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International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10
88 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Capacity Expansion Banes in Indian Steel Industry
Sushant Kumar1
, Nishtha Singh2
and Ankur Bhadury3
1
Dy. Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA
2
Dy. Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA
3
Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA
1
Corresponding Author- sushant.kumar@sail.in
ABSTRACT
It is a known fact that a large number of Steel
Industry Expansion projects in India have been delayed due
to regulatory clearances, environmental issues and problems
pertaining to land acquisition. Also, there are challenges in
the tendering phase that affect viability of projects thus
delaying implementation, construction phase is beset with
over-runs and disputes and last but not the least; provider
skills are weak all across the value chain. Given the critical
role of Steel Sector in ensuring a sustained growth trajectory
for India, it is imperative that we identify the core issues
affecting completion of infrastructure projects in India and
chalk out initiatives that need to be acted upon in short term
as well as long term.
Keywords-- Project, Management, Steel, Industry,
Challenges
I. INTRODUCTION
The Indian Steel industry plays an integral role in
the growth of the country and its economy and currently
contributes to nearly 2% of the entire National GDP.
Investment in the steel sector has a multiplier effect on the
GDP due to the associated supply chain as well as
consumption-related industries. The iron and steel industry
is a basis for the development of a number of industries in
the global economy: the defense industry, transportation
and heavy engineering, energy and construction (including
aeronautical and shipping construction). Moreover, the
iron and steel industry is closely related to the chemical
industry and light industry. It shows that the iron and steel
industry has the potential to contribute to the
competitiveness of national producers and to the growth of
the national economy. The Indian Steel Industry is
witnessing capacity expansion with top industry players
like Tata Steel, JSW Steel, SAIL, and Arcelor Mittal
among others looking to up the ante and expand
production capacity. Present capacities are shown in Fig. 1.
However, a plethora of issues as shown in Fig. 2 confront
the steel industry projects at the moment ranging from
investment, long term availability of raw materials at
competitive prices, infrastructure to environmental and
logistics related.
Figure 1: Top Players India Installed Capacity (MTPA) Figure 2: Challenges faced by Project (PwC survey)
The project performance in India when compared
to global standards is very poor. Cost over-run in India is
3-4 times global standard whereas planning and
engineering cost is on the lower side compared to
27
19.6 19.4
10 8.6
JSW SAIL TATA Steel Arcelor
Mittal
Nippon Steel
JSPL
Top Players India Installed Capacity
(MTPA)
Installed Capacity (MTPA)
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10
89 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
developed nations. Poor planning in project management is
the number one mistake that leads to project failure as
shown in Fig. 3.
Figure 3: High Cost overrun in India and lesser focus on Planning & Engineering compared to US, UK
II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
III. ISSUES & CHALLENGES IN STEEL PLANT EXPANSION PROJECTS
3.1 Financial Issues
3.1.1 Cost of Capital - The cost of financing steel capacity
expansion is mostly through borrowed capital. The cost of
capital in India is a major hurdle as it is considered to be
extremely high compared to developed nations such as
China, Japan, and Korea. This results in India paying about
USD 30–35 more. Moreover, banks charge 10% interest
on loans to steelmakers, so an additional 1mn t/yr of steel
capacity would require an investment of around $700 mn,
which makes funding capacity expansions an onerous
task. Liquidity crunch in the economy and burden of Non-
Performing Assets on banks are a big challenge as
well. Also, the total outlay required to expand capacity to
300 MT (as per NSP 2017) would be around 10-11 lakh
crore. The total debt component would come nearly INR
7.7 lakh crore. (considering a debt-equity ratio of 2:1)
which will more than double the banking sector’s current
exposure to the steel sector, at around 3.13 lakh crore.
3.1.2 High Import and Logistics Costs - High grade and
value-added steel, used extensively in defense, automobile
and power are currently imported. Also, coking coal, an
important raw material for steel production, is imported as
well. To achieve NSP's steel production of 300 mt, the
coking coal requirement should increase three-fold to 180
million tonnes from 60-70 mt currently. Difficulties in
acquiring mining lease and heavy reliance on import of
coking coal add to the cost of steel production. High
logistics costs are a major constraint as well. Railways are
the preferred mode of transportation for steelmakers. The
freight cost of moving materials through the railways, both
7.5
5
2
USA UK India
Planning & Engineering Cost (% of Project Cost)
Planning & Engineering Cost (% of Project Cost)
8 6
24
USA UK India
Cost Overruns (% of Project Cost)
Cost Overruns (% of Project Cost)
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10
90 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
raw materials and finished steel, is considerably high.
According to NITI Aayog, the Indian steel manufacturers
incur high expenditure and are at a cost disadvantage at
USD 20–25 per tonne of finished steel. The freight cost
from Jamshedpur to Mumbai can be as high as USD
50/tonne in comparison with USD 34/tonne from
Rotterdam to Mumbai.
3.2 Infrastructure and Clearances Issue
3.2.1 Land Acquisition Issue- About 8% of 804 industrial
projects—with a planned investment of Rs 421,062 crore
($67.91 billion)—across India are in limbo because of
land-acquisition problems, according to data released by
the finance ministry. The data complement a 2014
Comptroller and Auditor General Report that says 38% of
land acquired for special economic zones has not been
used. Tata Steel conceived Kalinganagr plant in 2005-2006
but work was delayed owing to land acquisition problems
and could start only in 2010. The delay increased the
project cost.
3.2.2 Statutory Clearance Delays- Ambiguity in area of
responsibility of purchaser & contractor for statutory
clearances statutory authority of all areas including
Environment, Central Electricity Authority, Explosive
safety organization, factory and boiler inspection agencies,
essentiality certificate for project registration. Also
Involvement of railway for relocation and some other
additional requirement from them delayed project due to
long sanction / approval procedure. Posco had entered into
a pact with the Odisha government on June 22, 2005 for
12-billion dollar Jagatsinghpur plant (12 MTPA), which
included iron ore mine development but the project was
called off in 2016 due to environmental regulatory issues
3.2.3 Lack of Indian EPC players in Steel Sector- There
is lack of good equipment manufacturers in the country
leading to heavy dependence on few foreign players like
Danieli, SMS, Paul Wurth, POSCO, PrimeMetals.
Availability of these contractors is a challenge as their
order books are already overbooked. For instance the order
book of one of the largest EPC contractor in India is
overbooked by four times its current capacity. These
situation arises as all steel plants undergo expansion
together with limited resources of EPC contractors.
3.3 Project Management Issues
3.3.1 Scope & Design Change- Most steel projects are
victims of change in project design and scope which often
lead to project delays. Poor project planning coupled with
lack of attention to details leads to prolonged discussions
between project owners and contractors/ vendors. 5his
often leads to project delay despite the well intentioned
efforts to restore to original schedule. 5he contribution of
the market conditions requiring a revision in the project
scope is generally low if a project has been planned well.
In IISCO Steel Plant (ISP), Burnpur, Structural Work
(MT) increased from 56045 to 101031 (Increase: 80%)
leading to additional contracts and splitting of packages.
ISP modernization was divided into 30 nos. main packages
and 48 nos. auxiliary packages.
3.3.2 Geological data/ Soil Condition Mismatch- The
basis of any fundamental calculation of project is based on
soil investigation. Due to delay and improper Survey &
soil investigation may add a drastic loss to the project. A
huge delay may occur. Collected detail soil data was not
properly done through reputed agencies due to which delay
may occur for civil work such as foundation design &
quantum of civil work etc. In Steel Authority of India
Limited, boulders, skulls and conglomerate hard mass
encountered during piling work up to 20 m depth
underground, slag mixed iron and steel boulder recovered
– 1,34,271T. Hence Piling Work area increased from 8566
TO 35840 (318%) which delayed the project schedule by 1
Year.
3.3.3 Ineffective Project Monitoring- A key concern
during the project initiation and execution phase is
ineffective project planning and monitoring practices and
techniques being employed by owner as well as contractor
organizations. The inadequate planning results in non
identification of critical activities and concerns while the
result of ineffective project monitoring manifests in form
of delay in decision making due to lack of desirable
information at the right time.
IV. SOLUTION
Taming giant projects in Steel Sector would need
―ISPAATI IRADA‖ an abbreviation framed by us which
stands for Integrated Digital PMO, Staggering Expansion
Project Lifecycle, Performance guarantee criteria
customization for smooth handover, Adaptive Scheduling,
Adopting Hybrid PM approach, Transforming Culture,
Informed & Empowered Decision Making, Inclusive
Commissioning of all facilities, Resolution mechanism for
Disputes, Advanced Design management system, Develop
Comprehensive vendor selection Model, Adhering to
Sustainable green steel.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10
91 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Table 1: Steel Industry Expansion Project Issues & Solutions
V. CONCLUSION
Steel Industry Projects in the execution and closure
phase are affected by non availability of funds resources and
delay in delivery of preceding activities. In addition multiple
changes in the scope and design of projects push project
delivery timelines. However these factors point to the
insufficient monitoring and inefficient project change
management in. Furthermore lack of knowledge and
application of tools and techniques for seamless integration
of different functions of project/program among the project
management professionals often lead to delays. India’s steel
sector lags behind its foreign counterparts in terms of
knowledge and understanding of latest technologies in
engineering as well as project management which results in
slow progress of projects.
REFERENCES
[1] Rafael Rilo, Philipp Gerbert, Alexander Koch, Jean Le
Corre, Micaela Martelli & Daniel Jiménez. (2012). Eight key
levers foreffective large-capex-project management.
Available at: https://image-
src.bcg.com/Images/Eight_Key_Levers_for_Effective_Large
_Capex_Oct_2012_tcm9-62859.pdf.
[2] James P. Lewis. (2003). The project manager’s pocket
survival guide. MvGraw-Hill.
[3] Frame, J. Davidson. (2002). The new project
management. (2nd
ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[4] Frame, J. Davidson. (2003). Project finance: Tools and
techniques. Arlington, VA: UMT Press.
[5] Simon Dixon Challenge of Major Projects. (2009).
[6] Project Management Institute. (2017). The .standard for
program management. (4th
ed.). Newtown Square.
[7] A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK® Guide). (2004). Project Management Institute,
Newtown Square–Pennsylvania.
[8] Boussabaine H. & Kirkham R. (2004). Whole life-cycle
costing: risk and risk responses. Oxford–Malden–Carlton:
Blackwell Publishing.
[9] Kerzner H. (2009). Project management: A systems
approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. (10th
ed.).
New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
[11] Lester A. (2003). Project planning and control:
managing engineering, construction and manufacturing
projects to PMI, APM and BSI standards. (4th
ed.). Oxford–
Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann.
[12] Amin AkhavanTabassi, David James Bryde, Ernawati
Mustafa Kamal, Jane Dowson & Roula Michaelides. (2019).
Challenges for project management in the 21st
century.
S.No. Issues S.No. Solution Resolves
I1 Land Acquisition Issue S1 Integrated Digital PMO I9,I10, I11, I14
I2 One Go Expansion of all Units S2 Staggering Expansion Projects
Lifecycle
I2
I3 Splitting of Packages S3 PG Criteria customisation I10
I4 Technical Spec. & EC
finalization
S4 Adaptive Scheduling of Packages I9, I10, I14
I5 Statutory Clearance Delay/Issues S5 Adopt Hybrid PM approach I6
I6 Tender Mode/Finalization S6 Transforming Culture I11, I4
I7 Resolution of Commercial
Disputes
S7 Informed & Empowered Decision
making
I7
I8 Absence of Ancillary Units S8 Inclusive Commissioning of all
facilities
I7
I9 Timely Site Clearance Delay S9 Resolution mechanism for
Disputes
I1, I7
I10 Estimation & Planning Errors S10 Advanced Design management
system
I12
I11 Geological Data/Soil Condition
Issue
S11 Develop Comprehensive vendor
selection Model
I4,I8,I13
I12 Illogical sequence of Drawing &
Procurement
S12 Adhering to Sustainable green
steel
I5
I13 Engineering Strength of
Contractor
I14 Storage Facilities Inadequate
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10
92 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
[13] Indian Steel Industry. (2013). Indian steel industry: An
overview and growth prospects innorth India. CII.
[14] P Gupta, D Singh, D Mukherjee, B Roy & V Prasad.
(2008). New challenges in project management for Indian
steel industry. IE(I) Journal-MM, 89, 22-34.
[15] Project report capacity expansion of integratediron &
steel plant6.0 Mtpa To 8.0 Mtpa crude steel and 9.0 Mtpa
finished steel.
[16] N Rath. (2012). Future of mega steel projects in India.
Steel World, 44-45.
[17] Deepak Malkani, Rakesh Surana & Samir Verma.
(2013). The ―NewNormal‖ in the Indian steel industry:
Achieving high performance in a challenging environment.
Accenture India.
[20] Mckinsey report: Getting capital projects back on track.
Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/.

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Capacity Expansion Banes in Indian Steel Industry

  • 1. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10 88 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Capacity Expansion Banes in Indian Steel Industry Sushant Kumar1 , Nishtha Singh2 and Ankur Bhadury3 1 Dy. Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA 2 Dy. Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA 3 Manager, Steel Authority of India Limited, IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, INDIA 1 Corresponding Author- sushant.kumar@sail.in ABSTRACT It is a known fact that a large number of Steel Industry Expansion projects in India have been delayed due to regulatory clearances, environmental issues and problems pertaining to land acquisition. Also, there are challenges in the tendering phase that affect viability of projects thus delaying implementation, construction phase is beset with over-runs and disputes and last but not the least; provider skills are weak all across the value chain. Given the critical role of Steel Sector in ensuring a sustained growth trajectory for India, it is imperative that we identify the core issues affecting completion of infrastructure projects in India and chalk out initiatives that need to be acted upon in short term as well as long term. Keywords-- Project, Management, Steel, Industry, Challenges I. INTRODUCTION The Indian Steel industry plays an integral role in the growth of the country and its economy and currently contributes to nearly 2% of the entire National GDP. Investment in the steel sector has a multiplier effect on the GDP due to the associated supply chain as well as consumption-related industries. The iron and steel industry is a basis for the development of a number of industries in the global economy: the defense industry, transportation and heavy engineering, energy and construction (including aeronautical and shipping construction). Moreover, the iron and steel industry is closely related to the chemical industry and light industry. It shows that the iron and steel industry has the potential to contribute to the competitiveness of national producers and to the growth of the national economy. The Indian Steel Industry is witnessing capacity expansion with top industry players like Tata Steel, JSW Steel, SAIL, and Arcelor Mittal among others looking to up the ante and expand production capacity. Present capacities are shown in Fig. 1. However, a plethora of issues as shown in Fig. 2 confront the steel industry projects at the moment ranging from investment, long term availability of raw materials at competitive prices, infrastructure to environmental and logistics related. Figure 1: Top Players India Installed Capacity (MTPA) Figure 2: Challenges faced by Project (PwC survey) The project performance in India when compared to global standards is very poor. Cost over-run in India is 3-4 times global standard whereas planning and engineering cost is on the lower side compared to 27 19.6 19.4 10 8.6 JSW SAIL TATA Steel Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steel JSPL Top Players India Installed Capacity (MTPA) Installed Capacity (MTPA)
  • 2. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10 89 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. developed nations. Poor planning in project management is the number one mistake that leads to project failure as shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3: High Cost overrun in India and lesser focus on Planning & Engineering compared to US, UK II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY III. ISSUES & CHALLENGES IN STEEL PLANT EXPANSION PROJECTS 3.1 Financial Issues 3.1.1 Cost of Capital - The cost of financing steel capacity expansion is mostly through borrowed capital. The cost of capital in India is a major hurdle as it is considered to be extremely high compared to developed nations such as China, Japan, and Korea. This results in India paying about USD 30–35 more. Moreover, banks charge 10% interest on loans to steelmakers, so an additional 1mn t/yr of steel capacity would require an investment of around $700 mn, which makes funding capacity expansions an onerous task. Liquidity crunch in the economy and burden of Non- Performing Assets on banks are a big challenge as well. Also, the total outlay required to expand capacity to 300 MT (as per NSP 2017) would be around 10-11 lakh crore. The total debt component would come nearly INR 7.7 lakh crore. (considering a debt-equity ratio of 2:1) which will more than double the banking sector’s current exposure to the steel sector, at around 3.13 lakh crore. 3.1.2 High Import and Logistics Costs - High grade and value-added steel, used extensively in defense, automobile and power are currently imported. Also, coking coal, an important raw material for steel production, is imported as well. To achieve NSP's steel production of 300 mt, the coking coal requirement should increase three-fold to 180 million tonnes from 60-70 mt currently. Difficulties in acquiring mining lease and heavy reliance on import of coking coal add to the cost of steel production. High logistics costs are a major constraint as well. Railways are the preferred mode of transportation for steelmakers. The freight cost of moving materials through the railways, both 7.5 5 2 USA UK India Planning & Engineering Cost (% of Project Cost) Planning & Engineering Cost (% of Project Cost) 8 6 24 USA UK India Cost Overruns (% of Project Cost) Cost Overruns (% of Project Cost)
  • 3. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10 90 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. raw materials and finished steel, is considerably high. According to NITI Aayog, the Indian steel manufacturers incur high expenditure and are at a cost disadvantage at USD 20–25 per tonne of finished steel. The freight cost from Jamshedpur to Mumbai can be as high as USD 50/tonne in comparison with USD 34/tonne from Rotterdam to Mumbai. 3.2 Infrastructure and Clearances Issue 3.2.1 Land Acquisition Issue- About 8% of 804 industrial projects—with a planned investment of Rs 421,062 crore ($67.91 billion)—across India are in limbo because of land-acquisition problems, according to data released by the finance ministry. The data complement a 2014 Comptroller and Auditor General Report that says 38% of land acquired for special economic zones has not been used. Tata Steel conceived Kalinganagr plant in 2005-2006 but work was delayed owing to land acquisition problems and could start only in 2010. The delay increased the project cost. 3.2.2 Statutory Clearance Delays- Ambiguity in area of responsibility of purchaser & contractor for statutory clearances statutory authority of all areas including Environment, Central Electricity Authority, Explosive safety organization, factory and boiler inspection agencies, essentiality certificate for project registration. Also Involvement of railway for relocation and some other additional requirement from them delayed project due to long sanction / approval procedure. Posco had entered into a pact with the Odisha government on June 22, 2005 for 12-billion dollar Jagatsinghpur plant (12 MTPA), which included iron ore mine development but the project was called off in 2016 due to environmental regulatory issues 3.2.3 Lack of Indian EPC players in Steel Sector- There is lack of good equipment manufacturers in the country leading to heavy dependence on few foreign players like Danieli, SMS, Paul Wurth, POSCO, PrimeMetals. Availability of these contractors is a challenge as their order books are already overbooked. For instance the order book of one of the largest EPC contractor in India is overbooked by four times its current capacity. These situation arises as all steel plants undergo expansion together with limited resources of EPC contractors. 3.3 Project Management Issues 3.3.1 Scope & Design Change- Most steel projects are victims of change in project design and scope which often lead to project delays. Poor project planning coupled with lack of attention to details leads to prolonged discussions between project owners and contractors/ vendors. 5his often leads to project delay despite the well intentioned efforts to restore to original schedule. 5he contribution of the market conditions requiring a revision in the project scope is generally low if a project has been planned well. In IISCO Steel Plant (ISP), Burnpur, Structural Work (MT) increased from 56045 to 101031 (Increase: 80%) leading to additional contracts and splitting of packages. ISP modernization was divided into 30 nos. main packages and 48 nos. auxiliary packages. 3.3.2 Geological data/ Soil Condition Mismatch- The basis of any fundamental calculation of project is based on soil investigation. Due to delay and improper Survey & soil investigation may add a drastic loss to the project. A huge delay may occur. Collected detail soil data was not properly done through reputed agencies due to which delay may occur for civil work such as foundation design & quantum of civil work etc. In Steel Authority of India Limited, boulders, skulls and conglomerate hard mass encountered during piling work up to 20 m depth underground, slag mixed iron and steel boulder recovered – 1,34,271T. Hence Piling Work area increased from 8566 TO 35840 (318%) which delayed the project schedule by 1 Year. 3.3.3 Ineffective Project Monitoring- A key concern during the project initiation and execution phase is ineffective project planning and monitoring practices and techniques being employed by owner as well as contractor organizations. The inadequate planning results in non identification of critical activities and concerns while the result of ineffective project monitoring manifests in form of delay in decision making due to lack of desirable information at the right time. IV. SOLUTION Taming giant projects in Steel Sector would need ―ISPAATI IRADA‖ an abbreviation framed by us which stands for Integrated Digital PMO, Staggering Expansion Project Lifecycle, Performance guarantee criteria customization for smooth handover, Adaptive Scheduling, Adopting Hybrid PM approach, Transforming Culture, Informed & Empowered Decision Making, Inclusive Commissioning of all facilities, Resolution mechanism for Disputes, Advanced Design management system, Develop Comprehensive vendor selection Model, Adhering to Sustainable green steel.
  • 4. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-1, (February 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.1.10 91 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Table 1: Steel Industry Expansion Project Issues & Solutions V. CONCLUSION Steel Industry Projects in the execution and closure phase are affected by non availability of funds resources and delay in delivery of preceding activities. In addition multiple changes in the scope and design of projects push project delivery timelines. However these factors point to the insufficient monitoring and inefficient project change management in. Furthermore lack of knowledge and application of tools and techniques for seamless integration of different functions of project/program among the project management professionals often lead to delays. India’s steel sector lags behind its foreign counterparts in terms of knowledge and understanding of latest technologies in engineering as well as project management which results in slow progress of projects. REFERENCES [1] Rafael Rilo, Philipp Gerbert, Alexander Koch, Jean Le Corre, Micaela Martelli & Daniel Jiménez. (2012). Eight key levers foreffective large-capex-project management. Available at: https://image- src.bcg.com/Images/Eight_Key_Levers_for_Effective_Large _Capex_Oct_2012_tcm9-62859.pdf. [2] James P. Lewis. (2003). The project manager’s pocket survival guide. MvGraw-Hill. [3] Frame, J. Davidson. (2002). The new project management. (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [4] Frame, J. Davidson. (2003). Project finance: Tools and techniques. Arlington, VA: UMT Press. [5] Simon Dixon Challenge of Major Projects. (2009). [6] Project Management Institute. (2017). The .standard for program management. (4th ed.). Newtown Square. [7] A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). (2004). Project Management Institute, Newtown Square–Pennsylvania. [8] Boussabaine H. & Kirkham R. (2004). Whole life-cycle costing: risk and risk responses. Oxford–Malden–Carlton: Blackwell Publishing. [9] Kerzner H. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. (10th ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. [11] Lester A. (2003). Project planning and control: managing engineering, construction and manufacturing projects to PMI, APM and BSI standards. (4th ed.). Oxford– Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann. [12] Amin AkhavanTabassi, David James Bryde, Ernawati Mustafa Kamal, Jane Dowson & Roula Michaelides. (2019). Challenges for project management in the 21st century. S.No. Issues S.No. Solution Resolves I1 Land Acquisition Issue S1 Integrated Digital PMO I9,I10, I11, I14 I2 One Go Expansion of all Units S2 Staggering Expansion Projects Lifecycle I2 I3 Splitting of Packages S3 PG Criteria customisation I10 I4 Technical Spec. & EC finalization S4 Adaptive Scheduling of Packages I9, I10, I14 I5 Statutory Clearance Delay/Issues S5 Adopt Hybrid PM approach I6 I6 Tender Mode/Finalization S6 Transforming Culture I11, I4 I7 Resolution of Commercial Disputes S7 Informed & Empowered Decision making I7 I8 Absence of Ancillary Units S8 Inclusive Commissioning of all facilities I7 I9 Timely Site Clearance Delay S9 Resolution mechanism for Disputes I1, I7 I10 Estimation & Planning Errors S10 Advanced Design management system I12 I11 Geological Data/Soil Condition Issue S11 Develop Comprehensive vendor selection Model I4,I8,I13 I12 Illogical sequence of Drawing & Procurement S12 Adhering to Sustainable green steel I5 I13 Engineering Strength of Contractor I14 Storage Facilities Inadequate
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