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By JYOTI BALMIKI
 Physical agents such as heat or radiation can damage a cell by literally
cooking or coagulating their contents.
 Impaired nutrient supply, such as lack of oxygen or glucose, or impaired
production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may deprive the cell of essential
materials needed to survive.
 Metabolic: Hypoxia and Ischemia
 Chemical Agents
 Microbial Agents:-Virus & Bacteria
 Immunologic Agents: Allergy and autoimmune diseases such
as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
 Genetic factors: Such as Down's syndrome and sickle cell anemia
 Some cell damage can be reversed once the stress is removed or if compensatory
cellular changes occur. Full function may return to cells but in some cases, a degree
of injury will remain.
◦ Reversible
 Cellular swelling: Cellular swelling (or cloudy swelling) may occur due to cellular
hypoxia, which damages the sodium-potassium membrane pump; it is reversible
when the cause is eliminated
 Fatty change: The cell has been damaged and is unable to adequately metabolize
fat.
 Necrosis:
 Necrosis is characterised by cytoplasmic swelling, irreversible damage to the
plasma membrane, and organelle breakdown leading to cell death.
 Apoptosis:
 Apoptosis is the programmed cell death of superfluous or potentially
harmful cells in the body.
 When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue
normal functions.
 If a cell dies the body will remove it and replace it with another functioning cell, or
fill the gap with connective tissue to provide structural support for the remaining
cells.
 The motto of the repair process is to fill a gap caused by the damaged cells to regain
structural continuity.
 Normal cells try to regenerate the damaged cells but this cannot always happen.
 Asexual reproduction is what repairs cells
 Regeneration of parenchyma cells, or the functional cells, of an organism. The body
can make more cells to replace the damaged cells keeping the organ or tissue intact
and fully functional.
 Replacement
 When a cell cannot be regenerated the body will replace it with stromal connective
tissue to maintain tissue/organ function. Stromal cells are the cells that support the
parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and
inflammatory cells are the most common types of stromal cells.
 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion is a common biological alteration that
occurs with cellular injury.
 This change can happen despite the inciting agent of the cell damage. A reduction in
intracellular ATP can have a number of functional and morphologic consequences
during cell injury. These effects include:
 Failure of the ATP dependent pumps (Na+/K+ pump and Ca2+ pump), resulting in a
net influx of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and osmotic swelling.
 ATP-depleted cells begin to undertake anaerobic metabolism to derive energy from
glycogen which is known as 'glycogenolysis'.
 A consequent decrease in the intracellular pH of the cell arises, which mediates
harmful enzymatic processes.
 Early clumping of nuclear chromatin then occurs, known as 'pyknosis', and leads to
eventual cell death.
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptx

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Causes and Types of cell injury.pptx

  • 2.  Physical agents such as heat or radiation can damage a cell by literally cooking or coagulating their contents.  Impaired nutrient supply, such as lack of oxygen or glucose, or impaired production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may deprive the cell of essential materials needed to survive.  Metabolic: Hypoxia and Ischemia  Chemical Agents  Microbial Agents:-Virus & Bacteria  Immunologic Agents: Allergy and autoimmune diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.  Genetic factors: Such as Down's syndrome and sickle cell anemia
  • 3.  Some cell damage can be reversed once the stress is removed or if compensatory cellular changes occur. Full function may return to cells but in some cases, a degree of injury will remain. ◦ Reversible  Cellular swelling: Cellular swelling (or cloudy swelling) may occur due to cellular hypoxia, which damages the sodium-potassium membrane pump; it is reversible when the cause is eliminated  Fatty change: The cell has been damaged and is unable to adequately metabolize fat.
  • 4.  Necrosis:  Necrosis is characterised by cytoplasmic swelling, irreversible damage to the plasma membrane, and organelle breakdown leading to cell death.  Apoptosis:  Apoptosis is the programmed cell death of superfluous or potentially harmful cells in the body.
  • 5.  When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions.  If a cell dies the body will remove it and replace it with another functioning cell, or fill the gap with connective tissue to provide structural support for the remaining cells.  The motto of the repair process is to fill a gap caused by the damaged cells to regain structural continuity.  Normal cells try to regenerate the damaged cells but this cannot always happen.  Asexual reproduction is what repairs cells
  • 6.  Regeneration of parenchyma cells, or the functional cells, of an organism. The body can make more cells to replace the damaged cells keeping the organ or tissue intact and fully functional.  Replacement  When a cell cannot be regenerated the body will replace it with stromal connective tissue to maintain tissue/organ function. Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and inflammatory cells are the most common types of stromal cells.
  • 7.  ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion is a common biological alteration that occurs with cellular injury.  This change can happen despite the inciting agent of the cell damage. A reduction in intracellular ATP can have a number of functional and morphologic consequences during cell injury. These effects include:  Failure of the ATP dependent pumps (Na+/K+ pump and Ca2+ pump), resulting in a net influx of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and osmotic swelling.  ATP-depleted cells begin to undertake anaerobic metabolism to derive energy from glycogen which is known as 'glycogenolysis'.  A consequent decrease in the intracellular pH of the cell arises, which mediates harmful enzymatic processes.  Early clumping of nuclear chromatin then occurs, known as 'pyknosis', and leads to eventual cell death.