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CAPNOGRAPHY
• End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) is the level of carbon dioxide that is
released at the end of an exhaled breath. ETCO2 levels reflect the
adequacy with which carbon dioxide (CO2) is carried in the blood back
to the lungs and exhaled.
• Non-invasive methods for ETCO2 measurement include capnometry and
capnography. Capnometry provides a numerical value for ETCO2. In
contrast, capnography delivers a more comprehensive measurement
that is displayed in both graphical (waveform) and numerical form.
Sidestream devices can monitor both intubated and
non-intubated patients, while mainstream devices are
most often limited to intubated patients.
Capnographs utilize Infrared technology as CO2 molecules
absorb IR light energy of a specific wavelength.
Amount of energy absorbed = CO2 concentration
Types of sensor
Sidestream device Mainstream device
VENTILATION PERFUSION
RELATIONSHIPS
1. SHUNT PERFUSION :- Alveoli perfused but
not ventilated.
2. NORMAL :- Ventilation and perfusion is
matched.
3. DEADSPACE VENTILATION :- Alveoli
ventilated but not perfused.
Normal ETCO2 & PaCO2
gradient ( 2-4 mmHg )
• ARTERIAL CO2 ( PaCO2)
FROM ABG
• NORMAL RANGE :–
35-45 mmHg
• ETCO2 FROM
CAPNOGRAPHY
• NORMAL RAMGE :-
30-40 mmHg
Shunt perfusion causes
• Mucus plugging
• ET tube in rt. Or lt. main stem bronchus
• Atelectasis
• Pneumonia
• Pulmonary oedema
• In short anything that causes the alveoli to
collapse or is alveolar filling
• ETCO2/ PaCO2 GRADIENT = 4-10 mmHg
Dead space ventilation
• Wide ETCO2/ PaCO2 GRADIENT.
• Alveoli that do not take part in gas exchange
will have no CO2.
• Therefore, they will dilute the CO2 from the
alveoli that were perfused.
Dead space ventilation causes
• Pulmonary embolism
• Hypovolemia
• Cardiac arrest
• Shock
• In short anything that causes a significant drop
in pulmonary blood flow.
Why gradient is important ?
• PaCO2/ETCO2 gradient narrows pt. status
improves.
• Helps in determining what caused a drop in
ETCO2.
If ventilation hasn’t changed a sudden and
large drop in ETCO2 indicates a change in
perfusion.
USES OF ETCO2 MONITORING
• To monitor the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest.
• For continuous monitoring of patients in the
emergency roomand ICU.
• During ambulatory transport.
• To confirm the correct placement of an ETT.
• During and after surgery.
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2  .pptx
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CAPNOGRAPHY and CAPNOMETRY/ ETCO2 .pptx

  • 1. CAPNOGRAPHY • End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) is the level of carbon dioxide that is released at the end of an exhaled breath. ETCO2 levels reflect the adequacy with which carbon dioxide (CO2) is carried in the blood back to the lungs and exhaled. • Non-invasive methods for ETCO2 measurement include capnometry and capnography. Capnometry provides a numerical value for ETCO2. In contrast, capnography delivers a more comprehensive measurement that is displayed in both graphical (waveform) and numerical form.
  • 2. Sidestream devices can monitor both intubated and non-intubated patients, while mainstream devices are most often limited to intubated patients.
  • 3. Capnographs utilize Infrared technology as CO2 molecules absorb IR light energy of a specific wavelength. Amount of energy absorbed = CO2 concentration
  • 4. Types of sensor Sidestream device Mainstream device
  • 5. VENTILATION PERFUSION RELATIONSHIPS 1. SHUNT PERFUSION :- Alveoli perfused but not ventilated. 2. NORMAL :- Ventilation and perfusion is matched. 3. DEADSPACE VENTILATION :- Alveoli ventilated but not perfused.
  • 6. Normal ETCO2 & PaCO2 gradient ( 2-4 mmHg ) • ARTERIAL CO2 ( PaCO2) FROM ABG • NORMAL RANGE :– 35-45 mmHg • ETCO2 FROM CAPNOGRAPHY • NORMAL RAMGE :- 30-40 mmHg
  • 7. Shunt perfusion causes • Mucus plugging • ET tube in rt. Or lt. main stem bronchus • Atelectasis • Pneumonia • Pulmonary oedema • In short anything that causes the alveoli to collapse or is alveolar filling • ETCO2/ PaCO2 GRADIENT = 4-10 mmHg
  • 8. Dead space ventilation • Wide ETCO2/ PaCO2 GRADIENT. • Alveoli that do not take part in gas exchange will have no CO2. • Therefore, they will dilute the CO2 from the alveoli that were perfused.
  • 9. Dead space ventilation causes • Pulmonary embolism • Hypovolemia • Cardiac arrest • Shock • In short anything that causes a significant drop in pulmonary blood flow.
  • 10. Why gradient is important ? • PaCO2/ETCO2 gradient narrows pt. status improves. • Helps in determining what caused a drop in ETCO2. If ventilation hasn’t changed a sudden and large drop in ETCO2 indicates a change in perfusion.
  • 11. USES OF ETCO2 MONITORING • To monitor the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest. • For continuous monitoring of patients in the emergency roomand ICU. • During ambulatory transport. • To confirm the correct placement of an ETT. • During and after surgery.