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CARE OF CRITICALLY ILL
PATIENT:
JOHNY WILBERT, M.Sc[N]
LECTURER,
APOLLO INSTITUTE OF HOSPITAL
MANAGEMENT AND ALLIED SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION::
• critical care nursing:
• It is the field of nursing with a focus on the
utmost care of the critically ill patient or the
family.
• . critically ill patients :
• critically ill patients are those who are at risk
for actual (or) potential life threatening health
problems. unstable patients.
Guiding principles::
• delivery of optimal and appropriate care .
• relief of distress
• compassion and support
• dignity
• information
• rehabilitation
• care and support of relatives and care givers.
CLASSIFICATION OF CCU
PATIENTS
• Level 0:
• Normal acute ward care
• Level 1:(General at risk ward pt’s)
• a) Acute ward care, with additional advice
and support from the critical care team eg
patients who are at risk of deterioration, or
• b) Who are recovering after higher levels of
care and still have great nursing needs
• Level 2:(High Dependency)
• Detailed observation or intervention eg
patients with a single failing organ system, or
post-operative patients, or patients stepping
down from higher levels of care
• Level 3:(Intensive Care)
• Advanced respiratory support alone, or basic
respiratory support together with support of at
least two organ systems
• management of critically ill patient:
• complete monitoring
• respiratory care
• cardio vascular care
• gastrointestinal
• nutritional care
• neuro muscular
• comfort and reassurance
• communication with the patient
• venous thrombosis prophylaxis
• infection control skin care ,
• general hygiene and mouth care
• fluid, electrolyte and glucose balance
• bladder care
• dressing and wound care
• communication with relatives
•
• assessment and clinical examination::
• a: airway
• b: breathing
• c: circulation
• d: disability
• e: exposure
•
• respiratory care::
• problems:
• patient may have:
• airway obstruction
• altered ventilation ,
• poor secretion clearance,
• atelectasis(lung collapse) ,
• impaired muscle function.
•
• management::
• respiratory care includes:
• assisting in coughing.
• Deep Breathing And Alveolar Recruitment
Techniques( E.G.Cpap ).
• Chest Percussion.
• Positioning(e.G. Fowlers Position)
• bronchodilators.
• suctioning. (q4h) or if neccesary
• tracheostomy care.
• cardio vascular care:
• prolonged immobility impairs autonomic
vasomotor responses to sitting and standing
causing profound postural hypotension. tilt
table may be beneficial prior to mobilization.
• dvt prophylaxis to prevent dvt
• gastro intestinal/ nutritional care;:
• the supine position predisposes to gastro
oesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia .
• patients 30 degree head up prevents this early
enternal feeding reduces infection, stress
ulceration and gi bleeding.
• immobility is associated with gastric stasis and
constipation, gastric stimulants and laxatives
are essential.
• neuromuscular care::
• immobility, prolonged neuro muscular
blockage and sedation promotes atropy ,
• joint contractures and foot drops may occur.
• physiotherapy and splints may be required.
GLASGOW COMA SCALE
• The Glasgow coma scale or GCS is a
neurological scale that aims to give a reliable ,
objective way of recording the conscious state
of a person for initial as well as subsequent
assessment.
• GCS was initially used to assess level of
consciousness after head injury.
• In hospitals it is also used in monitoring
chronic patients in intensive care .
• compassionated care of relatives is always
appreciated, avoids anger and is one of the best
indicators of a well- functioning units. each
activity about The patient should be in formed
to the relatives and explained to their
knowledge level and informed consent must be
obtained
• comfort and reassurance::
• anxiety, discomfort and pain must be
recognized and relieved with reassurance,
physical measures, analgesics and sedatives. in
particular, endotracheal or nasogastric tubes,
bladder or bowel distension,inflamed
•
• line sites ,painful joints and urinary cathetors
often causes discomfort, and are often
overlooked. fan use is controversial as dust-
borne micro- organisms may be disseminated.
visible clocks helps patients maintain circadian
rhythms(i.e. day- night patterns)
•
• communication with the patient::
• communication with the patient: use of
amnesic drugs makes repeated explanations
and reassurance essential. assist intraction with
appropriate communication aids
• venous thrombosis prophylaxis::
• venous thrombosis prophylaxis : trauma ,
sepsis , surgery and immobility predisposes to
lower limb thrombosis. mechanical and
pharmacological prophylaxis prevents
potentially life – threatening pulmonary
embolism.
•
• infection control::
• infection control: hand washing is vital to prevent
transmission of organisms between patients.
disposable aprons are recommended. sterile
technique (e.g. gloves, masks, gowns, sterile
field) is essential for all invasive procedures(e.g.
line insertion).
• isolation(+ or – ve pressure ventilation) for
transmissible infections (e.g. tuberculosis)
thorough cleaning of bed spaces(e.g. routinely
and after patient discharge)
• Skin care, general hygiene and mouth
care::
• cutaneous pressure sores are due to local
pressure(e.g. bony prominences). friction
malnutrition oedema ischaemia damaged
related to moist or soiled skin.
• turn patient every 2 hours and protect
susceptible areas. special beds relieves
pressure and assist turning. mouth care and
general hygiene is essential.
•
• fluid electrolytes and glucose balance::
• regularly assess fluid and electrolytes balance.
insulin resistence and hyperglycaemia are
common but maintaining normo-glycaemia
improves outcomes.
bladder care::
• urinary catheters causes painfull urethral ulcers
and must be stabilized. early removal reduces
urinary tract infections.
• dressing and wound care::
• replace wound dressings as necessary. change
arterial and central venous catheter dressings
every 48- 72 hours.
• communication with relatives:
• family members receive information from many
care givers with different perspectives and
knowledge. critical care teams must aim to be
consistent in their assessments and honest about
uncertainties. all conversation should be
documented.
• compassionated care of relatives is always
appreciated, avoids anger and is one of the best
indicators of a well- functioning units. each
activity about the patient should be in formed
to the relatives and explained to their
knowledge level and informed consent must be
obtained
Anxiety:
–The primary sources of anxiety for patients
include the perceived or anticipated threat to
physical health, actual loss of control or
body functions, and an environment that is
foreign.
–Assessing patients for anxiety is very
important and clinical indicators can include
agitation, increased blood pressure,
increased heart rate, patient verbalization of
anxiety, and restlessness.
–To help reduce anxiety, the nurse should
encourage patients and families to express
concerns, ask questions, and state their
needs; and include the patient and family in
all conversations and explain the purpose of
equipment and procedures.
–Antianxiety drugs and complementary
therapies may reduce the stress response and
should be considered.
Pain:
– The control of pain in the ICU patient is
paramount as inadequate pain control is
often linked with agitation and anxiety and
can contribute to the stress response.
– ICU patients at high risk for pain include
patients
(1)who have medical conditions that include
ischemic, infectious, or inflammatory
processes;
(2)who are immobilized;
(1)who have invasive monitoring devices,
including endotracheal tubes;
(2) and who are scheduled for any invasive or
noninvasive procedures.
– Continuous intravenous sedation and an
analgesic agent are a practical and
effective strategy for sedation and pain
control.
Delirium
• Sudden onset of disturbances in cognition,
attention, and perception
• Manifest as hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed
• Mixed type is most prevalent in ICU
–Delirium in ICU patients ranges from 15%
to 40%.
• Demographic factors predisposing the
patient to delirium include
1.advanced age,
2. preexisting cerebral illnesses,
3.Environmental factors that can contribute
to delirium include sleep deprivation,
anxiety, sensory overload, and
immobilization.
4.Physical conditions such as
hemodynamic instability, hypoxemia,
hypercarbia, electrolyte disturbances, and
severe infections can precipitate delirium.
5. Certain drugs (e.g sedatives, furosemide,
antimicrobials)
have been associated with the development
of delirium
Management of Delirium
• The ICU nurse must identify predisposing
factors that may precipitate delirium and
improve the patient’s mental clarity and
cooperation with appropriate therapy (e.g.,
correction of oxygenation, use of clocks and
calendars).
• If the patient demonstrates unsafe behavior,
hyperactivity, insomnia, or delusions,
symptoms may be managed with neuroleptic
drugs (e.g., haloperidol).
• The presence of family members may help
reorient the patient and reduce agitation.
Sleep problems:
–Patients may have difficulty falling asleep or
have disrupted sleep because of noise,
anxiety, pain, frequent monitoring, or
treatment procedures.
–Sleep disturbance is a significant stressor in
the ICU, contributing to delirium and
possibly affecting recovery and can
decreases patient immunity
–The environment should be structured to
promote the patient’s sleep-wake cycle by
clustering activities, scheduling rest periods,
dimming lights at nighttime, opening
curtains during the daytime (natural light),
obtaining physiologic measurements
without disrupting the patient, limiting
noise, and providing comfort measures.
–Benzodiazepines like Diazepam
(Valium)lorazepam (Ativan) and
benzodiazepine-like drugs (Zolpidem) can
be used to induce and maintain sleep.
Needs of Families of Critically Ill
Patients
• Personnel care about the patients
• Believe there is hope
• Waiting room near the patient
• Called when changes in the patient occur
• Know the prognosis
• Have questions answered honestly
• Know specific facts about patient’s progress
• Be allowed to see the patient frequently
• Provide information
• Discuss patient goals
• Written instructional guidelines to provide
information about critical care
• A way to contact the nurse
• Consistency in the nurse
• Open visiting hours
• Assess to telephones, bathrooms, and food
• Good communication
• Relaxed waiting area near the patient
Visual Map
Critically Ill Patient Summary
• conclusion::
• conclusion: provide total care prevent
complication provide psychological support to
patient and their family members
•THANK YOU

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careofcriticallyillpatient-180617105854.pdf

  • 1. CARE OF CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT: JOHNY WILBERT, M.Sc[N] LECTURER, APOLLO INSTITUTE OF HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT AND ALLIED SCIENCE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION:: • critical care nursing: • It is the field of nursing with a focus on the utmost care of the critically ill patient or the family. • . critically ill patients : • critically ill patients are those who are at risk for actual (or) potential life threatening health problems. unstable patients.
  • 3. Guiding principles:: • delivery of optimal and appropriate care . • relief of distress • compassion and support • dignity • information • rehabilitation • care and support of relatives and care givers.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF CCU PATIENTS • Level 0: • Normal acute ward care • Level 1:(General at risk ward pt’s) • a) Acute ward care, with additional advice and support from the critical care team eg patients who are at risk of deterioration, or • b) Who are recovering after higher levels of care and still have great nursing needs
  • 5. • Level 2:(High Dependency) • Detailed observation or intervention eg patients with a single failing organ system, or post-operative patients, or patients stepping down from higher levels of care • Level 3:(Intensive Care) • Advanced respiratory support alone, or basic respiratory support together with support of at least two organ systems
  • 6. • management of critically ill patient: • complete monitoring • respiratory care • cardio vascular care • gastrointestinal • nutritional care • neuro muscular • comfort and reassurance • communication with the patient • venous thrombosis prophylaxis
  • 7. • infection control skin care , • general hygiene and mouth care • fluid, electrolyte and glucose balance • bladder care • dressing and wound care • communication with relatives •
  • 8. • assessment and clinical examination:: • a: airway • b: breathing • c: circulation • d: disability • e: exposure •
  • 9. • respiratory care:: • problems: • patient may have: • airway obstruction • altered ventilation , • poor secretion clearance, • atelectasis(lung collapse) , • impaired muscle function. •
  • 10. • management:: • respiratory care includes: • assisting in coughing. • Deep Breathing And Alveolar Recruitment Techniques( E.G.Cpap ). • Chest Percussion. • Positioning(e.G. Fowlers Position) • bronchodilators. • suctioning. (q4h) or if neccesary • tracheostomy care.
  • 11. • cardio vascular care: • prolonged immobility impairs autonomic vasomotor responses to sitting and standing causing profound postural hypotension. tilt table may be beneficial prior to mobilization. • dvt prophylaxis to prevent dvt
  • 12. • gastro intestinal/ nutritional care;: • the supine position predisposes to gastro oesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia . • patients 30 degree head up prevents this early enternal feeding reduces infection, stress ulceration and gi bleeding. • immobility is associated with gastric stasis and constipation, gastric stimulants and laxatives are essential.
  • 13. • neuromuscular care:: • immobility, prolonged neuro muscular blockage and sedation promotes atropy , • joint contractures and foot drops may occur. • physiotherapy and splints may be required.
  • 14. GLASGOW COMA SCALE • The Glasgow coma scale or GCS is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable , objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment. • GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury. • In hospitals it is also used in monitoring chronic patients in intensive care .
  • 15. • compassionated care of relatives is always appreciated, avoids anger and is one of the best indicators of a well- functioning units. each activity about The patient should be in formed to the relatives and explained to their knowledge level and informed consent must be obtained
  • 16. • comfort and reassurance:: • anxiety, discomfort and pain must be recognized and relieved with reassurance, physical measures, analgesics and sedatives. in particular, endotracheal or nasogastric tubes, bladder or bowel distension,inflamed •
  • 17. • line sites ,painful joints and urinary cathetors often causes discomfort, and are often overlooked. fan use is controversial as dust- borne micro- organisms may be disseminated. visible clocks helps patients maintain circadian rhythms(i.e. day- night patterns) •
  • 18. • communication with the patient:: • communication with the patient: use of amnesic drugs makes repeated explanations and reassurance essential. assist intraction with appropriate communication aids
  • 19. • venous thrombosis prophylaxis:: • venous thrombosis prophylaxis : trauma , sepsis , surgery and immobility predisposes to lower limb thrombosis. mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis prevents potentially life – threatening pulmonary embolism. •
  • 20. • infection control:: • infection control: hand washing is vital to prevent transmission of organisms between patients. disposable aprons are recommended. sterile technique (e.g. gloves, masks, gowns, sterile field) is essential for all invasive procedures(e.g. line insertion). • isolation(+ or – ve pressure ventilation) for transmissible infections (e.g. tuberculosis) thorough cleaning of bed spaces(e.g. routinely and after patient discharge)
  • 21. • Skin care, general hygiene and mouth care:: • cutaneous pressure sores are due to local pressure(e.g. bony prominences). friction malnutrition oedema ischaemia damaged related to moist or soiled skin. • turn patient every 2 hours and protect susceptible areas. special beds relieves pressure and assist turning. mouth care and general hygiene is essential. •
  • 22. • fluid electrolytes and glucose balance:: • regularly assess fluid and electrolytes balance. insulin resistence and hyperglycaemia are common but maintaining normo-glycaemia improves outcomes.
  • 23. bladder care:: • urinary catheters causes painfull urethral ulcers and must be stabilized. early removal reduces urinary tract infections. • dressing and wound care:: • replace wound dressings as necessary. change arterial and central venous catheter dressings every 48- 72 hours.
  • 24. • communication with relatives: • family members receive information from many care givers with different perspectives and knowledge. critical care teams must aim to be consistent in their assessments and honest about uncertainties. all conversation should be documented.
  • 25. • compassionated care of relatives is always appreciated, avoids anger and is one of the best indicators of a well- functioning units. each activity about the patient should be in formed to the relatives and explained to their knowledge level and informed consent must be obtained
  • 26. Anxiety: –The primary sources of anxiety for patients include the perceived or anticipated threat to physical health, actual loss of control or body functions, and an environment that is foreign. –Assessing patients for anxiety is very important and clinical indicators can include agitation, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, patient verbalization of anxiety, and restlessness.
  • 27. –To help reduce anxiety, the nurse should encourage patients and families to express concerns, ask questions, and state their needs; and include the patient and family in all conversations and explain the purpose of equipment and procedures. –Antianxiety drugs and complementary therapies may reduce the stress response and should be considered.
  • 28. Pain: – The control of pain in the ICU patient is paramount as inadequate pain control is often linked with agitation and anxiety and can contribute to the stress response. – ICU patients at high risk for pain include patients (1)who have medical conditions that include ischemic, infectious, or inflammatory processes; (2)who are immobilized;
  • 29. (1)who have invasive monitoring devices, including endotracheal tubes; (2) and who are scheduled for any invasive or noninvasive procedures. – Continuous intravenous sedation and an analgesic agent are a practical and effective strategy for sedation and pain control.
  • 30. Delirium • Sudden onset of disturbances in cognition, attention, and perception • Manifest as hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed • Mixed type is most prevalent in ICU
  • 31. –Delirium in ICU patients ranges from 15% to 40%. • Demographic factors predisposing the patient to delirium include 1.advanced age, 2. preexisting cerebral illnesses, 3.Environmental factors that can contribute to delirium include sleep deprivation, anxiety, sensory overload, and immobilization.
  • 32. 4.Physical conditions such as hemodynamic instability, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, electrolyte disturbances, and severe infections can precipitate delirium. 5. Certain drugs (e.g sedatives, furosemide, antimicrobials) have been associated with the development of delirium
  • 33. Management of Delirium • The ICU nurse must identify predisposing factors that may precipitate delirium and improve the patient’s mental clarity and cooperation with appropriate therapy (e.g., correction of oxygenation, use of clocks and calendars). • If the patient demonstrates unsafe behavior, hyperactivity, insomnia, or delusions, symptoms may be managed with neuroleptic drugs (e.g., haloperidol). • The presence of family members may help reorient the patient and reduce agitation.
  • 34. Sleep problems: –Patients may have difficulty falling asleep or have disrupted sleep because of noise, anxiety, pain, frequent monitoring, or treatment procedures. –Sleep disturbance is a significant stressor in the ICU, contributing to delirium and possibly affecting recovery and can decreases patient immunity
  • 35. –The environment should be structured to promote the patient’s sleep-wake cycle by clustering activities, scheduling rest periods, dimming lights at nighttime, opening curtains during the daytime (natural light), obtaining physiologic measurements without disrupting the patient, limiting noise, and providing comfort measures. –Benzodiazepines like Diazepam (Valium)lorazepam (Ativan) and benzodiazepine-like drugs (Zolpidem) can be used to induce and maintain sleep.
  • 36. Needs of Families of Critically Ill Patients • Personnel care about the patients • Believe there is hope • Waiting room near the patient • Called when changes in the patient occur • Know the prognosis • Have questions answered honestly • Know specific facts about patient’s progress • Be allowed to see the patient frequently
  • 37. • Provide information • Discuss patient goals • Written instructional guidelines to provide information about critical care • A way to contact the nurse • Consistency in the nurse • Open visiting hours • Assess to telephones, bathrooms, and food • Good communication • Relaxed waiting area near the patient
  • 38. Visual Map Critically Ill Patient Summary
  • 39. • conclusion:: • conclusion: provide total care prevent complication provide psychological support to patient and their family members