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The Carbon Cycle Most of you is water.  But a surprising part of the rest of you is carbon! This is you, without water - a lump of Carbon
What’s so Special About Carbon? Carbon is one of the most important elements in the earth system.  The carbon atom has four valence electrons and has the ability to form bonds with as many as four other atoms including other carbon atoms. C e- e- e- e- e- e-
What’s so Special About Carbon? Carbon can readily bond with almost any element on the periodic table.  Carbon is unparalleled among elements in its ability to bond with itself almost indefinitely, forming carbon chains, loops and braches. What's more, the bonds forged between carbon atoms are very, very strong.
Why is Carbon so Important? All life, from a whale to a redwood tree, down to a lady bug, to an amoeba, down to our cells, even to the components inside our cells — all of it contains carbon.  Carbon is the “duct tape of life,” It holds us together. Carbon is the main source of food energy. When you eat carbon molecules (plants and animals), the digestive juices in your stomach break the carbon bonds inside and release the energy in the form of calories.
Why is Carbon so Important? 3.  Hydrocarbon Molecules (coal oil, natural gas) are the primary sources of energy in our modern society. 4.  Carbon Molecules (CO 2  and CH 4 ) in the atmosphere are greenhouse gasses and are play a key role in climate change.
The Carbon Cycle Carbon atoms continually move through living organisms, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the rocks that make up the earth system. This movement is known as the carbon cycle.  The paths taken by carbon atoms through this cycle are extremely complex, and may take years to millions of years to come full circle.   In the cycle there are various sinks, or stores, of carbon and fluxes, or processes, by which the various sinks exchange carbon on various time scales.
The Carbon Cycle Dissolution Plants Phytoplankton   “ Biomass” Fossil  Fuels Decomposition Respiration Combustion Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Rocks Carbon In Ocean Water Weathering Tectonics Evaporation Lithification Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” Photosynthesis Boxes are carbon sinks  Arrows are carbon fluxes Consumption
Atmospheric Carbon Carbon is found in the atmosphere mainly as Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) with a smaller amounts of Methane (CH 4 ). About 750 billion tons (Gt) of carbon is stored in earth’s atmosphere. This may seem a lot but carbon is considered a trace gas in the atmosphere because it is much less abundant than oxygen or nitrogen.  However, this trace gas plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth and in controlling the Earth's climate by trapping heat in the atmosphere.
Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric CO 2  resides in the atmosphere for about 100 years before it interacts with other parts of the earth in four subcylces:   Rock Subcycle Ocean Subcycle Biological Subcycle Fossil Fuel Subcycle Review the diagrams on the next slides. Note the type and amount of stored carbon, and times scales involved in these subcycles.
Carbon Sinks Amount of stored carbon in Billions of Metric Tons (Gt) Note type of Carbon Molecule (State of Matter) CH 2 O  (solid or liquid) Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton  “ Biomass” 600 (Gt) Fossil  Fuels 10,000 (Gt) Carbon In Atmosphere 750 Gt Carbon  In Rocks 100,000,000 (Gt) Carbon In Ocean Water 40,000 (Gt) Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” 1600 Gt H 2 CO 3  (liquid) CO 2   CH 4  (gas) CaCO 3  (solid) CH 2 O  (solid) C x H x  (solid or liquid)
Time Scales Plants Phytoplankton  Fossil  Fuels Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon  In Rocks Carbon In Ocean Water Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment Biological Subcycle Short Term Days - Years Ocean Subcycle Short Term 10’s - 100’s of Years Fossil Fuel Subcycle Long Term Millions of Years Fossil Fuel Subcycle Short Term 10’s of Years Rock Subcycle Long Term Millions of Years
Rock Subcycle Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with water vapor to form carbonic acid. CO 2  + H 2 O    H 2 CO 3  (carbonic acid) This chemical weathers (breaks down) rocks (CaSiO 3 )   and the carbon forms calcium carbonate (CaCO 3,  the mineral calcite)   which dissolves in rainwater and is carried to the oceans.  CaSiO 3  + H 2 CO 3     H 2 O + CaCO 3  + SiO 2 Precipitation, warm temperatures and vegetation enhance rates of chemical weathering.  In the ocean, the carbon,  CaCO 3  precipitates out of the ocean water, forming layers of sediment on the sea floor.
Rock Subcycle
Rock Subcycle As the Earth’s plates move, through the processes of plate tectonics, the CaCO 3  sediments are subducted underneath the continents.  Under the great heat and pressure far below the Earth’s surface, the sediment melts and reacts with other minerals, releasing carbon dioxide.  The carbon is then re-emitted into the atmosphere as CO 2  through volcanic eruptions.  Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Rocks Weathering Tectonics
Rock Subcycle
Rock Subcycle The rock subcycle contains the largest amount of stored carbon and is a long-term cycle (millions of years time scale). Earth’s greenhouse effect has been regulated by the rock subcycle throughout geologic time.  Often referred to as Earth’s  Thermostat . During times of extreme heat due to an increase in volcanic eruptions, increased chemical weathering have lowered the earth's temperature. Extreme cold periods are interrupted by an increase in volcanism and can be moderated by a decrease in chemical weathering.
Ocean Subcycle CO 2  from the atmosphere dissolves into cold surface ocean water (producing carbonic acid) at high latitudes.  CO 2  + H 2 O    H 2 CO 3 The carbon is carried to the deep ocean by sinking currents, where it stays for hundreds of years.  Eventually mixing brings the carbon back to the surface at the low latitude tropics.  The carbon in the warm tropical oceans will evaporate back into the atmosphere as CO 2 .   Dissolution Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Ocean Water Evaporation
Ocean Subcycle The ocean subcycle contains the second largest amount of stored carbon and is relatively short-term cycle (ten to hundred years time scale). Because of the temperature differences, the warm surface ocean contains 2,000 Gt carbon while the cold deep oceans contains 38,000 Gt of carbon. As the oceans warm they will be able to store less carbon,  thus increasing the amount of CO 2  in the atmosphere. Dissolution Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Ocean Water Evaporation
Ocean Subcycle The map on the next slide shows the annual mean sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration for the present day. Note the correlation between low surface ocean temperature (at poles) and high carbon concentrations (blue/violet) and high surface ocean temperatures (at equator) and low carbon concentrations (brown/orange).
Ocean Subcycle
Ocean – Carbon Dioxide Feedback During colder climate periods, atmospheric CO 2  dissolves and accumulates in the oceans.  Less atmospheric CO 2  makes the climate even colder, thus allowing more dissolution which makes the climate colder and so on…... In warmer climates, CO 2  evaporates from the ocean into the atmosphere. More atmospheric CO 2  makes the climate even warmer, thus allowing more evaporation which makes the climate warmer and so on…...
Biological Subcycle Producers are organisms that produce their own organic compounds using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The most important producer for the carbon cycle are plants on land and phytoplankton in the Earth's oceans.  Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton  “ Biomass” Carbon In Atmosphere Photosynthesis
Biological Subcycle Carbon in the form of CO 2  is removed from the atmosphere and stored in producers thorough the process of  photosynthesis. CO 2  + H 2 O    CH 2 O + O 2 This requires energy derived from radiation in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. CH 2 O is a simple carbohydrate (a “sugar” or “carb”) which stored by the organism for energy.  Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton  “ Biomass” Carbon In Atmosphere Photosynthesis
Biological Subcycle A consumer is an organism that consumes producers and uses their stored carbon for growth  Carbon from plants can be consumed and digested by animals (Consumers) or become part of the organic matter component of soil. Phytoplankton is consumed by marine life and accumulates on the ocean bottom sediments after the death of the consumers.   The biomass (carbohydrates) from the producers after consumption or death is called “organic matter.” Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” Consumption
Biological Subcycle Carbon is released back into the atmosphere from organic matter by on a short term time scale (from days to years) through the processes of Respiration and Decomposition Burning of biomass and/or organic matter can also transfer substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere  Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2  and CH 4 Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
Biological Subcycle Respiration CH 2 O + O 2     CO 2  + H 2 O Aerobic Reaction (Requires Oxygen) Occurs in consumers of plants (animals and bacteria) when stored energy in organic carbon molecule is utilized. Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2  and CH 4 Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
Biological Subcycle Decomposition 2CH 2 O     CO 2  + CH 4 Anaerobic Reaction (No Oxygen) Occurs in low oxygen and oxygen-free  environments (soils, ocean floor, mammal intestines, landfills) where anaerobic bacteria and fungi ferment the organic material.  Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2  and CH 4 Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
Biological Subcycle Carbon returns to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and methane (CH 4 ). Methane will react with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce carbon dioxide and water. CH 4  + O 2    CO 2  +   H 2 O CH 4  last only 10 years in the atmosphere before becoming CO 2   Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2  and CH 4 Consumers, Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
What are Fossil Fuels? Fossil =  Preserved remains of past life Fuel =  Substance combusted to produce energy (mainly thermal)
The Importance of Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels deliver  lots  of energy in a  small  volume  Gasoline:115,000 BTU/gal = 22 X10 6  Joules/lb Coal: 15,000 BTU/lb  =  15 X10 6  Joules/lb Compare to: Wood: 7,500 BTU/lb  = 7.5 X10 6  Joules/lb  A “horse” (working 1 hour)  =  2.5 X10 6  Joules A human (working 1 hour) =  0.2 X10 6  Joules Our Modern Civilization has been built upon abundant, cheap, high energy fossil fuels!!!
Fossil Fuel Subcycle On longer time scales (millions of years), the organic material buried in sediments undergoes lithification and becomes rock. Fossil Fuels form during lithification only if: the concentrations of organic matter are very high in the sediment  the sediment is deposited in an anaerobic (low to no oxygen) environment. Fossil  Fuels Burial and Lithification Soil  Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
Fossil Fuel Subcycle Large tropical swamps and the deep ocean floor are anaerobic environments where large amount of organic material may accumulate.
Fossil Fuel Subcycle Over the course of millions of years, the organic matter is converted to fossil fuels due to the higher temperatures and pressures associated with lithification. Chemically the organic molecules become hydrocarbons  CH 2 O     C x H x  +   O 2 Fossil Fuels derived from Phytoplankton forms  petroleum  (tar, oil and natural gas). Fossil Fuels derived from plants forms  coal.
Fossil Fuel Subcycle Combustion of Fossil Fuels release CO 2  back into the atmosphere. The example below is the combustion of the simplest hydrocarbon molecule, methane ( CH 4 ). Fossil  Fuels Organic  Material Carbon In Atmosphere Combustion Millions  of Years Tens of Years CH 4  + 2O 2     CO 2  + 2H 2 O
Fossil Fuel Subcycle Until recently, the flow of carbon stored in fossil fuels to the atmosphere was minuscule—nearly zero.  The fossil fuel storage represented a “dead-end” for the carbon cycle.  Since the 1800’s, humans have been combusting the 10,000 Gt of carbon that had been stored in fossil fuels for millions of years. This is releasing carbon back into the atmosphere as CO 2  at an alarmingly fast rate.

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Carbon Cycle

  • 1. The Carbon Cycle Most of you is water. But a surprising part of the rest of you is carbon! This is you, without water - a lump of Carbon
  • 2. What’s so Special About Carbon? Carbon is one of the most important elements in the earth system. The carbon atom has four valence electrons and has the ability to form bonds with as many as four other atoms including other carbon atoms. C e- e- e- e- e- e-
  • 3. What’s so Special About Carbon? Carbon can readily bond with almost any element on the periodic table. Carbon is unparalleled among elements in its ability to bond with itself almost indefinitely, forming carbon chains, loops and braches. What's more, the bonds forged between carbon atoms are very, very strong.
  • 4. Why is Carbon so Important? All life, from a whale to a redwood tree, down to a lady bug, to an amoeba, down to our cells, even to the components inside our cells — all of it contains carbon. Carbon is the “duct tape of life,” It holds us together. Carbon is the main source of food energy. When you eat carbon molecules (plants and animals), the digestive juices in your stomach break the carbon bonds inside and release the energy in the form of calories.
  • 5. Why is Carbon so Important? 3. Hydrocarbon Molecules (coal oil, natural gas) are the primary sources of energy in our modern society. 4. Carbon Molecules (CO 2 and CH 4 ) in the atmosphere are greenhouse gasses and are play a key role in climate change.
  • 6. The Carbon Cycle Carbon atoms continually move through living organisms, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the rocks that make up the earth system. This movement is known as the carbon cycle. The paths taken by carbon atoms through this cycle are extremely complex, and may take years to millions of years to come full circle. In the cycle there are various sinks, or stores, of carbon and fluxes, or processes, by which the various sinks exchange carbon on various time scales.
  • 7. The Carbon Cycle Dissolution Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” Fossil Fuels Decomposition Respiration Combustion Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Rocks Carbon In Ocean Water Weathering Tectonics Evaporation Lithification Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” Photosynthesis Boxes are carbon sinks Arrows are carbon fluxes Consumption
  • 8. Atmospheric Carbon Carbon is found in the atmosphere mainly as Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) with a smaller amounts of Methane (CH 4 ). About 750 billion tons (Gt) of carbon is stored in earth’s atmosphere. This may seem a lot but carbon is considered a trace gas in the atmosphere because it is much less abundant than oxygen or nitrogen. However, this trace gas plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth and in controlling the Earth's climate by trapping heat in the atmosphere.
  • 9. Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric CO 2 resides in the atmosphere for about 100 years before it interacts with other parts of the earth in four subcylces: Rock Subcycle Ocean Subcycle Biological Subcycle Fossil Fuel Subcycle Review the diagrams on the next slides. Note the type and amount of stored carbon, and times scales involved in these subcycles.
  • 10. Carbon Sinks Amount of stored carbon in Billions of Metric Tons (Gt) Note type of Carbon Molecule (State of Matter) CH 2 O (solid or liquid) Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” 600 (Gt) Fossil Fuels 10,000 (Gt) Carbon In Atmosphere 750 Gt Carbon In Rocks 100,000,000 (Gt) Carbon In Ocean Water 40,000 (Gt) Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” 1600 Gt H 2 CO 3 (liquid) CO 2 CH 4 (gas) CaCO 3 (solid) CH 2 O (solid) C x H x (solid or liquid)
  • 11. Time Scales Plants Phytoplankton Fossil Fuels Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Rocks Carbon In Ocean Water Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment Biological Subcycle Short Term Days - Years Ocean Subcycle Short Term 10’s - 100’s of Years Fossil Fuel Subcycle Long Term Millions of Years Fossil Fuel Subcycle Short Term 10’s of Years Rock Subcycle Long Term Millions of Years
  • 12. Rock Subcycle Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with water vapor to form carbonic acid. CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid) This chemical weathers (breaks down) rocks (CaSiO 3 ) and the carbon forms calcium carbonate (CaCO 3, the mineral calcite) which dissolves in rainwater and is carried to the oceans. CaSiO 3 + H 2 CO 3  H 2 O + CaCO 3 + SiO 2 Precipitation, warm temperatures and vegetation enhance rates of chemical weathering. In the ocean, the carbon, CaCO 3 precipitates out of the ocean water, forming layers of sediment on the sea floor.
  • 14. Rock Subcycle As the Earth’s plates move, through the processes of plate tectonics, the CaCO 3 sediments are subducted underneath the continents. Under the great heat and pressure far below the Earth’s surface, the sediment melts and reacts with other minerals, releasing carbon dioxide. The carbon is then re-emitted into the atmosphere as CO 2 through volcanic eruptions. Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Rocks Weathering Tectonics
  • 16. Rock Subcycle The rock subcycle contains the largest amount of stored carbon and is a long-term cycle (millions of years time scale). Earth’s greenhouse effect has been regulated by the rock subcycle throughout geologic time. Often referred to as Earth’s Thermostat . During times of extreme heat due to an increase in volcanic eruptions, increased chemical weathering have lowered the earth's temperature. Extreme cold periods are interrupted by an increase in volcanism and can be moderated by a decrease in chemical weathering.
  • 17. Ocean Subcycle CO 2 from the atmosphere dissolves into cold surface ocean water (producing carbonic acid) at high latitudes. CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 The carbon is carried to the deep ocean by sinking currents, where it stays for hundreds of years. Eventually mixing brings the carbon back to the surface at the low latitude tropics. The carbon in the warm tropical oceans will evaporate back into the atmosphere as CO 2 . Dissolution Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Ocean Water Evaporation
  • 18. Ocean Subcycle The ocean subcycle contains the second largest amount of stored carbon and is relatively short-term cycle (ten to hundred years time scale). Because of the temperature differences, the warm surface ocean contains 2,000 Gt carbon while the cold deep oceans contains 38,000 Gt of carbon. As the oceans warm they will be able to store less carbon, thus increasing the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Dissolution Carbon In Atmosphere Carbon In Ocean Water Evaporation
  • 19. Ocean Subcycle The map on the next slide shows the annual mean sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration for the present day. Note the correlation between low surface ocean temperature (at poles) and high carbon concentrations (blue/violet) and high surface ocean temperatures (at equator) and low carbon concentrations (brown/orange).
  • 21. Ocean – Carbon Dioxide Feedback During colder climate periods, atmospheric CO 2 dissolves and accumulates in the oceans. Less atmospheric CO 2 makes the climate even colder, thus allowing more dissolution which makes the climate colder and so on…... In warmer climates, CO 2 evaporates from the ocean into the atmosphere. More atmospheric CO 2 makes the climate even warmer, thus allowing more evaporation which makes the climate warmer and so on…...
  • 22. Biological Subcycle Producers are organisms that produce their own organic compounds using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The most important producer for the carbon cycle are plants on land and phytoplankton in the Earth's oceans. Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” Carbon In Atmosphere Photosynthesis
  • 23. Biological Subcycle Carbon in the form of CO 2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in producers thorough the process of photosynthesis. CO 2 + H 2 O  CH 2 O + O 2 This requires energy derived from radiation in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. CH 2 O is a simple carbohydrate (a “sugar” or “carb”) which stored by the organism for energy. Terrestrial Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” Carbon In Atmosphere Photosynthesis
  • 24. Biological Subcycle A consumer is an organism that consumes producers and uses their stored carbon for growth Carbon from plants can be consumed and digested by animals (Consumers) or become part of the organic matter component of soil. Phytoplankton is consumed by marine life and accumulates on the ocean bottom sediments after the death of the consumers. The biomass (carbohydrates) from the producers after consumption or death is called “organic matter.” Plants Phytoplankton “ Biomass” Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter” Consumption
  • 25. Biological Subcycle Carbon is released back into the atmosphere from organic matter by on a short term time scale (from days to years) through the processes of Respiration and Decomposition Burning of biomass and/or organic matter can also transfer substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2 and CH 4 Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
  • 26. Biological Subcycle Respiration CH 2 O + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O Aerobic Reaction (Requires Oxygen) Occurs in consumers of plants (animals and bacteria) when stored energy in organic carbon molecule is utilized. Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2 and CH 4 Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
  • 27. Biological Subcycle Decomposition 2CH 2 O  CO 2 + CH 4 Anaerobic Reaction (No Oxygen) Occurs in low oxygen and oxygen-free environments (soils, ocean floor, mammal intestines, landfills) where anaerobic bacteria and fungi ferment the organic material. Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2 and CH 4 Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
  • 28. Biological Subcycle Carbon returns to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and methane (CH 4 ). Methane will react with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce carbon dioxide and water. CH 4 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 last only 10 years in the atmosphere before becoming CO 2 Decomposition Respiration Carbon In Atmosphere CO 2 and CH 4 Consumers, Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
  • 29. What are Fossil Fuels? Fossil = Preserved remains of past life Fuel = Substance combusted to produce energy (mainly thermal)
  • 30. The Importance of Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels deliver lots of energy in a small volume Gasoline:115,000 BTU/gal = 22 X10 6 Joules/lb Coal: 15,000 BTU/lb = 15 X10 6 Joules/lb Compare to: Wood: 7,500 BTU/lb = 7.5 X10 6 Joules/lb A “horse” (working 1 hour) = 2.5 X10 6 Joules A human (working 1 hour) = 0.2 X10 6 Joules Our Modern Civilization has been built upon abundant, cheap, high energy fossil fuels!!!
  • 31. Fossil Fuel Subcycle On longer time scales (millions of years), the organic material buried in sediments undergoes lithification and becomes rock. Fossil Fuels form during lithification only if: the concentrations of organic matter are very high in the sediment the sediment is deposited in an anaerobic (low to no oxygen) environment. Fossil Fuels Burial and Lithification Soil Marine Sediment “ Organic Matter”
  • 32. Fossil Fuel Subcycle Large tropical swamps and the deep ocean floor are anaerobic environments where large amount of organic material may accumulate.
  • 33. Fossil Fuel Subcycle Over the course of millions of years, the organic matter is converted to fossil fuels due to the higher temperatures and pressures associated with lithification. Chemically the organic molecules become hydrocarbons CH 2 O  C x H x + O 2 Fossil Fuels derived from Phytoplankton forms petroleum (tar, oil and natural gas). Fossil Fuels derived from plants forms coal.
  • 34. Fossil Fuel Subcycle Combustion of Fossil Fuels release CO 2 back into the atmosphere. The example below is the combustion of the simplest hydrocarbon molecule, methane ( CH 4 ). Fossil Fuels Organic Material Carbon In Atmosphere Combustion Millions of Years Tens of Years CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O
  • 35. Fossil Fuel Subcycle Until recently, the flow of carbon stored in fossil fuels to the atmosphere was minuscule—nearly zero. The fossil fuel storage represented a “dead-end” for the carbon cycle. Since the 1800’s, humans have been combusting the 10,000 Gt of carbon that had been stored in fossil fuels for millions of years. This is releasing carbon back into the atmosphere as CO 2 at an alarmingly fast rate.