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This document discusses carry lookahead adders. It explains that carry lookahead adders improve speed by reducing the time needed to determine carry bits. It describes how carry lookahead adders work by calculating whether each digit position will propagate a carry and combining these values to deduce carries. The document also discusses implementing carry lookahead adders using groups to reduce span and adding additional levels of carry lookahead to handle more bits.

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Combinational circuits

Combinational circuits

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers

Sequential circuits in Digital Electronics

Sequential circuits in Digital Electronics

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Combinational circuits

This document discusses combinational logic circuits such as adders, subtractors, multipliers, decoders, and multiplexers. It provides circuit diagrams and truth tables for half adders, full adders, half subtractors, full subtractors, decoders, and multiplexers. It also describes how to build binary adders and subtractors using these basic components and how multiplication of binary numbers is performed.

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers

Multiplexers and demultiplexers allow digital information from multiple sources to be routed through a single line. A multiplexer has multiple data inputs, select lines to choose an input, and a single output. A demultiplexer has a single input, select lines to choose an output, and multiple outputs. Bigger multiplexers and demultiplexers can be built by cascading smaller ones. Multiplexers can implement logic functions by using the select lines as variables and routing the input lines to the output.

Sequential circuits in Digital Electronics

The document explains about the concepts of sequential circuits in Digital electronics.
This will be helpful for the beginners in VLSI and electronics students.

Encoder.pptx

This document discusses encoders and provides examples of 4-to-2 and 8-to-3 line encoders. It defines an encoder as a combinational circuit that performs the reverse operation of a decoder, with a maximum of 2n input lines and n output lines. Truth tables and logic circuits are given for 4-to-2 and 8-to-3 line encoders. Uses of encoders include converting decimal to binary numbers to perform binary operations like addition and subtraction in digital systems.

Addition and subtraction with signed magnitude data (mano

1) There are several algorithms for performing multiplication and division with signed-magnitude numbers, including array multiplication, Booth's multiplication, restoring division, and non-restoring division.
2) Hardware implementations of these algorithms often involve adders, shifters, and correction logic to handle issues like overflow and producing results in the proper number format.
3) Division algorithms in particular require handling issues like division by zero and divide overflow through detection logic and interrupt-driven error handling.

Parity Generator and Parity Checker

This document discusses parity generators and checkers, which are used to detect errors in digital data transmission. It explains that a parity generator adds an extra parity bit to binary data to make the total number of 1s either even or odd. This allows a parity checker circuit at the receiver to detect errors if the number of 1s is the wrong parity. It provides truth tables and logic diagrams for 3-bit even and odd parity generators and an even parity checker. The boolean expressions for the parity generator and checker circuits are also derived.

Array multiplier

The document describes the principles and implementation of an array multiplier. It discusses how array multipliers generate partial products simultaneously using parallel logic, making them faster than serial multipliers. A 4x4 bit array multiplier is implemented in Verilog using AND gates and adders, and its functionality is verified through simulation. While array multipliers require more gates and area than serial multipliers, their performance can be increased using pipelining. The document concludes that array multiplication is well-suited for applications requiring high speed.

multiplexers and demultiplexers

This document discusses multiplexers and demultiplexers. It defines them as devices that allow digital information from several sources to be routed onto a single line (multiplexers) or distributed to multiple output lines (demultiplexers). The key properties of multiplexers and demultiplexers are described, including the relationship between the number of inputs, outputs, and selection lines. Examples of implementing multiplexers and demultiplexers using logic gates are provided.

Parallel Adder and Subtractor

1) The document discusses parallel adders and subtractors for n-bit binary numbers. It specifically examines a 4-bit parallel adder that uses full adders connected in cascade, with the carry output of one full adder connected to the next's carry input.
2) A 4-bit parallel subtractor is also examined, which takes the 2's complement of the number to be subtracted and adds it to the other number using a 4-bit parallel adder.
3) Carry propagation time is discussed, which is the time it takes the carry to ripple through all the full adders in the parallel adder from the least to most significant bit.

Multirate DSP

This document discusses multirate digital signal processing. It explains that multirate systems use multiple sampling rates to process digital signals. Common operations in multirate systems are decimation, which decreases the sampling rate, and interpolation, which increases it. Decimation and interpolation can be realized through filtering and downsampling/upsampling. The document also provides examples of multirate applications like digital audio conversion and discusses tools like polyphase filters used in multirate signal processing.

Programming the basic computer

This slide contains the detail regarding the instructions used in basic computer. It also contains the programming details of the basic computer

1.ripple carry adder, full adder implementation using half adder.

The document discusses different types of adders used in digital circuits, including half adders, full adders, and ripple carry adders. A half adder adds two single binary digits and produces a sum and carry output. A full adder adds three binary digits and produces a sum and carry by using a combination of half adders and logic gates. A ripple carry adder is constructed by cascading multiple full adder blocks in series, where the carry output of one stage is fed into the next as the carry input.

SHIFT REGISTERS

Shift registers are constructed using flip-flops connected in a way to store and transfer digital data. Data is stored at the Q output of D flip-flops during a clock pulse. Shift registers allow data to be transferred between flip-flops upon a clock edge. There are four types of data movement: serial in serial out, serial in parallel out, parallel in serial out, and parallel in parallel out. Shift registers can be loaded serially or in parallel and are used in applications like pseudo random pattern generators, ring counters, and Johnson counters.

Combinational circuit

Combinational circuit, Half Adder,Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor, Multiplexers, Demultiplexer, Decoder, Encoder

Fpga architectures and applications

FPGAs can be programmed after manufacturing to implement custom logic functions. They contain programmable logic blocks and interconnects that can be configured to create custom circuits. FPGAs provide flexibility compared to ASICs but have higher per-unit costs. The FPGA architecture consists of configurable logic blocks, programmable interconnects, and I/O blocks. Configurable logic blocks contain LUTs that implement logic functions. Programmable interconnects connect the logic blocks, and I/O blocks interface with external components. FPGAs are commonly used for prototyping, emulation, parallel computing, and other applications that require customizable hardware.

Sequential Logic Circuit

Sequential circuits consist of combinational logic and memory elements like latches and flip-flops. There are different types of latches and flip-flops that differ in their trigger mechanisms and outputs, including SR latches, D latches, and edge-triggered flip-flops like SR, D, and JK flip-flops. Asynchronous inputs can directly set or reset flip-flop outputs independent of the clock signal.

Half Subtractor.pptx

The half subtractor is a digital circuit that subtracts two single bit binary numbers and outputs the difference and borrow. It contains two inputs, A and B, and two outputs, Diff and Borrow. The Diff output is the difference of A and B, calculated as A XOR B. The Borrow output is 1 only when A is 1 and B is 0, calculated as A'B. The full subtractor expands on this to subtract three 1-bit numbers by adding a third input, Borrowin, and producing Diff and Borrow outputs based on all input combinations.

Adder Presentation

This document discusses half adders and full adders used in digital circuits. A half adder accepts two binary digits as input and produces a sum and carry bit as output using one XOR and one AND gate. A full adder accepts three inputs - two bits to be added and a carry in bit - and produces a sum and carry out bit using two half adders and an OR gate. The main difference between them is that a full adder can add three bits while a half adder can only add two bits.

Introduction to Counters

The document discusses synchronous and asynchronous counters. It defines a counter as a digital circuit that counts input pulses. Asynchronous counters have flip-flops that change state at different times since they do not share a common clock. Synchronous counters have all flip-flops change simultaneously due to a shared global clock, allowing them to operate at higher frequencies. The document provides examples of 2-bit, 3-bit, and 4-bit synchronous binary counters as well as a 4-bit synchronous decade counter along with their operations and timing diagrams.

Subtractor

The document discusses binary subtraction and different types of binary subtractors. It describes half subtractors and full subtractors. A half subtractor is a basic circuit that can subtract two binary bits and outputs the difference and borrow. A full subtractor can subtract three bits by also considering the borrow from the previous stage. Truth tables and K-maps are used to derive the logic equations for difference and borrow outputs. Full subtractors are realized using basic gates by complementing one input to convert a full adder circuit into a full subtractor.

Combinational circuits

Combinational circuits

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers

Sequential circuits in Digital Electronics

Sequential circuits in Digital Electronics

Encoder.pptx

Encoder.pptx

Addition and subtraction with signed magnitude data (mano

Addition and subtraction with signed magnitude data (mano

Parity Generator and Parity Checker

Parity Generator and Parity Checker

Array multiplier

Array multiplier

multiplexers and demultiplexers

multiplexers and demultiplexers

Parallel Adder and Subtractor

Parallel Adder and Subtractor

Multirate DSP

Multirate DSP

Programming the basic computer

Programming the basic computer

1.ripple carry adder, full adder implementation using half adder.

1.ripple carry adder, full adder implementation using half adder.

SHIFT REGISTERS

SHIFT REGISTERS

Combinational circuit

Combinational circuit

Fpga architectures and applications

Fpga architectures and applications

Sequential Logic Circuit

Sequential Logic Circuit

Half Subtractor.pptx

Half Subtractor.pptx

Adder Presentation

Adder Presentation

Introduction to Counters

Introduction to Counters

Subtractor

Subtractor

DRAM

The document discusses Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). DRAM uses a capacitor and transistor to store each bit of data, which allows it to be implemented using less space than SRAM. However, DRAM is volatile and requires periodic refreshing to prevent data loss as the capacitor charge leaks over time. Common DRAM configurations include one transistor cells, three transistor cells, and four transistor cells. The document outlines the read and write operations for DRAM and how refreshing maintains the stored data.

Ram and its types

This document discusses the history and types of RAM. It begins by defining RAM as random access memory that is volatile and temporary. It then describes the two main types: static RAM and dynamic RAM (DRAM). The document proceeds to discuss the evolution of different DRAM technologies over time, including FPM DRAM, EDO DRAM, SDR RAM, DDR RAM, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4. It notes that each new generation provides improved efficiency and speed over the previous. The document concludes by discussing some limitations of RAM and promising future technologies like RRAM and Z-RAM.

ALGORITHMIC STATE MACHINES

THIS PPT CONTAINS Definition,Principal components of a SM chart,ASM chart for combinational circuits,ASM chart in equivalent form,Example of development of ASM chart from Mealy Machine,Example of development of ASM chart from Moore Machine,Advantages of ASM chart

Booths Multiplication Algorithm

Booth's multiplication algorithm was invented by Andrew D. Booth in 1951 while studying crystallography at Birkbeck College in London. It improves the speed of computer multiplication by reducing the number of additions or subtractions needed. The algorithm uses a grid with the multiplicand in the top row, the negative multiplicand in the middle row, and the multiplier in the bottom row. It then iteratively shifts and adds or subtracts based on the last two bits of the product to build up the final result in fewer steps than standard addition methods. Several examples are provided to demonstrate how the algorithm works.

Booths algorithm for Multiplication

Booths algorithm for Multiplication with flowchart for easy understanding with explained suitable examples.

Top down design

Top-down design and modular development are techniques used by computer programmers to break down large, complex problems into smaller, more manageable parts. Top-down design involves starting with a clear statement of the overall problem and then systematically breaking it into sub-problems, while modular development involves developing individual software modules separately and then combining them into a solution. These techniques make projects more manageable, faster to complete, higher quality, easier to debug, and promote code reusability.

Random access memory

This document provides an overview of random access memory (RAM). It discusses that RAM is a type of volatile memory used to store running programs and data. The document outlines the history, technologies, components, types (SRAM and DRAM), capacities, manufacturers, and advantages/disadvantages of RAM. It also includes diagrams of a RAM block and the positioning and structure of RAM modules.

UNIT-I DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN

The document discusses digital system design using state machine charts or ASM (algorithmic state machine) charts. It describes the basic components of an ASM chart including state boxes, decision boxes, and conditional output boxes. It provides examples of converting a state graph to an equivalent ASM chart and deriving an ASM chart for a binary multiplier. The document also discusses using hardware description languages like VHDL to model state machines behaviorally and provides examples of VHDL code for a 4-bit multiplier and a serial adder.

Ram presentation

RAM stands for Random Access Memory and can be accessed in a non-sequential order. There are two main forms of RAM: SRAM and DRAM. SRAM is static and holds its data without needing to be refreshed, while DRAM must be refreshed regularly to maintain its data. DRAM is the most common type used in computers today and comes in different speeds and sizes, with examples being DIMM, SO-DIMM, and DDR memory sticks. Computer memory has a big effect on system performance.

DRAM

DRAM

Ram and its types

Ram and its types

ALGORITHMIC STATE MACHINES

ALGORITHMIC STATE MACHINES

Booths Multiplication Algorithm

Booths Multiplication Algorithm

Booths algorithm for Multiplication

Booths algorithm for Multiplication

Top down design

Top down design

Random access memory

Random access memory

UNIT-I DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN

UNIT-I DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN

Ram presentation

Ram presentation

Binary parallel adder

The document discusses binary parallel adders and carry propagation in digital circuits. It explains that a binary parallel adder produces the sum of two n-bit binary numbers using n full-adder circuits in parallel. The longest delay in a parallel adder is the time it takes for the carry to propagate through the full-adder circuits. Various techniques are presented to reduce carry propagation delay, including employing faster gates, increasing complexity to provide shorter paths for the carry, and using look-ahead carry circuits which can pre-compute carry bits to reduce delay.

a technical review of efficient and high speed adders for vedic multipliers

n the VLSI system design, the main regions of research are the reduced size & increase speed path logic systems. A fundamental requirement of high speed, addition and multiplication is always needed for the high performance digital processors. In the digital system, the speed of addition depend on the propagation of carry, which is generated successively, after the previous bit has been summed & carry is propagated, into the next location. There are numerous types of adders available likes Ripple Carry Adder, Carry Look Ahead Adder, Carry Save Adder, Carry Avoid Adder, and Carry Select Adder, which have their own benefits and drawbacks. With the advances technology, proposal of Carry select adder (CSA) which deals either of the high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout a smaller amount area and compact VLSI design implementation. Researchers justify that Ripple Carry Adder had a lesser area but having lesser in speed, in comparing with Carry Select Adders are fastest speed but possess a larger area. The Carry Look Ahead Adder is in between the spectrum having proper trade-offs between time and area complexities.

Gq3511781181

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

Id3313941396

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

Id3313941396

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

Comparison among Different Adders

IOSR journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSRJVSP) is a double blind peer reviewed International Journal that publishes articles which contribute new results in all areas of VLSI Design & Signal Processing. The goal of this journal is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on advanced VLSI Design & Signal Processing concepts and establishing new collaborations in these areas.
Design and realization of microelectronic systems using VLSI/ULSI technologies require close collaboration among scientists and engineers in the fields of systems architecture, logic and circuit design, chips and wafer fabrication, packaging, testing and systems applications. Generation of specifications, design and verification must be performed at all abstraction levels, including the system, register-transfer, logic, circuit, transistor and process levels

COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF 16-BIT ADDERS

This document compares three 16-bit adders: ripple carry adder, carry look-ahead adder, and carry save adder. It finds that the carry save adder has the lowest delay of 19.092ns, making it the fastest. The ripple carry and carry look-ahead adders have the same maximum delay of 24.686ns. The carry look-ahead adder in theory has a lower delay than the ripple carry adder. The ripple carry adder uses the fewest look-up tables, while the carry save adder uses the most. The number of slices used is lowest for the carry look-ahead adder. In conclusion, the carry save adder has the

IJETT-V9P226

This document describes the design of a 32-bit parallel multiplier using VHDL. It compares the use of carry save adders (CSA) versus carry lookahead adders (CLA) in the partial product lines. CSA is used to add each group of partial products in parallel. Simulation waveforms are shown for half adders, full adders, and 4, 8, and 32-bit multipliers. Output is also shown on an FPGA for half and full adders. The conclusion is that using CSA in the partial product lines improves performance over other adders in terms of speed and efficiency for large multiplications.

VLSI Implementation of 32-Bit Unsigned Multiplier Using CSLA & CLAA

In this project we are going to compare the performance of different adders implemented to the multipliers based on area and time needed for calculation. The CLAA based multiplier uses the delay time of 99ns for performing multiplication operation where as in CSLA based multiplier also uses nearly the same delay time for multiplication operation. But the area needed for CLAA multiplier is reduced to 31 % by the CSLA based multiplier to complete the multiplication operation.

Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

This document compares the area, delay, and power characteristics of different adder topologies, including ripple carry adder, carry look-ahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, carry save adder, and carry bypass adder. It analyzes the functionality and performance of 8-bit implementations of each adder type using Microwind simulation software at a 0.12μm CMOS technology node. The ripple carry adder has the simplest design but the longest propagation delay that scales with the number of bits, while other topologies like the carry look-ahead adder and carry skip adder reduce delay but have more complex circuitry. The document aims to

Loop parallelization & pipelining

This document discusses loop parallelization and pipelining as well as trends in parallel systems and forms of parallelism. It describes loop transformations like permutation, reversal, and skewing that can be used to parallelize loops. It also discusses parallelization conditions, wavefront transformations for fine-grained parallelism, and tiling to improve data locality. The document then covers software pipelining of loops to reduce execution time. Finally, it discusses trends in parallel computing and different forms of parallelism like instruction-level, data, and task parallelism.

An Efficient High Speed Design of 16-Bit Sparse-Tree RSFQ Adder

In this paper, we propse 16-bit sparse tree RSFQ adder (Rapid single flux quantam), kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder. In general N-bit adders like Ripple carry adder s(slow adders compare to other adders), and carry lookahead adders(area consuming adders) are used in earlier days. But now the most of industries are using parallel prefix adders because of their advantages compare to kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder, Our prefix sparse tree adders are faster and area efficient. Parallel prefix adder is a technique for increasing the speed in DSP processor while performing addition. We simulate and synthesis different types of 16-bit sparse tree RSFQ adders using Xilinx ISE10.1i tool, By using these synthesis results, We noted the performance parameters like number of LUT’s and delay. We compare these three adders interms of LUT’s represents area) and delay values.

Design of High Speed 128 bit Parallel Prefix Adders

In this paper, we propose 128-bit Kogge-Stone, Ladner-Fischer, Spanning tree parallel prefix adders and
compared with Ripple carry adder. In general N-bit adders like Ripple Carry Adders (slow adders compare to
other adders), and Carry Look Ahead adders (area consuming adders) are used in earlier days. But now the most
Industries are using parallel prefix adders because of their advantages compare to other adders. Parallel prefix
adders are faster and area efficient. Parallel prefix adder is a technique for increasing the speed in DSP processor
while performing addition. While when we want to design any 128-bit operating systems and processors we can
use these adders in place of regular adders. We simulate and synthesis different types of 128-bit prefix adders
using Xilinx ISE 12.3 tool. By using these synthesis results, we noted the performance parameters like number
of LUTs and delay. We compare these three adders in terms of LUTs (represents area) and delay values.

Design Of 64-Bit Parallel Prefix VLSI Adder For High Speed Arithmetic Circuits

Parallel prefix adder is a kind of process for speeding up the addition of the system of writing and calculating with numbers which use only two digits. Parallel prefix adders are also known as carry-tree adders and they are known to have the best performance in VLSI designs. Due to constraints on logic blog configurations a routing overhead, this performance advantage does not translate directly into FPGA implementations. Identifying the absolutely accurate area-delay tradeoff curve of the parallel prefix is an interesting problem that has received more attention in research because parallel prefix adder on the other hand represents a type of general adder structure that displays publically in flexible area-time tradeoffs for the design of adder. Many different types of parallel prefix adders are made to increase for optimizing area, fan out, speed and performance. For high speed performance tree like structure is must which helps in greater way. There are many different method used for designing parallel prefix adder based on their speed, size and performance. For area optimization we use Brent-Kung method. If our main purpose is to get the least timing then we have to use Kogg-Stone adder method.

Unsupervised learning networks

This presentation discusses about the various techniques of Unsupervised learning networks under neural networks

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)

journal publishing, how to publish research paper, Call For research paper, international journal, publishing a paper, IJERD, journal of science and technology, how to get a research paper published, publishing a paper, publishing of journal, publishing of research paper, reserach and review articles, IJERD Journal, How to publish your research paper, publish research paper, open access engineering journal, Engineering journal, Mathemetics journal, Physics journal, Chemistry journal, Computer Engineering, Computer Science journal, how to submit your paper, peer reviw journal, indexed journal, reserach and review articles, engineering journal, www.ijerd.com, research journals,
yahoo journals, bing journals, International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, google journals, hard copy of journal

JOURNAL PAPER

The document describes a proposed low power, high speed multiplier circuit designed using a technique called New Vedic VLSI. The multiplier uses a Vedic multiplication method to generate partial products faster. An addition section with a carry look ahead adder is used to sum the partial products, providing faster operation than a ripple carry adder. Simulation results showed the proposed design consumed 41.868 μw of power over 10ns, compared to 65.4 μw for a design using a ripple carry adder, for a 23.592 μw power reduction. The high speed, low power multiplier design is suitable for applications like digital signal processors that require efficient multiplication.

I43024751International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

Unit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLD.pptx

Unit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLDUnit 2 DLD

Analysis of different bit carry look ahead adder using verilog code 2

This document analyzes and compares different bit carry look ahead adders implemented using Verilog code. It summarizes the performance of 4-bit, 8-bit, and 16-bit carry look ahead adders synthesized on Xilinx. The carry look ahead adder architecture is described, which calculates carry bits in parallel to reduce delay compared to ripple carry adders. Simulation results show that as the bit width increases, the number of slices, LUTs, logic levels, and delay also increase for carry look ahead adders. The carry look ahead adder has the lowest area-delay product, making it suitable for applications requiring low power and high speed.

Binary parallel adder

Binary parallel adder

a technical review of efficient and high speed adders for vedic multipliers

a technical review of efficient and high speed adders for vedic multipliers

Gq3511781181

Gq3511781181

Id3313941396

Id3313941396

Id3313941396

Id3313941396

Comparison among Different Adders

Comparison among Different Adders

COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF 16-BIT ADDERS

COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF 16-BIT ADDERS

IJETT-V9P226

IJETT-V9P226

VLSI Implementation of 32-Bit Unsigned Multiplier Using CSLA & CLAA

VLSI Implementation of 32-Bit Unsigned Multiplier Using CSLA & CLAA

Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

Loop parallelization & pipelining

Loop parallelization & pipelining

An Efficient High Speed Design of 16-Bit Sparse-Tree RSFQ Adder

An Efficient High Speed Design of 16-Bit Sparse-Tree RSFQ Adder

Design of High Speed 128 bit Parallel Prefix Adders

Design of High Speed 128 bit Parallel Prefix Adders

Design Of 64-Bit Parallel Prefix VLSI Adder For High Speed Arithmetic Circuits

Design Of 64-Bit Parallel Prefix VLSI Adder For High Speed Arithmetic Circuits

Unsupervised learning networks

Unsupervised learning networks

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)

JOURNAL PAPER

JOURNAL PAPER

I43024751

I43024751

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- 2. Carry Lookahead Adder Most other arithmetic operations, e.g. multiplication and division are implemented using several add/subtract steps. Thus, improving the speed of addition will improve the speed of all other arithmetic operations. Accordingly, reducing the carry propagation delay of adders is of great importance. Different logic design approaches have been employed to overcome the carry propagation problem. One widely used approach employs the principle of carry look-ahead solves this problem by calculating the carry signals in advance, based on the input signals.
- 3. CLA -Continued A carry-lookahead adder (CLA) or fast adder is a type of adder used in digital logic. A carry-lookahead adder improves speed by reducing the amount of time required to determine carry bits. : Calculating, for each digit position, whether that position is going to propagate a carry if one comes in from the right. Combining these calculated values to be able to deduce quickly whether, for each group of digits, that group is going to propagate a carry that comes in from the right.
- 4. CLA -Continued Carry lookahead logic uses the concepts of generating and propagating carries. Although in the context of a carry lookahead adder, it is most natural to think of generating and propagating in the context of binary addition, the concepts can be used more generally than this For each bit in a binary sequence to be added, the Carry Look Ahead Logic will determine whether that bit pair will generate a carry or propagate a carry. This allows the circuit to "pre-process" the two numbers being added to determine the carry ahead of time. Then, when the actual addition is performed
- 5. Objective - generate all incoming carries in parallel Feasible - carries depend only on xn-1,xn-2,...,x0 and yn- 1,yn-2,…,y0 - information available to all stages for calculating incoming carry and sum bit Requires large number of inputs to each stage of adder - impractical Number of inputs at each stage can be reduced - find out from inputs whether new carries will be generated and whether they will be propagated
- 6. Carry Propagation If xi=yi=1 - carry-out generated regardless of incoming carry - no additional information needed If xi,yi=10 or xi,yi=01 - incoming carry propagated If xi=yi=0 - no carry propagation Gi=xi yi - generated carry ; Pi=xi+yi - propagated carry ci+1= xi yi + ci (xi + yi) = Gi + ci Pi Substituting ci=Gi-1+ci-1Pi-1 ci+1=Gi+Gi-1Pi+ci-1Pi-1Pi Further substitutions - All carries can be calculated in parallel from xn-1,xn-2,...,x0 , yn-1,yn-2,…,y0 , and forced carry c0
- 7. Example 4 Bit Adder
- 8. Delay of Carry-Look-Ahead Adders G - delay of a single gate At each stage Delay of G for generating all Pi and Gi Delay of 2G for generating all ci (two-level gate implementation) Delay of 2G for generating sum digits si in parallel (two- level gate implementation) Total delay of 5G regardless of n - number of bits in each operand Large n (=32) - large number of gates with large fan-in Fan-in - number of gate inputs, n+1 here Span of look-ahead must be reduced at expense of speed
- 9. Reducing Span n stages divided into groups - separate carry-look-ahead in each group Groups interconnected by ripple-carry method Equal-sized groups - modularity - one circuit designed Commonly - group size 4 selected - n/4 groups 4 is factor of most word sizes Technology-dependent constraints (number of input/output pins) ICs adding two 4 digits sequences with carry-look-ahead exist G needed to generate all Pi and Gi 2G needed to propagate a carry through a group once the Pi,Gi,c0 are available (n/4)2G needed to propagate carry through all groups 2G needed to generate sum outputs Total - (2(n/4)+3)G = ((n/2)+3)G - a reduction of almost 75% compared to 2nG in a ripple-carry adder
- 10. Further Addition Speed-Up Carry-look-ahead over groups Group-generated carry - G*=1 if a carry-out (of group) is generated internally Group-propagated carry - P*=1 if a carry-in (to group) is propagated internally to produce a carry-out (of group) For a group of size 4: Group-carries for several groups used to generate group carry-ins similarly to single-bit carry-ins A combinatorial circuit implementing these equations available - carry-look-ahead generator
- 11. 16-bit 2-level Carry-look-ahead Adder
- 12. n=16 - 4 groups Outputs G*0,G*1,G*2,G*3,P*0,P*1,P*2,P*3 Inputs to a carry-look-ahead generator with outputs c4,c8,c12
- 13. Operation - 4 steps: 1. All groups generate in parallel Gi and Pi - delay G 2. All groups generate in parallel group-carry-generate - G*i and group-carry-propagate - P*i - delay 2G 3. Carry-look-ahead generator produces carries c4,c8,c12 into the groups - delay 2G 4. Groups calculate in parallel individual sum bits with internal carry-look-ahead - delay 4G Total time - 9G If external carry-look-ahead generator not used and carry ripples among the groups - 11G Theoretical estimates only - delay may be different in practice Operation
- 14. Additional Levels of Carry-look-ahead Carry-look-ahead generator produces G** and P**, - section- carry generate and propagate section is a set of 4 groups and consists of 16 bits For 64 bits, either use 4 circuits with a ripple-carry between adjacent sections, or use another level of carry-look-ahead for faster execution This circuit accepts 4 pairs of section-carry-generate and section-carry-propagate, and produces carries c16, c32, and c48 As n increases, more levels of carry-look-ahead generators can be added Number of levels (for max speed up) logbn b is the blocking factor - number of bits in a group, number of groups in a section, and so on
- 15. Advantage & Disadvantage Advantage: Reduced Propagation Time(Delay) Fastest Addition logic Disadvantage: CLA is that the carry logic block gets very complicated for more than 4 -bits (CLAs are usually implemented as 4-bit modules and are used in a hierarchical structure to realize adders that have multiples of 4-bits)
- 16. References 1. Kamran Eshraghian, Douglas A Pucknell, and Sholeh Eshraghian, “Essentials of VLSI Circuits and Systems”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2005. 2. Morris Mano, and M.D. Ciletti, “Digital Design ", Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2008. 3.John. F. Wakerly, “Digital design principles and practices”, Pearson Education, FourthEdition, 2007 . 4.Tokheim R L, “Digital Electronics - Principles and Applications ", Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2007. 5. Alan B Marcovitz, “Introduction to Logic Design”, second edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2005. 6. Neil H E Weste and Kamran Eshranghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A system Perspective”, Addison Wesley, New Delhi, 2009.