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Carpal, Meta Carpal, Tarsal
Meta Tarsal & Phalanges
• Carpals (R - 8; L - 8 = 16):
• The carpal bones (i.e. carpus) are 8 irregularly-shaped bones located in
the wrist region.
• These bones connect the distal aspects of the radius and ulna to the
proximal aspects of the metacarpal bones.
• Each carpal bone has its own unique shape and is multifaceted, meaning
that they have the ability to articulate with several surrounding bones,
muscles and ligaments of the forearm and hand.
• This way, the carpal bones provide flexibility and various types
of movements to the soft tissues of the hand.
• They also provide the majority of the skeletal framework of the wrist that
allows the passageway for the different neurovascular structures of the
hand.
• Joints: radiocarpal joint (wrist joint), carpometacarpal joint, midcarpal
joint, & intercarpal joints.
• The proximal row:
1. Scaphoid
2. Lunate
3. Triquetrum
4. Pisiform
• The distal row:
1. Trapezium
2. Trapezoid
3. Capitate
4. Hamate
• The carpal bones are organized in two rows: proximal and distal.
• Metacarpal Bones (5+5 = 10):
• The metacarpal bones articulate proximally with the carpals, and
distally with the proximal phalanges.
• The metacarpals together are referred to as the “metacarpus”
• They are numbered, and each associated with a digit:
• Metacarpal 1: Thumb.
• Metacarpal 2: Index finger.
• Metacarpal 3: Middle finger.
• Each metacarpal consists of a base, shaft and a head. The medial
and lateral surfaces of the metacarpals are concave, allowing
attachment of the interossei muscles.
• Joints: metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP joint), or knuckle &
carpometacarpal joint
• Metacarpal 4: Ring finger.
• Metacarpal 5: Little finger.
Metacarpal Bones
Phalanges of the hand (14+14 = 28):
• The phalanges of the hand are the group of small bones that
comprise the bony core of the digits (fingers) of the hand.
• Even though the phalanges are small in size, they are
classified as long bones because of their structural
characteristics.
• Each phalanx consists of a shaft, distal head and a proximal
base.
• There are 14 phalanges in each hand.
• Each of the medial four digits has 3 phalanges
(proximal, middle and distal), while the thumb has only 2
(proximal and distal).
• They are named thumb (digit 1), index finger (digit 2),
middle finger (digit 3), ring finger (digit 4) and little
finger (digit 5).
• Joints:
• Metacarpophalangeal joints connect the metacarpal bones
and proximal phalanges
• Proximal interphalangeal joints connect the proximal and
middle phalanges
• Distal interphalangeal joints connect the middle and distal
phalanges
• Interphalangeal joint of thumb connect the proximal and
distal phalanges of the thumb
Phalanges of the hand
• Tarsals: The tarsal bones of the foot are organized into
3 rows: proximal, intermediate, and distal. The tarsal
bones are the seven bones of the foot, they are:
1. Proximal Group: Talus & Calcaneus
2. Intermediate group: Navicular
3. Distal group: Medial cuneiform, Intermediate
cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid
1.Proximal Group:
• The proximal tarsal bones are the talus and the
calcaneus. forming the bony framework around the
proximal ankle and heel.
• Talus
• The talus is the most superior of the tarsal bones. It
transmits the weight of the entire body to the foot. It has 3
articulations
• Superiorly - ankle joint: between the talus and the bones
of the leg (the tibia & fibula).
• Inferiorly - subtalar joint: between the talus & calcaneus.
• Anteriorly - talonavicular joint: between the talus and the
navicular.
• The main function of the talus is to transmit forces from
the tibia to the heel bone (known as the calcaneus).
• Calcaneus
• The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone
and lies underneath the talus where it constitutes the heel.
It has 2 articulations:
• Superiorly - subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint - between the
calcaneus and the talus.
• Anteriorly - calcaneocuboid joint - between the calcaneus
and the cuboid.
• It protrudes posteriorly and takes the weight of the body
as the heel hits the ground when walking. The posterior
aspect of the calcaneus is marked by calcaneal
tuberosity, to which the Achilles tendon attaches.
• Intermediate group:
• The intermediate row of tarsal bones contains one bone,
the navicular (given its name because it is shaped like a boat). Positioned
medially, it articulates with the talus posteriorly, all 3 cuneiform bones
anteriorly, and the cuboid bone laterally.
• Distal Group:
• In the distal row, there are 4 tarsal bones – the cuboid and the 3
cuneiforms. These bones articulate with the metatarsals of the foot
• The cuboid is furthest lateral, lying anterior to the calcaneus and behind
the fourth and fifth metatarsals. As its name suggests, it is cuboidal in
shape.
• The 3 cuneiforms (lateral, intermediate & medial) are wedge shaped
bones. They articulate with the navicular posteriorly, and the metatarsals
anteriorly. The shape of the bones helps form a transverse arch across the
foot. They are also the attachment point for several muscles.
Tarsal
bones
• Metatarsal: The metatarsals are the 5 bones
that make up the middle area of the foot.
• The metatarsal bones are the long bones in
your foot that connect ankle to your toes.
• They also help you balance when you stand
and walk
• The metatarsal bones are convex on their dorsal
surfaces but concave on their plantar surfaces
• the metatarsals are consist of a proximal base,
a shaft and a distal head.
• Joints
• Tarsometatarsal joints, Metatarsophalangeal
joints & Intermetatarsal joints
• Phalanges:
• The phalanges are the bones of the toes.
• There are 14 bones in each.
• The phalanges (single: phalanx) of the feet are the tubular bones of
the toes.
• 2nd to 5th toes each contain a proximal, middle and distal phalanx
• Great toe (hallux) only contains a proximal and distal phalanx
• They are similar in structure to the metatarsals, each phalanx consists of
a base, shaft, and head.
• Joints:
• MetaTarsoPhalangeal
• InterPhalangeal (big toe only has one joint)
Proximal InterPhalangeal
Distal InterPhalangeal
Phalanges of the toes

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Carpal, Meta Carpal, Tarsal Meta Tarsal & Phalanges By M Thiru murugan.pptx

  • 1. Carpal, Meta Carpal, Tarsal Meta Tarsal & Phalanges
  • 2. • Carpals (R - 8; L - 8 = 16): • The carpal bones (i.e. carpus) are 8 irregularly-shaped bones located in the wrist region. • These bones connect the distal aspects of the radius and ulna to the proximal aspects of the metacarpal bones. • Each carpal bone has its own unique shape and is multifaceted, meaning that they have the ability to articulate with several surrounding bones, muscles and ligaments of the forearm and hand. • This way, the carpal bones provide flexibility and various types of movements to the soft tissues of the hand. • They also provide the majority of the skeletal framework of the wrist that allows the passageway for the different neurovascular structures of the hand. • Joints: radiocarpal joint (wrist joint), carpometacarpal joint, midcarpal joint, & intercarpal joints.
  • 3. • The proximal row: 1. Scaphoid 2. Lunate 3. Triquetrum 4. Pisiform • The distal row: 1. Trapezium 2. Trapezoid 3. Capitate 4. Hamate • The carpal bones are organized in two rows: proximal and distal.
  • 4. • Metacarpal Bones (5+5 = 10): • The metacarpal bones articulate proximally with the carpals, and distally with the proximal phalanges. • The metacarpals together are referred to as the “metacarpus” • They are numbered, and each associated with a digit: • Metacarpal 1: Thumb. • Metacarpal 2: Index finger. • Metacarpal 3: Middle finger. • Each metacarpal consists of a base, shaft and a head. The medial and lateral surfaces of the metacarpals are concave, allowing attachment of the interossei muscles. • Joints: metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP joint), or knuckle & carpometacarpal joint • Metacarpal 4: Ring finger. • Metacarpal 5: Little finger.
  • 6. Phalanges of the hand (14+14 = 28): • The phalanges of the hand are the group of small bones that comprise the bony core of the digits (fingers) of the hand. • Even though the phalanges are small in size, they are classified as long bones because of their structural characteristics. • Each phalanx consists of a shaft, distal head and a proximal base. • There are 14 phalanges in each hand. • Each of the medial four digits has 3 phalanges (proximal, middle and distal), while the thumb has only 2 (proximal and distal).
  • 7. • They are named thumb (digit 1), index finger (digit 2), middle finger (digit 3), ring finger (digit 4) and little finger (digit 5). • Joints: • Metacarpophalangeal joints connect the metacarpal bones and proximal phalanges • Proximal interphalangeal joints connect the proximal and middle phalanges • Distal interphalangeal joints connect the middle and distal phalanges • Interphalangeal joint of thumb connect the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb
  • 9. • Tarsals: The tarsal bones of the foot are organized into 3 rows: proximal, intermediate, and distal. The tarsal bones are the seven bones of the foot, they are: 1. Proximal Group: Talus & Calcaneus 2. Intermediate group: Navicular 3. Distal group: Medial cuneiform, Intermediate cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid 1.Proximal Group: • The proximal tarsal bones are the talus and the calcaneus. forming the bony framework around the proximal ankle and heel.
  • 10. • Talus • The talus is the most superior of the tarsal bones. It transmits the weight of the entire body to the foot. It has 3 articulations • Superiorly - ankle joint: between the talus and the bones of the leg (the tibia & fibula). • Inferiorly - subtalar joint: between the talus & calcaneus. • Anteriorly - talonavicular joint: between the talus and the navicular. • The main function of the talus is to transmit forces from the tibia to the heel bone (known as the calcaneus).
  • 11. • Calcaneus • The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone and lies underneath the talus where it constitutes the heel. It has 2 articulations: • Superiorly - subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint - between the calcaneus and the talus. • Anteriorly - calcaneocuboid joint - between the calcaneus and the cuboid. • It protrudes posteriorly and takes the weight of the body as the heel hits the ground when walking. The posterior aspect of the calcaneus is marked by calcaneal tuberosity, to which the Achilles tendon attaches.
  • 12. • Intermediate group: • The intermediate row of tarsal bones contains one bone, the navicular (given its name because it is shaped like a boat). Positioned medially, it articulates with the talus posteriorly, all 3 cuneiform bones anteriorly, and the cuboid bone laterally. • Distal Group: • In the distal row, there are 4 tarsal bones – the cuboid and the 3 cuneiforms. These bones articulate with the metatarsals of the foot • The cuboid is furthest lateral, lying anterior to the calcaneus and behind the fourth and fifth metatarsals. As its name suggests, it is cuboidal in shape. • The 3 cuneiforms (lateral, intermediate & medial) are wedge shaped bones. They articulate with the navicular posteriorly, and the metatarsals anteriorly. The shape of the bones helps form a transverse arch across the foot. They are also the attachment point for several muscles.
  • 14. • Metatarsal: The metatarsals are the 5 bones that make up the middle area of the foot. • The metatarsal bones are the long bones in your foot that connect ankle to your toes. • They also help you balance when you stand and walk • The metatarsal bones are convex on their dorsal surfaces but concave on their plantar surfaces • the metatarsals are consist of a proximal base, a shaft and a distal head. • Joints • Tarsometatarsal joints, Metatarsophalangeal joints & Intermetatarsal joints
  • 15. • Phalanges: • The phalanges are the bones of the toes. • There are 14 bones in each. • The phalanges (single: phalanx) of the feet are the tubular bones of the toes. • 2nd to 5th toes each contain a proximal, middle and distal phalanx • Great toe (hallux) only contains a proximal and distal phalanx • They are similar in structure to the metatarsals, each phalanx consists of a base, shaft, and head. • Joints: • MetaTarsoPhalangeal • InterPhalangeal (big toe only has one joint) Proximal InterPhalangeal Distal InterPhalangeal