its table to reflect
    the new but erroneous hop count.
               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Counting to Infinity (Cont.)




The hop count for network 10.4.0.0 counts to infinity.

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution to Counting to Infinity:
     Defining a Maximum




A limit is set on the number of hops to prevent infinite loops.

                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Routing Loops




Packets for network 10.4.0.0 bounce
(loop) between routers B and C.
           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution to Routing Loops: Split
            Horizon




 It is never useful to send information about a route back
 in the direction from which the original information came.
                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution to Routing Loops:
Route Poisoning and Poison Reverse




     Routers advertise the distance of routes
     that have gone down to infinity.
                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution to Routing Loops:
Route Poisoning and Poison Reverse (Cont.)




       Poison reverse overrides split horizon.

                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Solution to Routing Loops:
            Hold-Down Timers




The router keeps an entry for the “possibly down” state in the network,
allowing time for other routers to recompute for this topology change.


                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Triggered Updates




The router sends updates when a change in its routing table occurs.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Link-State Routing Protocols




After an initial flood of LSAs, link-state routers pass small,
event-triggered link-state updates to all other routers.
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
OSPF Hierarchical Routing




  Consists of areas and autonomous systems
  Minimizes routing update traffic
                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Link-State Routing Protocol
        Algorithms
Benefits and Drawbacks of Link-State Routing
– Benefits of link-state routing:
    • Fast convergence:
        – Changes are reported immediately by the affected source
    • Robustness against routing loops:
        – Routers know the topology
        – Link-state packets are sequenced and acknowledged
    • Hierarchical network design enables optimization of resources.

– Drawbacks of link-state routing:
    • Significant demands for resources:
        – Memory (three tables: adjacency, topology, forwarding)
        – CPU
    • Requires very strict network design
    • Configuration can be complex when tuning various parameters and
      when design is complex



                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
RIP Overview




– Hop-count metric selects the path
– Routes update every 30 seconds
– Administrative distance 120
RIPv1 and RIPv2 Comparison

                                                RIPv1           RIPv2
Routing protocol                               Classful       Classless
Supports variable-length subnet mask?             No             Yes
Sends the subnet mask along with the routing
                                                  No             Yes
update?
Addressing type                                Broadcast       Multicast
                                                           RFCs 1721, 1722,
Defined in …                                   RFC 1058
                                                              and 2453
Supports manual route summarization?              No             Yes
Authentication support?                           No             Yes
RIP Configuration

RouterX(config)# router rip


–Starts the RIP routing process
RouterX(config-router)# version 2

 Enables RIP version 2


RouterX(config-router)# network network-number

 Selects participating attached networks
 Requires a major classful network number

                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
RIP Configuration Example




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the RIP Configuration


A#show ip protocol
Routing Protocol is "rip"
  Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 6 seconds
  Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
  Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
  Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
  Redistributing: rip
  Default version control: send version 2, receive version 2
    Interface              Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain
    FastEthernet0/0         2     2
    Serial0/0/2             2     2
  Automatic network summarization is in effect
  Maximum path: 4
  Routing for Networks:
    10.0.0.0
    172.16.0.0
  Routing Information Sources:
    Gateway         Distance        Last Update
    10.1.1.2              120       00:00:25
  Distance: (default is 120)Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Displaying the IP Routing Table


RouterA# show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
       U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       T - traffic engineered route

Gateway of last resort is not set


    172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C      172.16.1.0 is directly connected, fastethernet0/0
    10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R      10.2.2.0 [120/1] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/2
C      10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/2
R   192.168.1.0/24 [120/2] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/2

                                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
debug ip rip Command



RouterA# debug ip rip
RIP protocol debugging is on
RouterA#
00:06:24: RIP: received v1 update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial0/0/2
00:06:24:      10.2.2.0 in 1 hops
00:06:24:      192.168.1.0 in 2 hops
00:06:33: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via FastEthernet0/0 (172.16.1.1)
00:06:34:      network 10.0.0.0, metric 1
00:06:34:      network 192.168.1.0, metric 3
00:06:34: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial0/0/2 (10.1.1.1)
00:06:34:      network 172.16.0.0, metric 1




                                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Features




   Advanced distance vector         Flexible network design
   Rapid convergence                Multicast and unicast instead of broadcast
   Easy configuration                address
   Incremental updates              Support for VLSM and discontiguous subnets
                                     Support for multiple network layer protocols



                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Tables




  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Path Calculation (Router C)




             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Configuration
RouterX(config)# router eigrp autonomous-system


RouterX(config-router)# network network-number




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP and Discontiguous Networks
     with no auto-summary




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
RouterX# show ip route eigrp
 Displays the current EIGRP entries in the routing table

RouterX# show ip protocols
 Displays the parameters and current state of the active process

RouterX# show ip eigrp interfaces
 Displays information about interfaces configured for EIGRP




                               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
              (Cont.)
RouterX# show ip eigrp neighbors
 Displays the neighbors discovered by IP EIGRP




                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
                (Cont.)
RouterX# show ip eigrp topology
 Displays the IP EIGRP topology table




                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
              (Cont.)
RouterX# show ip eigrp traffic

 Displays the number of IP EIGRP packets sent and received




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
debug ip eigrp Command
RouterX# debug ip eigrp
IP-EIGRP: Processing incoming UPDATE packet
IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 M 386560 - 256000 130560 SM 360960 –
256000 104960
IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 M 386560 - 256000 130560 SM 360960 –
256000 104960
IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 M 386560 - 256000 130560 SM 360960 –
256000 104960
IP-EIGRP: 172.69.43.0 255.255.255.0, - do advertise out Ethernet0/1
IP-EIGRP: Ext 172.69.43.0 255.255.255.0 metric 371200 - 256000 115200
IP-EIGRP: 192.135.246.0 255.255.255.0, - do advertise out Ethernet0/1
IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.135.246.0 255.255.255.0 metric 46310656 - 45714176 596480
IP-EIGRP: 172.69.40.0 255.255.255.0, - do advertise out Ethernet0/1
IP-EIGRP: Ext 172.69.40.0 255.255.255.0 metric 2272256 - 1657856 614400
IP-EIGRP: 192.135.245.0 255.255.255.0, - do advertise out Ethernet0/1
IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.135.245.0 255.255.255.0 metric 40622080 - 40000000 622080
IP-EIGRP: 192.135.244.0 255.255.255.0, - do advertise out Ethernet0/1

 Note: EIGRP routes are exchanged only when a change in topology occurs.
                                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Metric
• The criteria that EIGRP uses by default to calculate its
  metric:
 – Bandwidth
 – Delay
• The optional criteria that EIGRP can be configured to use
  when calculating its metric:
 – Reliability
 – Load
• Note: Although MTU is exchanged in EIGRP packets between
  neighbor routers, MTU is not factored into the EIGRP metric
  calculation.


                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
EIGRP Load Balancing

– By default, EIGRP does equal-metric load
  balancing:
   • By default, up to four routes with a metric equal to
     the minimum metric are installed in the routing
     table.
– There can be up to 16 entries in the routing
  table for the same destination:
   • The number of entries is configurable with the
     maximum-paths command.


                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
OSPF Overview

– (OSPF) is an open standard routing protocol
– Creates a neighbor relationship by exchanging hello packets
– Floods LSAs to all OSPF routers in the area, not just directly connected
  routers
– Pieces together all the LSAs generated by the OSPF routers to create
  the OSPF link-state database
– Uses the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each
  destination and places it in the routing table




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
OSPF Hierarchy Example




 Minimizes routing table entries
 Localizes the impact of a topology change within an area
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Neighbor Adjacencies: The Hello
            Packet




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
SPF Algorithm

         10


                                 10
                  1
                                                   1

                                               1




 Places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the
  shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost
 Cost = Reference Bandwidth / Interface Bandwidth (b/s)
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Wildcards
If you want to advertise a partial octet (subnet),
   you need to use wildcards.
  – 0.0.0.0 means all octets match exactly
  – 0.0.0.255 means that the first three match exactly,
    but the last octet can be any value



After that, you must remember your block sizes….


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Wildcard
The wildcard address is always one less than the block
  size….
   –   192.168.10.8/30 = 0.0.0.3
   –   192.168.10.48/28 = 0.0.0.15
   –   192.168.10.96/27 = 0.0.0.31
   –   192.168.10.128/26 = 0.0.0.63




                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring Single-Area OSPF
RouterX(config)#
router ospf process-id
 Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol

RouterX(config-router)#
network address wildcard-mask area area-id
 Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying the OSPF Configuration
Router#show ip protocols

• Verifies that OSPF is configured

Router#show ip route

• Displays all the routes learned by the router


Router#show ip ospf interface

• Displays area-ID and adjacency information

Router#show ip ospf neighbor

• Displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis
                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Administrative Distances




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Classful and Classless
  Routing Protocols




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Routing Protocol
Comparison Chart




      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Ethernet Switches and Bridges




      – Address learning
      – Forward/filter decision
      – Loop avoidance
             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Transmitting Frames


Cut-Through                                      Store and Forward
 • Switch checks destination address                 Complete frame is received and
   and immediately begins                            checked before forwarding.
   forwarding frame.




Fragment-Free
 • Switch checks the first 64 bytes,
   then immediately
   begins forwarding frame.




                                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layer 2 Addressing




– MAC address
– Assigned to end devices




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
MAC Address Table




• Initial MAC address table is empty.

              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Learning Addresses




• Station A sends a frame to station C.
• Switch caches the MAC address of station A to port E0 by
  learning the source address of data frames.
• The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all
  ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded).
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Learning Addresses (Cont.)




• Station D sends a frame to station C.
• Switch caches the MAC address of station D to port E3 by
  learning the source address of data frames.
• The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports
  except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded).
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Filtering Frames




• Station A sends a frame to station C.
• Destination is known; frame is not flooded.
               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Filtering Frames (Cont.)




• Station A sends a frame to station B.
• The switch has the address for station B in the MAC
  address table.
                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ARP




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ARP Table




 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (1 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (2 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (3 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (4 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (5 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (6 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (7 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (8 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (9 of 22)




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (10 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (11 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (12 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (13 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (14 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (15 of
               22)




             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (16 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (17 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (18 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (19 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (20 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (21 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-to-Host Packet Delivery (22 of 22)




               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Default Gateway




   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-Based Tools: ping




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-Based Tools: Table




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Host-Based Tools: tracert




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Redundant Topology




 Redundant topology eliminates single points of failure.
 Redundant topology causes broadcast storms, multiple
  frame copies, and MAC address table instability problems.
                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Broadcast Frames




 Station D sends a broadcast frame.
 Broadcast frames are flooded to all ports
  except the originating port.
               Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Broadcast Storms




 Host X sends a broadcast.
 Switches continue to propagate
  broadcast traffic over and over.
          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Multiple Frame Copies




 Host X sends a unicast frame to router Y.
 The MAC address of router Y has not been
  learned by either switch.
 Router Y will receive two copies of the same frame.
                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
MAC Database Instability




 Host X sends a unicast frame to router Y.
 The MAC address of router Y has not been learned by either switch.
 Switches A and B learn the MAC address of host X on port 1.
 The frame to router Y is flooded.
 Switches A and B incorrectly learn the MAC address of host X on port 2.
                              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Loop Resolution with STP




 Provides a loop-free redundant network topology
  by placing certain ports in the blocking state
 Published in the IEEE 802.1D specification
 Enhanced with the Cisco PVST+ implementation
                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Operation
 One root bridge per broadcast domain.
 One root port per nonroot bridge.
 One designated port per segment.
 Nondesignated ports are unused.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
STP Root Bridge Selection




 BPDU (default = sent every 2 seconds)

 Root bridge = bridge with the lowest bridge ID

 Bridge ID = Bridge       MAC
               Priority   Address

                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Port States
Spanning tree transits each port through several different states:




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Describe the role of STP port states and BPDU
  timers in the operation of STP




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Describing PortFast




PortFast is configured on access ports, not trunk ports.
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring and Verifying PortFast
SwitchX(config-if)#
spanning-tree portfast
 Configures PortFast on an interface


                                  OR

SwitchX(config)#
spanning-tree portfast default
 Enables PortFast on all non-trunking interfaces

SwitchX#
show running-config interface interface
 Verifies that PortFast has been configured on an interface

                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Operation Example




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Path Cost

                Cost (New IEEE             Cost (Old IEEE
   Link Speed
                 Specification)             Specification)
10 Gb/s                2                         1

1 Gb/s                 4                         1

100 Mb/s              19                         10
10 Mb/s              100                        100




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Recalculation




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
PVST+ Extended Bridge ID

Bridge ID without the
extended system ID




Extended bridge ID
with system ID



System ID = VLAN

                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Default Spanning-Tree
           Configuration
– Cisco Catalyst switches support three types of
  STPs:
   • PVST+
   • PVRST+
   • MSTP
– The default STP for Cisco Catalyst switches is
  PVST+ :
   • A separate STP instance for each VLAN
   • One root bridge for all VLANs
   • No load sharing
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
PVRST+ Configuration Guidelines
1. Enable PVRST+.
2. Designate and configure a switch to be the root bridge.
3. Designate and configure a switch to be the secondary
   root bridge.
4. Verify the configuration.




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
PVRST+ Implementation
                Commands
SwitchX(config)#
spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
 Configures PVRST+

SwitchX#
show spanning-tree vlan vlan# [detail]
 Verifies the spanning-tree configuration

SwitchX#
debug spanning-tree pvst+
 Displays PVST+ event debug messages




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Verifying PVRST+
SwitchX# show spanning-tree vlan 30
VLAN0030
Spanning tree enabled protocol rstp
Root ID Priority 24606
Address 00d0.047b.2800
This bridge is the root
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Bridge ID Priority 24606 (priority 24576 sys-id-ext 30)
Address 00d0.047b.2800
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 300
Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type
-------- ----- --- --- -------- ----
Gi1/1     Desg FWD 4     128.1     P2p
Gi1/2     Desg FWD 4     128.2     P2p
Gi5/1     Desg FWD 4     128.257   P2p



The spanning-tree mode is set to PVRST.

                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring the Root and
   Secondary Bridges




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring the Root and
     Secondary Bridges: SwitchA
SwitchA(config)#
spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary
 This command forces this switch to be the root for VLAN 1.

SwitchA(config)#
spanning-tree vlan 2 root secondary
 This command configures this switch to be the secondary root
  for VLAN 2.

                                  OR

SwitchA(config)#
spanning-tree vlan # priority priority
 This command statically configures the priority (increments of 4096).
                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Configuring the Root and
        Secondary Bridges: SwitchB
SwitchB(config)#
spanning-tree vlan 2 root primary

 This command forces the switch to be the root for VLAN 2.

SwitchB(config)#
spanning-tree vlan 1 root secondary

 This command configures the switch to be the secondary root VLAN 1.


                                    OR

SwitchB(config)#
spanning-tree vlan # priority priority

 This command statically configures the priority (increments of 4096).
                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Types of STP protocols




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Spanning-Tree Example




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Virtual LANs (VLANs)
• Definition: A logical grouping of network users and
  resources connected to administratively defined
  ports on a switch.
   – Smaller broadcast domains
   – Organized by:
      •   Location
      •   Function
      •   Department
      •   Application or protocol



                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Switches




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Features of VLANs
• Simplify network management
• Provides a level of security over a
  flat network
• Flexibility and Scalability




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Flat Network Structure




       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Flexibility & Scalability
• Layer-2 switches only read frames
  – Can cause a switch to forward all broadcasts
• VLANs
  – Essentially create broadcast domains
     • Greatly reduces broadcast traffic
     • Ability to add wanted users to a VLAN regardless of their
       physical location
     • Additional VLANs can be created when network growth
       consumes more bandwidth



                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Switched Network




     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Physical LANs Connected To A
           Router




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
VLANs Remove The Physical
        Boundary




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
VLAN Memberships
• Static VLANs
   – Typical method of creating VLANs
   – Most secure
       • A switch port assigned to a VLAN always maintains that assignment
         until changed
• Dynamic VLANs
   – Node assignment to a VLAN is automatic
       • MAC addresses, protocols, network addresses, etc
   – VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS)
       • MAC address database for dynamic assignments
       • MAC-address to VLAN mapping
                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
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CCNA - Cisco

  • 1. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Communications and Services Certifications Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 4. Data Networks Sharing data through the use of floppy disks is not an efficient or cost-effective manner in which to operate businesses. Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the following three problems: • How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources • How to communicate efficiently • How to set up and manage a network Businesses realized that networking technology could increase productivity while saving money. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 5. Networking Devices Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. These devices are broken up into two classifications. • end-user devices • network devices End-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, and other devices that provide services directly to the user. Network devices include all the devices that connect the end-user devices together to allow them to communicate. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 6. Network Interface Card A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 7. Networking Device Icons Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 8. Cisco Icons and Symbols Router Wireless Secure Router Firewall Home Office Router Workgroup Access Point IP Phone Mobile Small Switch Access Business Phone Wireless Line: Serial Line: Ethernet Connectivity Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 9. Repeater A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal. Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does not perform intelligent routing. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 10. Hub Hubs concentrate connections. In other words, they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. This is done passively, without any other effect on the data transmission. Active hubs not only concentrate hosts, but they also regenerate signals. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 11. Bridge Bridges convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management. Bridges, as the name implies, provide connections between LANs. Not only do bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a check on the data to determine whether it should cross the bridge or not. This makes each part of the network more efficient. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 12. Workgroup Switch Workgroup switches add more intelligence to data transfer management. Switches can determine whether data should remain on a LAN or not, and they can transfer the data to the connection that needs that data. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 13. Router Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routers can regenerate signals, concentrate multiple connections, convert data transmission formats, and manage data transfers.They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect LANs that are separated by great distances. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 14. “The Cloud” The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where the connection to the internet is. It also represents all of the devices on the internet. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 15. Network Topologies Network topology defines the structure of the network. One part of the topology definition is the physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media. The other part is the logical topology,which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 16. Physical Topologies Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 17. Bus Topology A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both ends. All the hosts connect directly to this backbone. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 18. Ring Topology A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. This creates a physical ring of cable. Mohann