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Carbon Footprints
and
Carbon Credit
By
Kanhaya lal kumawat
UDCT MUMBAI
OVERVIEW
1.Introduction
1.1 Greenhouse gases
1.2 Classification of greenhouse
2.Carbon footprints
3.Types of carbon footprints
4.Why calculate carbon footprint?
5.Calculating a carbon footprint
6.Reduction of carbon footprints
7.Glossary
8.Carbon credits
gases
2
Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major
challenge.
Greenhouse gas emissions are the driving force behind
climate change.
Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse gases are those which contribute
are:
to the
greenhouse effect . The six regulated gases
•
•
•
•
•
•
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
The most influential greenhouse gas for climate
carbon dioxide (CO2).
change is
3
Where does all the Carbon dioxide come from?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released when we burn carbon based
fuels.
Almost all fuels are carbon-based, including:
 Petrol and diesel in our cars, vans and generators.
 Electricity generated from fossil fuel power stations.
 Coal, oil and gas in our power stations (and businesses).
 Jet fuel in aero planes.
Virtually all human activities cause CO2 emissions that lead
climate change.
Hence every person is responsible for CO2 emissions.
So in actual its ‘carbon dioxide footprint’.
to
4
Effect of greenhouse gases on environment
 Easily trap the sun's heat.
 Keep the earth warm.
 Too much gases in the air leads to climate change, what we
call Global warming.
 Methane and nitrous oxide have high heat-trapping
to carbon dioxide.
 But major role is played by carbon dioxide.
Classification of greenhouse gases
capacity
 Direct emissions that result from activities of the
organisation controls.
 Indirect emissions from the use of electricity.
 Indirect emissions from products and services.
5
Classification of Greenhouse gases
6
CARBON FOOTPRINT
 The total amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions for which an individual or organization is
responsible.
 Usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide
(CO2).
 Calculated for events or products also.
 An organization's footprint includes
a. Direct emissions sources (e.g. direct use of fuels)
b. Indirect impacts (e.g. from the extended supply chain)
 When calculating an organization's footprint it is
important to include the full range of emissions.
7
TYPE OF FOOTPRINTS
8
WHY CALCULATEACARBON
FOOTPRINT?
Two reasons for an organisation to calculate its carbon
footprint:
 To manage the footprint and reduce emissions over time.
 To report the footprint accurately to a third party.
1. To manage the footprint and reduce emissions
over time
 Opportunities for
prioritized.
reduction can be identified and
 This approach is relatively quick and straightforward.
 More focusing on the areas of greatest savings potential.
9
2.To report the footprint accurately to a third
party.
Organizations increasingly want to calculate their
carbon footprint. The reasons are
 For Marketing and/or Corporate Social Responsibility
purposes.
 To fulfill requests from business or retail
from investors.
customers, or
 To ascertain what level of emissions they need to offset
in order to become ‘carbon neutral’.
10
CALCULATING A CARBON
FOOTPRINT
Abasic approach to carbon footprinting
 Calculation of a basic carbon footprint is a fairly quick
exercise.
 There are many simple calculators available on the
web.
 Cover direct emissions, but exclude some of the indirect
emissions.
 There are usually a handful of major emissions
that must be quantified, including:
1.Onsite fuel usage
2.Onsite electricity usage
3.Use of transport which you own.
sources
11
Key information to calculate carbon footprint
Collect data from all utility meters.
Record the
vehicles.
distances travelled by the organization's
Convert the fuel, electricity and transport consumption
figures to CO2 by using the standard emissions factors.
Once the basic carbon footprint has been established, it is
then possible to take steps to manage the emissions:
 Set and agree efficiency or emissions reduction targets.
 Identify likely opportunities for efficiency or emissions
reduction.
 Prioritize the opportunities, based on environmental or
financial criteria.
 Take action to implement the opportunities.
 Monitor the performance of the actions taken and improve
as necessary. 12
Producing a full carbon footprint
Accurate calculation of carbon footprint requires
More detailed approach
Specialist advice
The steps below show a systematic approach for
an accurate carbon footprint:
producing
1.
2.
3.
4.
Methodology
Boundary and scope of coverage
Collect emissions data and calculate
Verify results (optional)
the footprint
5. Disclose the footprint (optional).
13
METHODOLOGY
Methodology of a company must be clearly defined.
Importance
For a footprint to be repeatable and accurate there must be
a consistency.
In a large industry it is important, as many individuals help
collectively.
Commonly used methodologies are
1. GHG Protocol which provides detailed guidance on
corporate emissions reporting.
2. International Organization for Standardization, ISO
140645, also provides guidance on corporate footprint
calculation and emissions reporting.
14
BOUNDARY AND SCOPE OF
COVERAGE
The parts of the organization included in the process is
referred to as ‘boundary’of the footprint.
Normally this includes
The full range of
directly.
emissions that the organisation controls
Typically
assets.
(but not always) includes subsidiaries and leased
15
COLLECT EMISSIONS DATA
The next step is to consider what types of emissions will be
included. It may include collecting information on
 Onsite fuel consumption.
 Owned transport utilization.
 Emissions from chemical reactions in manufacturing
processes or from land use or agricultural activities.
 Electricity consumption.
 Employee travel by air,
the organization.
 Suppliers’emissions.
rail and in vehicles not owned by
16
VERIFY RESULTS
Verification is done by an independent third
Verification typically involves
 Analysis of the methodology.
 Data collection techniques.
 Calculation process.
party.
Different levels of assurance or
available.
verification of results are
Greater levels of assurance or verification is more
expensive to achieve
17
DISCLOSE THE FOOTPRINT
If the footprint is to be disclosed in advertising material,
following information is made available:
 Methodology used to calculate the footprint.
 Boundary conditions .
 Types of emissions are included and excluded.
 The data collection techniques.
 Any assumptions or estimates that were used through
process.
 The level of verification of the results provided by
independent third parties.
the
the
18
REDUCING CARBON FOOTPRINT
At no cost
Energy
 Promoting energy awareness to all employees and
encourage them to turn off lighting when not in use.
 Unplug battery chargers when the tool is charged.
 Maximise the use of daylight, do not turn lights on when
daylight is sufficient.
 Remove obstructions from radiators.
 Turn off heating when doors or roller shutter doors are
open.
19
Low to medium cost
Energy
 Replace all lamps and tubes with low energy versions.
 Consider installing movement and daylight sensors in
areas frequently used such as corridors, toilets and
storage areas.
 Draught proof windows and doors.
 Increase loft insulation.
 Ensure boilers are maintained and serviced.
20
Long term investment
Energy
Consider installing micro-generation at business premises.
Replace single glazed windows with double glazed
alternatives.
Choose energy efficient equipment and tools.
Replace old boilers with modern energy efficient
alternatives.
Fit an insulated suspended ceiling
with high ceilings.
in rooms or workshops
Fuel
Choose fuel efficient vehicles
21
GLOSSARY
Assurance
The process of an independent third party checking the
methodology, data and calculation processes to ensure that
they are robust.
Carbon neutral
Terminology for something having net zero emissions (for
example, an organisation or product).
Emissions conversion factor
Enables a conversion to be made from the input measure of
energy to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that will
result.
22
The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol
Awidely used standard for emissions reporting.
Covers project emissions reporting and corporate emissions
reporting.
The corporate emissions reporting standard provides a
methodology for calculation of a carbon footprint.
ISO 140645
ISO 140645 is an international standard for corporate
emissions reporting.
It builds
Protocol.
on the approach outlined in the Greenhouse Gas
23
CARBON CREDITS
Certificates issued to countries those reduce their emission
of greenhouse gases (GHG) which causes global warming.
Came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of
the need for controlling emissions.


Key points
One Carbon Credit is equal to one ton of Carbon Dioxide
Methane and nitrous oxide have approximately 21 times
and 310 times, respectively, the heat-trapping capacity of
carbon dioxide.
Reducing methane by one ton is equivalent to reducing
carbon dioxide by 21 tons.



24
ROLE OF CARBON CREDITS IN
EMISSION REDUCTION
gas emission for Limit for greenhouse every
organization is fixed.
 Anyone who exceeds that limit has to pay heavy fine.
 So to reduce the greenhouse gas emission some
programs were made
1. To invest in CDM (Clean Development
Mechanism) project.
To buy carbon credits2. i.e. carbon trading
25
Invest in CDM
 To sell technology to a developed country by a
developing country.
 Get the credits obtained by the use of that technology.
Carbon Trading
If the companies fall short of the emission targets, they
can buy those from the market, from someone who was
successful in meeting those targets and has a surplus of
carbon units with them.
At last what
gas emission
same.
obtained is the reduction in the greenhouse
and overall limit in the market remains the
26
CARBON CREDIT IN INDIA
 India had 310 ‘eco-friendly’projects awaiting approval last
counted in 2006.
 Once cleared, these projects
crore in the next seven years.
 India’s carbon credit market
can fetch about Rs 29,000
is growing, as many players
(industries) are
Mechanism (CDM).
adopting the Clean Development
 US accounts for 30 per cent of global emissions, while
India makes for three per cent.
 Now, India can transfer part
developed countries
of its allowed emissions to
27
Organizations involved in carbon trading
 Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation
Ltd. (KPTCL).
 R&S Carbon Trading Ltd. USA.
 Renesola China.
 Universal Display, USA.
 Tata Chemicals, Mumbai, India.
 ISAPower, India.
are
 ITC Paperboards & Specialty Papers,
 Orient Green Power, India.
 Green Ventures International, India.
India.
28
CONCLUSION
 It can be concluded that carbon footprints as well as
carbon credits carries an importance in our daily life.
 Everyone should realize its effect and should try to
protect the nature from its adverse effects.
 The carbon credit business is a rapidly changing
business, and people should be aware that
programs
market rates,
protocols,
quickly.
and registration can change
29
THANKS
31

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Carbon footprints

  • 2. OVERVIEW 1.Introduction 1.1 Greenhouse gases 1.2 Classification of greenhouse 2.Carbon footprints 3.Types of carbon footprints 4.Why calculate carbon footprint? 5.Calculating a carbon footprint 6.Reduction of carbon footprints 7.Glossary 8.Carbon credits gases 2
  • 3. Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major challenge. Greenhouse gas emissions are the driving force behind climate change. Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases are those which contribute are: to the greenhouse effect . The six regulated gases • • • • • • Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) The most influential greenhouse gas for climate carbon dioxide (CO2). change is 3
  • 4. Where does all the Carbon dioxide come from? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released when we burn carbon based fuels. Almost all fuels are carbon-based, including:  Petrol and diesel in our cars, vans and generators.  Electricity generated from fossil fuel power stations.  Coal, oil and gas in our power stations (and businesses).  Jet fuel in aero planes. Virtually all human activities cause CO2 emissions that lead climate change. Hence every person is responsible for CO2 emissions. So in actual its ‘carbon dioxide footprint’. to 4
  • 5. Effect of greenhouse gases on environment  Easily trap the sun's heat.  Keep the earth warm.  Too much gases in the air leads to climate change, what we call Global warming.  Methane and nitrous oxide have high heat-trapping to carbon dioxide.  But major role is played by carbon dioxide. Classification of greenhouse gases capacity  Direct emissions that result from activities of the organisation controls.  Indirect emissions from the use of electricity.  Indirect emissions from products and services. 5
  • 7. CARBON FOOTPRINT  The total amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for which an individual or organization is responsible.  Usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).  Calculated for events or products also.  An organization's footprint includes a. Direct emissions sources (e.g. direct use of fuels) b. Indirect impacts (e.g. from the extended supply chain)  When calculating an organization's footprint it is important to include the full range of emissions. 7
  • 9. WHY CALCULATEACARBON FOOTPRINT? Two reasons for an organisation to calculate its carbon footprint:  To manage the footprint and reduce emissions over time.  To report the footprint accurately to a third party. 1. To manage the footprint and reduce emissions over time  Opportunities for prioritized. reduction can be identified and  This approach is relatively quick and straightforward.  More focusing on the areas of greatest savings potential. 9
  • 10. 2.To report the footprint accurately to a third party. Organizations increasingly want to calculate their carbon footprint. The reasons are  For Marketing and/or Corporate Social Responsibility purposes.  To fulfill requests from business or retail from investors. customers, or  To ascertain what level of emissions they need to offset in order to become ‘carbon neutral’. 10
  • 11. CALCULATING A CARBON FOOTPRINT Abasic approach to carbon footprinting  Calculation of a basic carbon footprint is a fairly quick exercise.  There are many simple calculators available on the web.  Cover direct emissions, but exclude some of the indirect emissions.  There are usually a handful of major emissions that must be quantified, including: 1.Onsite fuel usage 2.Onsite electricity usage 3.Use of transport which you own. sources 11
  • 12. Key information to calculate carbon footprint Collect data from all utility meters. Record the vehicles. distances travelled by the organization's Convert the fuel, electricity and transport consumption figures to CO2 by using the standard emissions factors. Once the basic carbon footprint has been established, it is then possible to take steps to manage the emissions:  Set and agree efficiency or emissions reduction targets.  Identify likely opportunities for efficiency or emissions reduction.  Prioritize the opportunities, based on environmental or financial criteria.  Take action to implement the opportunities.  Monitor the performance of the actions taken and improve as necessary. 12
  • 13. Producing a full carbon footprint Accurate calculation of carbon footprint requires More detailed approach Specialist advice The steps below show a systematic approach for an accurate carbon footprint: producing 1. 2. 3. 4. Methodology Boundary and scope of coverage Collect emissions data and calculate Verify results (optional) the footprint 5. Disclose the footprint (optional). 13
  • 14. METHODOLOGY Methodology of a company must be clearly defined. Importance For a footprint to be repeatable and accurate there must be a consistency. In a large industry it is important, as many individuals help collectively. Commonly used methodologies are 1. GHG Protocol which provides detailed guidance on corporate emissions reporting. 2. International Organization for Standardization, ISO 140645, also provides guidance on corporate footprint calculation and emissions reporting. 14
  • 15. BOUNDARY AND SCOPE OF COVERAGE The parts of the organization included in the process is referred to as ‘boundary’of the footprint. Normally this includes The full range of directly. emissions that the organisation controls Typically assets. (but not always) includes subsidiaries and leased 15
  • 16. COLLECT EMISSIONS DATA The next step is to consider what types of emissions will be included. It may include collecting information on  Onsite fuel consumption.  Owned transport utilization.  Emissions from chemical reactions in manufacturing processes or from land use or agricultural activities.  Electricity consumption.  Employee travel by air, the organization.  Suppliers’emissions. rail and in vehicles not owned by 16
  • 17. VERIFY RESULTS Verification is done by an independent third Verification typically involves  Analysis of the methodology.  Data collection techniques.  Calculation process. party. Different levels of assurance or available. verification of results are Greater levels of assurance or verification is more expensive to achieve 17
  • 18. DISCLOSE THE FOOTPRINT If the footprint is to be disclosed in advertising material, following information is made available:  Methodology used to calculate the footprint.  Boundary conditions .  Types of emissions are included and excluded.  The data collection techniques.  Any assumptions or estimates that were used through process.  The level of verification of the results provided by independent third parties. the the 18
  • 19. REDUCING CARBON FOOTPRINT At no cost Energy  Promoting energy awareness to all employees and encourage them to turn off lighting when not in use.  Unplug battery chargers when the tool is charged.  Maximise the use of daylight, do not turn lights on when daylight is sufficient.  Remove obstructions from radiators.  Turn off heating when doors or roller shutter doors are open. 19
  • 20. Low to medium cost Energy  Replace all lamps and tubes with low energy versions.  Consider installing movement and daylight sensors in areas frequently used such as corridors, toilets and storage areas.  Draught proof windows and doors.  Increase loft insulation.  Ensure boilers are maintained and serviced. 20
  • 21. Long term investment Energy Consider installing micro-generation at business premises. Replace single glazed windows with double glazed alternatives. Choose energy efficient equipment and tools. Replace old boilers with modern energy efficient alternatives. Fit an insulated suspended ceiling with high ceilings. in rooms or workshops Fuel Choose fuel efficient vehicles 21
  • 22. GLOSSARY Assurance The process of an independent third party checking the methodology, data and calculation processes to ensure that they are robust. Carbon neutral Terminology for something having net zero emissions (for example, an organisation or product). Emissions conversion factor Enables a conversion to be made from the input measure of energy to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that will result. 22
  • 23. The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Awidely used standard for emissions reporting. Covers project emissions reporting and corporate emissions reporting. The corporate emissions reporting standard provides a methodology for calculation of a carbon footprint. ISO 140645 ISO 140645 is an international standard for corporate emissions reporting. It builds Protocol. on the approach outlined in the Greenhouse Gas 23
  • 24. CARBON CREDITS Certificates issued to countries those reduce their emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) which causes global warming. Came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of the need for controlling emissions.   Key points One Carbon Credit is equal to one ton of Carbon Dioxide Methane and nitrous oxide have approximately 21 times and 310 times, respectively, the heat-trapping capacity of carbon dioxide. Reducing methane by one ton is equivalent to reducing carbon dioxide by 21 tons.    24
  • 25. ROLE OF CARBON CREDITS IN EMISSION REDUCTION gas emission for Limit for greenhouse every organization is fixed.  Anyone who exceeds that limit has to pay heavy fine.  So to reduce the greenhouse gas emission some programs were made 1. To invest in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project. To buy carbon credits2. i.e. carbon trading 25
  • 26. Invest in CDM  To sell technology to a developed country by a developing country.  Get the credits obtained by the use of that technology. Carbon Trading If the companies fall short of the emission targets, they can buy those from the market, from someone who was successful in meeting those targets and has a surplus of carbon units with them. At last what gas emission same. obtained is the reduction in the greenhouse and overall limit in the market remains the 26
  • 27. CARBON CREDIT IN INDIA  India had 310 ‘eco-friendly’projects awaiting approval last counted in 2006.  Once cleared, these projects crore in the next seven years.  India’s carbon credit market can fetch about Rs 29,000 is growing, as many players (industries) are Mechanism (CDM). adopting the Clean Development  US accounts for 30 per cent of global emissions, while India makes for three per cent.  Now, India can transfer part developed countries of its allowed emissions to 27
  • 28. Organizations involved in carbon trading  Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Ltd. (KPTCL).  R&S Carbon Trading Ltd. USA.  Renesola China.  Universal Display, USA.  Tata Chemicals, Mumbai, India.  ISAPower, India. are  ITC Paperboards & Specialty Papers,  Orient Green Power, India.  Green Ventures International, India. India. 28
  • 29. CONCLUSION  It can be concluded that carbon footprints as well as carbon credits carries an importance in our daily life.  Everyone should realize its effect and should try to protect the nature from its adverse effects.  The carbon credit business is a rapidly changing business, and people should be aware that programs market rates, protocols, quickly. and registration can change 29