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Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 13
INTRODUCTION
M
arijuana is the most commonly abused drug. It
mainly acts on cannabinoid (CB) receptors. There
are two types of CB receptors in humans: CB
receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB receptor type 2 (CB2). CB1
receptor activation is pro-atherogenic, and CB2 receptor
activation is largely anti-atherogenic. Marijuana use is also
implicated as a trigger for myocardial infarction (MI) in
patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).[1]
Marijuana is already legal in some states, and there is a
push toward legalization in many more states. Physicians
can, therefore, expect to encounter more patients who use or
abuse marijuana. Therefore, physicians need to be aware of
its effects on the cardiovascular system. Due to restrictions
on manufacturing and distribution, there is a paucity of
well-validated clinical studies describing the cardiovascular
and other systemic effects of marijuana. Further, lacing and
other chemicals present in marijuana are major confounding
variables that may contribute to the untoward effects of
marijuana.[2]
The active psychotropic component of marijuana is delta-
9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Mechoulam and Gaoni,
2010). It mainly acts on CB1 and CB2 receptors. These are
G-protein-coupled membrane-bound receptors and play a
role in signal transduction through modulation of adenylate
cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and
members of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer
of activated B cells (NF-κB). Endogenous ligands such as
anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol also act on these
receptors. There is a differential distribution of CB receptors
in the human body. Major organ systems such as brain,
heart, liver, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)
have CB1 receptors. CB2 receptors are mainly present in the
immune cells. Both receptor types are present in cells in the
atherosclerotic plaque-like macrophages and VSMCs.[3]
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Cardiac Enzyme Responses among Marijuana
Smokers
NnodimJohnkennedy1
, UdechukwuRommyChidozie1
, Nsonwu Magnus2
,
Njoku Chukwudi Joseph3
, Edward Ukamaka1
1
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria,
2
Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria, 3
Department of
Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK)
in marijuana smokers. Materials and Methods: Twenty confirmed marijuana smokers and 20 apparently non-smokers
(control) between the ages of 20 and 40 years were selected for this study. The level of AST and CK were carried out by
standard methods. Results: The level of AST (44.49 ± 5.18IU/L) in marijuana smokers was significantly increased when
compared with the control (28.28 ± 6.12IU/L) (P ˂ 0.05). Furthermore, the level of CK (295.84 ± 6.58 IU/L) in marijuana
smokers was significantly increased when compared with the control (110.03 ± 11.80 IU/L) (P ˂ 0.05)). Conclusion: The
results obtained probably indicate that marijuana smokers are more likely to develop a cardiac problem. Hence, smoking of
marijuana is not beneficial to health as it may be linked with myocardial infarction.
Key words: Cardiac enzyme, effect, marijuana, smoking
Address for correspondence:
Dr.JohnkennedyNnodim, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University,
Owerri, Nigeria
https://doi.org/10.33309/2639-8265.030103 www.asclepiusopen.com
© 2020 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers
 Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020
CB modulates immune system, alters lipid metabolism, and
affects endothelial cells and VSMCs (Singla et al., 2012).
Inflammatory cytokines, oxidized low-density lipoprotein
(LDL), and macrophages play key roles in pathogenesis of
atherosclerosis. Furthermore, platelet-derived growth factor
(PDGF), which causes proliferation and growth of VSMC,
also contributes in atherosclerosis.[4]
In the endothelial cells, a CB1 receptor agonist activates
MAPK and promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS)
generation. It promotes endothelial injury and hence
atherogenesis. CB2 receptor agonists attenuate inflammatory
response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decrease
expression of cell adhesion molecules, which are key steps
in atherogenesis.[5]
In VSMCs, CB1 receptor agonism was shown to upregulate
angiotensin 1 receptor, leading to increased ROS generation.[6]
Further,CB1receptorantagonismwasshowntoreducePDGF-
mediated proliferation and migration of human coronary
artery smooth muscle cells. The same group of investigators
showed that CB2 receptor agonists JWH-133 and HU-30
decreased tumor necrosis-factor-alpha-induced proliferation
and migration of coronary smooth muscle cells.[5]
Oxidized LDL, which has been incriminated in the
development of atherosclerosis, causes increased CB1 and
CB2 receptor expression and increased endogenous CBs
(anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) production. This
results in increased lipid accumulation in macrophages.
Exogenous synthetic CB was shown to increase macrophage
lipid accumulation, and prior treatment with CB1 receptor
antagonist was shown to decrease this effect.[3]
In humans, marijuana use causes tachycardia, peripheral
vasodilation, postural hypotension, and elevation in both
systolic and diastolic blood pressures in supine position.
Tachycardia is believed to be a result of increased
sympathetic nervous system activity after marijuana use.[7]
Other proposed mechanisms for this effect are the inhibition
of parasympathetic innervation to the heart and reflex
tachycardia from vasodilation. Elevated norepinephrine
levels and augmentation of left ventricular function was
observed after marijuana use.[8]
However, in a study in patients with CAD and angina,
marijuana use was shown to decrease end diastolic volume,
stroke index, and ejection fraction without causing any
change in end systolic volume or cardiac index.[9]
Chemical
compounds in the Cannabis plant, including 400 different CBs
such as THC, allow its drug to have various psychological and
physiological effects on the human body.[10]
Different plants of
the genus Cannabis contain different and often unpredictable
concentrations of THC and other CBs and hundreds of other
molecules that have a pharmacological effect.[11]
Acute effects while under the influence can include
euphoria and anxiety. Although some assert that
Cannabidiol (CBD), another CB found in Cannabis in
varying amounts, may alleviate the adverse effects of
THC that some users experience. Little is known about
CBD’s effects on humans. The well-controlled studies
with humans have a hard time showing that CBD can be
distinguished from placebo or that it has any systematic
effect on the adverse effects of Cannabis. When ingested
orally, THC can produce stronger psychotropic effects
than when inhaled. At doses exceeding the psychotropic
threshold, users may experience adverse side effects such
as anxiety and panic attacks that can result in increased
heart rate and changes in blood pressure.[12]
The growing popularity of medical and recreational
consumption of Cannabis, especially among the youth,
raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-
term effects. The cardiovascular effects of Cannabis are
not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to
cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia as well
as increases the risk of MI.It is a potential cause of sudden
death. These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette
smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity,
especially during the first few hours of consumption.[8]
Despite the considerable research in this field, the effects
and benefits of Cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remain
questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating
attitude toward recreational consumption and promotion
of therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to
increase awareness among the public, especially youth,
about the cardiovascular risks associated with Cannabis
use and disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding
its ill effects. Hence, the reason for this research on Cardiac
Enzyme Responses among Marijuana Smokers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty marijuana smokers (males) aged 20–40 years
attending Federal Medical Centre Owerri were involved in
this study. Furthermore, 20 apparently non-smokers aged
20–40 years were used as control. Their consent was obtained
as well as ethical approval from the Ethical committee of the
hospital.
Sample Collection
Five milliliters of blood sample were collected by standard
venipuncture method[13]
from each participant and were
dispensed into dry bottle. This was centrifuged to get the
serum for the analysis cardiac enzymes.
The serum cardiac enzymes were determined by
spectrophotometricmethod:Creatinekinase(CK) (Lawrence,
1984) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).[14]
Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers
Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 15
Statistical Analysis
The values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The
significant difference between the mean value of the control
and experimental group was determined by one-way analysis
of variance with post hoc t-test. P  0.05 was considered as
statistically significant.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows that the mean ± standard deviation of AST
significantly increased in the test when compared with
the control at P ˂ 0.05. Furthermore, the level of CK was
significantly increased in marijuana smokers when compared
with the control at P ˂ 0.05.
DISCUSSION
Marijuana is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant
used for medical or recreational purposes.[15]
The main
psychoactive part of Cannabis is THC, one of the 483
known compounds in the plant. It can be used by smoking,
vaporizing, within food, or as an extract. However, it has
mental and physical, such as creating a “high” feeling, a
general change in perception, heightened mood, and an
increase in appetite, the onset of effects is felt within minutes
when smoked and about 30–60 min when cooked and eaten
which last for 2–6 h.[16]
In this study, the level of AST was significantly increased in
marijuana smokers when compared with the control. This is
in agreement with the study carried out by Yakubu et al.[17]
The increase in AST could be linked to damage of heart
tissue.
AST is localized within the cells of liver, heart, skeletal
muscle, kidneys, brain, and red blood cells. The enzyme
is an important marker for monitoring liver cytolysis
and MI. However, AST levels are influenced by various
pathological conditions, such as acute pancreatitis, acute
hemolytic anemia, severe burns, acute renal disease,
musculoskeletal diseases, and trauma. Furthermore, the
increase in AST could be linked with oxidative stress in
which free radicals are released. This is in line with the
work of Yakubu et al.[17]
Furthermore, it was observed in this study that marijuana
smokers have significantly higher CK levels compared
with the levels in the control group. This is in consonant
with the study carried out by Uboh,[18]
who observed that
marijuana smoking increases the activity of cardiac enzymes
such as CK, AST, and lactate dehydrogenase. The results of
the present study showed that the use of marijuana caused
significant alterations in biochemical parameters of cardiac
function.
CONCLUSION
The results of the present study indicated that the values of
AST and CK were increased in marijuana smokers. This
implies that marijuana smoking could be associated with MI.
REFERENCES
1.	 Azofeifa A, Mattson ME, Schauer G, McAfee T, Grant A,
Lyerla R. National estimates of marijuana use and related
indicators national survey on drug use and health, United
States, 2002-2014. MMWR Surveill Summit 2016;65:1-28.
2.	 Franz CA, Frishman WH. Marijuana use and cardiovascular
disease. Cardiol Revis 2016;24:158-62.
3.	 Jiang LS, Pu J, Han ZH, Hu LH, He B. Role of activated
endocannabinoid system in regulation of cellular cholesterol
metabolism in macrophages. Cardiovasc Res 2012;81:805-13.
4.	 Yuan M, Kiertscher SM, Cheng Q, Zoumalan R, Tashkin DP,
Roth MD. Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol regulates Th1/Th2
cytokine balance in activated human T cells. J Neuroimmunol
2013;133:124-31.
5.	 Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Haskó G, Huffman JW, Mackie K,
Pacher P. CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonists attenuate TNF-
alpha-induced human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
and migration. Br J Pharmacol 2011;153:347-57.
6.	 Tiyerili V, Zimmer S, Jung S. CB1 receptor inhibition leads
to decreased vascular AT1 receptor expression, inhibition of
oxidative stress and improved endothelial function. Basic Res
Cardiol 2010;105:465-77.
7.	 Beaconsfield P, Ginsburg J, Rainsbury R. Marijuana smoking,
cardiovascular effects in man and possible mechanisms. N
Engl J Med 2010;287:209-12.
8.	 Gash A, Karliner JS, Janowsky D, Lake CR. Effects of
smoking marijuana on left ventricular performance and plasma
norepinephrine: Studies in normal men. Ann Intern Med
2011;89:448-52.
9.	 Prakash R,Aronow WS, Warren M, Laverty W, Gottschalk LA.
Effects of marijuana and placebo marijuana smoking on
hemodynamics in coronary disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther
2010;18:90-5.
10.	 Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Soydaner U, Öztürk E, Schibano D,
Simsir Y, Navarro P, et al. Evolution of the cannabinoid and
terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants
from different chemotypes. J Nat Prod 2016;79:324-31.
11.	 Brenneisen R. Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids
and other Cannabis Constituents. Forensic Science and
Medicine. Totowa: Humana Press; 2007. p. 17-49.
12.	 Haney M, Malcolm RJ, Babalonis S, Nuzzo PA, Cooper ZD,
Table 1: Mean prothrombin time and activated
partial thromboplastin time in first, second,
thirdtrimesters and non-pregnancy females (control)
Parameter Test Control P value
AST (IU/L) 44.49±5.18* 28.28±6.12 P˂0.05
CK-MB (IU/L) 295.84±6.58* 110.03±11.80 P˂0.05
AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, CK: Creatine kinase,
Key*Significantly increased when compared with the control at
P˂0.05
Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers
16 Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020
Bedi G, et al. Oral cannabidiol does not alter the subjective,
reinforcing or cardiovascular effects of smoked cannabis.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2016;41:1974-82.
13.	 Lawrence S Determination of cardiac enzymes Am J
ClinPathol 1984;14:79-85.
14.	 Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the
determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic
pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;83:56-63.
15.	 Vij K. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology:
Principles and Practice. India: Elsevier; 2012. p. 672.
16.	 Riviello RJ. Manual of Forensic Emergency Medicine:AGuide
for Clinicians. Sudbury: Mass Jones and Barlett Publishers;
2010. p. 41.
17.	 Yakubu MT, Akanii MA, Salau LO. Evaluation of selected
parameters of heart, liver and kidney in humans and rats.
2001;2:50-6.
18.	 Uboh A. Toxicological effects of cannabis in rats and humans.
Int J Toxicol 2012;4:40-5.
How to cite this article: Nnodim J, Chidozie UR,
Magnus N, Joseph NC, Ukamaka E. Cardiac Enzyme
ResponsesamongMarijuanaSmokers.JClinCardiolDiagn
2020;3(1):13-16.

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Cardiac Enzyme Responses among Marijuana Smokers

  • 1. Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 13 INTRODUCTION M arijuana is the most commonly abused drug. It mainly acts on cannabinoid (CB) receptors. There are two types of CB receptors in humans: CB receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB receptor type 2 (CB2). CB1 receptor activation is pro-atherogenic, and CB2 receptor activation is largely anti-atherogenic. Marijuana use is also implicated as a trigger for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).[1] Marijuana is already legal in some states, and there is a push toward legalization in many more states. Physicians can, therefore, expect to encounter more patients who use or abuse marijuana. Therefore, physicians need to be aware of its effects on the cardiovascular system. Due to restrictions on manufacturing and distribution, there is a paucity of well-validated clinical studies describing the cardiovascular and other systemic effects of marijuana. Further, lacing and other chemicals present in marijuana are major confounding variables that may contribute to the untoward effects of marijuana.[2] The active psychotropic component of marijuana is delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Mechoulam and Gaoni, 2010). It mainly acts on CB1 and CB2 receptors. These are G-protein-coupled membrane-bound receptors and play a role in signal transduction through modulation of adenylate cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and members of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Endogenous ligands such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol also act on these receptors. There is a differential distribution of CB receptors in the human body. Major organ systems such as brain, heart, liver, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have CB1 receptors. CB2 receptors are mainly present in the immune cells. Both receptor types are present in cells in the atherosclerotic plaque-like macrophages and VSMCs.[3] ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cardiac Enzyme Responses among Marijuana Smokers NnodimJohnkennedy1 , UdechukwuRommyChidozie1 , Nsonwu Magnus2 , Njoku Chukwudi Joseph3 , Edward Ukamaka1 1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria, 2 Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria ABSTRACT Aim: This study was carried out to determine the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) in marijuana smokers. Materials and Methods: Twenty confirmed marijuana smokers and 20 apparently non-smokers (control) between the ages of 20 and 40 years were selected for this study. The level of AST and CK were carried out by standard methods. Results: The level of AST (44.49 ± 5.18IU/L) in marijuana smokers was significantly increased when compared with the control (28.28 ± 6.12IU/L) (P ˂ 0.05). Furthermore, the level of CK (295.84 ± 6.58 IU/L) in marijuana smokers was significantly increased when compared with the control (110.03 ± 11.80 IU/L) (P ˂ 0.05)). Conclusion: The results obtained probably indicate that marijuana smokers are more likely to develop a cardiac problem. Hence, smoking of marijuana is not beneficial to health as it may be linked with myocardial infarction. Key words: Cardiac enzyme, effect, marijuana, smoking Address for correspondence: Dr.JohnkennedyNnodim, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria https://doi.org/10.33309/2639-8265.030103 www.asclepiusopen.com © 2020 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
  • 2. Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 CB modulates immune system, alters lipid metabolism, and affects endothelial cells and VSMCs (Singla et al., 2012). Inflammatory cytokines, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and macrophages play key roles in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which causes proliferation and growth of VSMC, also contributes in atherosclerosis.[4] In the endothelial cells, a CB1 receptor agonist activates MAPK and promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. It promotes endothelial injury and hence atherogenesis. CB2 receptor agonists attenuate inflammatory response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decrease expression of cell adhesion molecules, which are key steps in atherogenesis.[5] In VSMCs, CB1 receptor agonism was shown to upregulate angiotensin 1 receptor, leading to increased ROS generation.[6] Further,CB1receptorantagonismwasshowntoreducePDGF- mediated proliferation and migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. The same group of investigators showed that CB2 receptor agonists JWH-133 and HU-30 decreased tumor necrosis-factor-alpha-induced proliferation and migration of coronary smooth muscle cells.[5] Oxidized LDL, which has been incriminated in the development of atherosclerosis, causes increased CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and increased endogenous CBs (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) production. This results in increased lipid accumulation in macrophages. Exogenous synthetic CB was shown to increase macrophage lipid accumulation, and prior treatment with CB1 receptor antagonist was shown to decrease this effect.[3] In humans, marijuana use causes tachycardia, peripheral vasodilation, postural hypotension, and elevation in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in supine position. Tachycardia is believed to be a result of increased sympathetic nervous system activity after marijuana use.[7] Other proposed mechanisms for this effect are the inhibition of parasympathetic innervation to the heart and reflex tachycardia from vasodilation. Elevated norepinephrine levels and augmentation of left ventricular function was observed after marijuana use.[8] However, in a study in patients with CAD and angina, marijuana use was shown to decrease end diastolic volume, stroke index, and ejection fraction without causing any change in end systolic volume or cardiac index.[9] Chemical compounds in the Cannabis plant, including 400 different CBs such as THC, allow its drug to have various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.[10] Different plants of the genus Cannabis contain different and often unpredictable concentrations of THC and other CBs and hundreds of other molecules that have a pharmacological effect.[11] Acute effects while under the influence can include euphoria and anxiety. Although some assert that Cannabidiol (CBD), another CB found in Cannabis in varying amounts, may alleviate the adverse effects of THC that some users experience. Little is known about CBD’s effects on humans. The well-controlled studies with humans have a hard time showing that CBD can be distinguished from placebo or that it has any systematic effect on the adverse effects of Cannabis. When ingested orally, THC can produce stronger psychotropic effects than when inhaled. At doses exceeding the psychotropic threshold, users may experience adverse side effects such as anxiety and panic attacks that can result in increased heart rate and changes in blood pressure.[12] The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of Cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long- term effects. The cardiovascular effects of Cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia as well as increases the risk of MI.It is a potential cause of sudden death. These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption.[8] Despite the considerable research in this field, the effects and benefits of Cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remain questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude toward recreational consumption and promotion of therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with Cannabis use and disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects. Hence, the reason for this research on Cardiac Enzyme Responses among Marijuana Smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty marijuana smokers (males) aged 20–40 years attending Federal Medical Centre Owerri were involved in this study. Furthermore, 20 apparently non-smokers aged 20–40 years were used as control. Their consent was obtained as well as ethical approval from the Ethical committee of the hospital. Sample Collection Five milliliters of blood sample were collected by standard venipuncture method[13] from each participant and were dispensed into dry bottle. This was centrifuged to get the serum for the analysis cardiac enzymes. The serum cardiac enzymes were determined by spectrophotometricmethod:Creatinekinase(CK) (Lawrence, 1984) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).[14]
  • 3. Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 15 Statistical Analysis The values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The significant difference between the mean value of the control and experimental group was determined by one-way analysis of variance with post hoc t-test. P 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Table 1 shows that the mean ± standard deviation of AST significantly increased in the test when compared with the control at P ˂ 0.05. Furthermore, the level of CK was significantly increased in marijuana smokers when compared with the control at P ˂ 0.05. DISCUSSION Marijuana is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes.[15] The main psychoactive part of Cannabis is THC, one of the 483 known compounds in the plant. It can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract. However, it has mental and physical, such as creating a “high” feeling, a general change in perception, heightened mood, and an increase in appetite, the onset of effects is felt within minutes when smoked and about 30–60 min when cooked and eaten which last for 2–6 h.[16] In this study, the level of AST was significantly increased in marijuana smokers when compared with the control. This is in agreement with the study carried out by Yakubu et al.[17] The increase in AST could be linked to damage of heart tissue. AST is localized within the cells of liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain, and red blood cells. The enzyme is an important marker for monitoring liver cytolysis and MI. However, AST levels are influenced by various pathological conditions, such as acute pancreatitis, acute hemolytic anemia, severe burns, acute renal disease, musculoskeletal diseases, and trauma. Furthermore, the increase in AST could be linked with oxidative stress in which free radicals are released. This is in line with the work of Yakubu et al.[17] Furthermore, it was observed in this study that marijuana smokers have significantly higher CK levels compared with the levels in the control group. This is in consonant with the study carried out by Uboh,[18] who observed that marijuana smoking increases the activity of cardiac enzymes such as CK, AST, and lactate dehydrogenase. The results of the present study showed that the use of marijuana caused significant alterations in biochemical parameters of cardiac function. CONCLUSION The results of the present study indicated that the values of AST and CK were increased in marijuana smokers. This implies that marijuana smoking could be associated with MI. REFERENCES 1. Azofeifa A, Mattson ME, Schauer G, McAfee T, Grant A, Lyerla R. National estimates of marijuana use and related indicators national survey on drug use and health, United States, 2002-2014. MMWR Surveill Summit 2016;65:1-28. 2. Franz CA, Frishman WH. Marijuana use and cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Revis 2016;24:158-62. 3. Jiang LS, Pu J, Han ZH, Hu LH, He B. Role of activated endocannabinoid system in regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism in macrophages. Cardiovasc Res 2012;81:805-13. 4. Yuan M, Kiertscher SM, Cheng Q, Zoumalan R, Tashkin DP, Roth MD. Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol regulates Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in activated human T cells. J Neuroimmunol 2013;133:124-31. 5. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Haskó G, Huffman JW, Mackie K, Pacher P. CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonists attenuate TNF- alpha-induced human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Br J Pharmacol 2011;153:347-57. 6. Tiyerili V, Zimmer S, Jung S. CB1 receptor inhibition leads to decreased vascular AT1 receptor expression, inhibition of oxidative stress and improved endothelial function. Basic Res Cardiol 2010;105:465-77. 7. Beaconsfield P, Ginsburg J, Rainsbury R. Marijuana smoking, cardiovascular effects in man and possible mechanisms. N Engl J Med 2010;287:209-12. 8. Gash A, Karliner JS, Janowsky D, Lake CR. Effects of smoking marijuana on left ventricular performance and plasma norepinephrine: Studies in normal men. Ann Intern Med 2011;89:448-52. 9. Prakash R,Aronow WS, Warren M, Laverty W, Gottschalk LA. Effects of marijuana and placebo marijuana smoking on hemodynamics in coronary disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010;18:90-5. 10. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Soydaner U, Öztürk E, Schibano D, Simsir Y, Navarro P, et al. Evolution of the cannabinoid and terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants from different chemotypes. J Nat Prod 2016;79:324-31. 11. Brenneisen R. Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and other Cannabis Constituents. Forensic Science and Medicine. Totowa: Humana Press; 2007. p. 17-49. 12. Haney M, Malcolm RJ, Babalonis S, Nuzzo PA, Cooper ZD, Table 1: Mean prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in first, second, thirdtrimesters and non-pregnancy females (control) Parameter Test Control P value AST (IU/L) 44.49±5.18* 28.28±6.12 P˂0.05 CK-MB (IU/L) 295.84±6.58* 110.03±11.80 P˂0.05 AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, CK: Creatine kinase, Key*Significantly increased when compared with the control at P˂0.05
  • 4. Nnodim et al.: Cardiac enzyme responses in marijuana smokers 16 Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 1  •  2020 Bedi G, et al. Oral cannabidiol does not alter the subjective, reinforcing or cardiovascular effects of smoked cannabis. Neuropsychopharmacology 2016;41:1974-82. 13. Lawrence S Determination of cardiac enzymes Am J ClinPathol 1984;14:79-85. 14. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;83:56-63. 15. Vij K. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Principles and Practice. India: Elsevier; 2012. p. 672. 16. Riviello RJ. Manual of Forensic Emergency Medicine:AGuide for Clinicians. Sudbury: Mass Jones and Barlett Publishers; 2010. p. 41. 17. Yakubu MT, Akanii MA, Salau LO. Evaluation of selected parameters of heart, liver and kidney in humans and rats. 2001;2:50-6. 18. Uboh A. Toxicological effects of cannabis in rats and humans. Int J Toxicol 2012;4:40-5. How to cite this article: Nnodim J, Chidozie UR, Magnus N, Joseph NC, Ukamaka E. Cardiac Enzyme ResponsesamongMarijuanaSmokers.JClinCardiolDiagn 2020;3(1):13-16.