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PEPTIDES
&
ITS ROLE IN THE BODY
By
N.Santhosh Kumar
Asst.Professor
Department of Biochemistry
SIMS & RH
FORMATION
OF
PEPTIDE BONDS
Amino acids containing two functional groups.
Amine group (- NH2)- Basic
Carboxyl group (COOH) - Acidic in nature
R- Side chain is most imp in determining reactivity of amino acids
• All the amino acids are held together in a protein by
covalent peptide bonds.
• When the carboxyl group of an amino acid combines with
the amino group (NH2) of another amino acid to form
peptide bond & produces a molecule of water
• Number of amino acids joined by a peptide bond (-CO-
NH-) to form dipeptide, tri, tetra and poly peptides
• Amino acid is read from N -terminus to the C- terminus
end in the protein
PEPTIDES
PEPTIDES
Peptides are relatively small polymers, having less
than 100 a.a’s
Depending on the no. of a.a’s they are called as di,
tri, tetra peptide and polypeptide.
Many peptides are formed from breakdown of
proteins and have a no. of functions
Physiologically
Active
Peptides
Glutathione
Bradykinin
Angiotensin
Vasopressin
Oxytocin
Thyrotropin –releasing
hormone (TRH)
Glutathione
(Tripeptide)
Biologically active reducing
agent
Maintains membrane structure
& integrity of RBCs
Protects membranes of RBC
from oxidation agents(H2O2)
Involved in transport of amino
acids through Meister cycle
Involved in the detoxification
process
Role of
NADPH & Glutathione
in cells against
free radicals
Peptide Biological Importance
Bradykinin
Nano-peptide
- Formed from an
α2-globulin by
proteolytic action
of trypsin
-Contraction of non-vascular smooth
muscle in the bronchus and gut
- Increases vascular permeability
- Involved in the mechanism of pain
Angiotensin
Formed from an α2-
globulin by the
action of renin
- Renin-angiotensin system plays an imp
role in regulation of Blood pressure &
Fluid balance
Peptide Biological Importance
TRH
Tripeptide
(Pyroglutamate-His-Pro)
-Released from the hypothalamus
-Acts on the anterior pituitary gland
- Increases the secretion of TSH
Met-enkephalin
Penta-peptide
Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met
- Synthesed in brain
- Act as a pain reliever
Oxytocin
cyclic nano-peptide
hormone
- Secreted by posterior pituitary gland
- Causes contraction of uterus.
Vasopressin
Nanopeptide
-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
- Stimulates kidneys to retain water
- Increase the blood pressure
PROPERTIES
OF
PROTEINS
Solubility
Proteins forms colloidal solutions instead of true
solution in water, because of huge size of protein
molecule
Smaller molecules more soluble than larger
molecules
Osmotic Pressure
In blood plasma- Albumin contributes 75- 80% of
colloidal osmotic pressure
Clinically Imp In Maintaining Blood Volume
Every protein in solution, there is a particular pH
(soln is electrically neutral)
Isoelectric pH of protein
At this pH, solubility, buffering capacity, viscosity of
protein is minimum & precipitability is maximum
Ex : PI of pepsin- 1.1, casein is 4.6, Alb is 4.7,
globulin is 6.4
PI of protein molecule do not migrate in an electric field
Stability of protein in soln depends on the charge &
hydration of the protein molecules
Neutralize the charge or remove water of hydration will
cause precipitation
Increased protein –protein interaction leads to
molecular aggregation & precipitation
Precipitation Of Protein
Factors used for Precipitation of
proteins
Salting out (Precipitated by salts)
Isoelectric pH of protein
Organic solvents
Heavy (+) or (-) ions
Denaturation of Protein
 The breaking native structure of protein (mainly rupture of ionic
bond, H-bonds & hydrophobic bond but peptide bonds are not
hydrolysed).
Denaturing agents
Physical agents
Heat, UV rays & Ionizing radiations
Chemical agents
Alkalies & certain acid solutions of heavy metals,
eg. Mercury, Lead, Detergents
Organic solvents
Alcohol, Acetone, Urea solution
Denaturation of protein leads to.
• Decrease in solubility & increase in precipitability.
• Loss of biological activities
• It is usually irreversible
• Viscosity of denatured protein increases while its surface
tension decreases.
• These proteins are easily digested and cannot be crystallized.
Next class
CA&P- 03 Classification and Properties of
Proteins
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C-A&P 02 Peptides and its imp

  • 1. PEPTIDES & ITS ROLE IN THE BODY By N.Santhosh Kumar Asst.Professor Department of Biochemistry SIMS & RH
  • 3. Amino acids containing two functional groups. Amine group (- NH2)- Basic Carboxyl group (COOH) - Acidic in nature R- Side chain is most imp in determining reactivity of amino acids
  • 4.
  • 5. • All the amino acids are held together in a protein by covalent peptide bonds. • When the carboxyl group of an amino acid combines with the amino group (NH2) of another amino acid to form peptide bond & produces a molecule of water • Number of amino acids joined by a peptide bond (-CO- NH-) to form dipeptide, tri, tetra and poly peptides • Amino acid is read from N -terminus to the C- terminus end in the protein
  • 7. PEPTIDES Peptides are relatively small polymers, having less than 100 a.a’s Depending on the no. of a.a’s they are called as di, tri, tetra peptide and polypeptide. Many peptides are formed from breakdown of proteins and have a no. of functions
  • 9. Glutathione (Tripeptide) Biologically active reducing agent Maintains membrane structure & integrity of RBCs Protects membranes of RBC from oxidation agents(H2O2) Involved in transport of amino acids through Meister cycle Involved in the detoxification process
  • 10. Role of NADPH & Glutathione in cells against free radicals
  • 11. Peptide Biological Importance Bradykinin Nano-peptide - Formed from an α2-globulin by proteolytic action of trypsin -Contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut - Increases vascular permeability - Involved in the mechanism of pain Angiotensin Formed from an α2- globulin by the action of renin - Renin-angiotensin system plays an imp role in regulation of Blood pressure & Fluid balance
  • 12.
  • 13. Peptide Biological Importance TRH Tripeptide (Pyroglutamate-His-Pro) -Released from the hypothalamus -Acts on the anterior pituitary gland - Increases the secretion of TSH Met-enkephalin Penta-peptide Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met - Synthesed in brain - Act as a pain reliever Oxytocin cyclic nano-peptide hormone - Secreted by posterior pituitary gland - Causes contraction of uterus. Vasopressin Nanopeptide -Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), - Stimulates kidneys to retain water - Increase the blood pressure
  • 15. Solubility Proteins forms colloidal solutions instead of true solution in water, because of huge size of protein molecule Smaller molecules more soluble than larger molecules
  • 16. Osmotic Pressure In blood plasma- Albumin contributes 75- 80% of colloidal osmotic pressure Clinically Imp In Maintaining Blood Volume
  • 17. Every protein in solution, there is a particular pH (soln is electrically neutral) Isoelectric pH of protein At this pH, solubility, buffering capacity, viscosity of protein is minimum & precipitability is maximum Ex : PI of pepsin- 1.1, casein is 4.6, Alb is 4.7, globulin is 6.4 PI of protein molecule do not migrate in an electric field
  • 18. Stability of protein in soln depends on the charge & hydration of the protein molecules Neutralize the charge or remove water of hydration will cause precipitation Increased protein –protein interaction leads to molecular aggregation & precipitation Precipitation Of Protein
  • 19. Factors used for Precipitation of proteins Salting out (Precipitated by salts) Isoelectric pH of protein Organic solvents Heavy (+) or (-) ions
  • 20. Denaturation of Protein  The breaking native structure of protein (mainly rupture of ionic bond, H-bonds & hydrophobic bond but peptide bonds are not hydrolysed).
  • 21. Denaturing agents Physical agents Heat, UV rays & Ionizing radiations Chemical agents Alkalies & certain acid solutions of heavy metals, eg. Mercury, Lead, Detergents Organic solvents Alcohol, Acetone, Urea solution
  • 22. Denaturation of protein leads to. • Decrease in solubility & increase in precipitability. • Loss of biological activities • It is usually irreversible • Viscosity of denatured protein increases while its surface tension decreases. • These proteins are easily digested and cannot be crystallized.
  • 23. Next class CA&P- 03 Classification and Properties of Proteins
  • 24. Education = Knowledge Knowledge = Power Power = Respect Respect = Happiness