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CAMEROON AGRICULTURE-
NUTRITION NEXUS: ACTORS AND
KEY INTERVENTION AREAS
BY
FLORENCE FONTEH ANYANGWE
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
THE UNIVERSITY OF DSCHANG, CAMEROON
Yaounde, 8th December 2016 1
 Introduction: justification, objectives, methodology
 State of nutrition security in Cameroon
 Determinants of nutrition status in Cameroon
 Stakeholder identification, clusters & linkages
 Some success stories
 Some key entry points
2
 FNS is of special significance for the ACP region
 Without adequate nutrition it will be difficult to attain
the sustainable development goals (SDGs)
 A mutual relationship exists between agriculture (food
supply) and nutrition and the benefits/casualties are bi-
directional.
 However, insufficient attention has been paid towards
improving the agriculture and nutrition nexus
3
 Malnutrition does not simply arise just from
poor access to food, but also from a host of
interacting processes (health care, education,
sanitation and hygiene, access to resources,
women’s empowerment etc) which are
indispensable to the AN nexus
 Furthermore, a combination of several options
(enabling env, research, SH cooperation,
capacity bldg, etc) contribute to strengthening
the AN nexus and in achieving the desirable FNS
outcomes
 The effectiveness of roles played by these
options vary tremendously between countries
and regions
4
 To highlight some indicators of nutritional status
and food security in Cameroon
 To identify stakeholders, clusters and their
interactions
 To identify key areas of intervention
5
 Desk top review
 Interviews with key stakeholders
 Stakeholders’ consultation workshops
6
7Figure 1: Map of Cameroon, showing administrative Regions
Population : 22.3 million
Surface area: 475,650 km2
Pop growth rate : 2.5 %
GDP/capita : 1426 USD
Life expectancy : 55 years
HDI : 0.505
Some indicators of nutritional status
and food security in Cameroon
8
Indicator Prevalence
Very high (>35 %) High (30 –
35 %)
Moderately
high
(15 – 29 %)
Low
(less than
10 %)
Undernou
rishment
Sudan, Central
African Republic,
Democratic Republic
of Congo, Somalia
Chad, Mali,
Cote
d’Ivoire,
Ethiopia,
Zambia
Cameroon,
Kenya,
Nigeria
Ghana
Stunting Sudan, Central
African Republic,
Democratic Republic
of Congo, Somalia,
Congo
Cameroon,
Nigeria,
Chad, Mali,
Cote d’Iv,
Malawi,
Gabon,
Tanzania,
Uganda,
Namibia,
Ghana,9
13.6
22.2
18.1
14.6
24.4
29.3
31.7 32.5
3
6
5 5.6
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1991 1998 2004 2011
% Underweight
% growth retardation
% Emaciation
10
Figure 2. Evolution of malnutrition in Cameroon
Micronutrient Children (1 -
5 yrs)
Women (15 –
49 yrs)
Zinc 69.1 76.9
Folate 8.4 16.6
Vitamin B12 28.1 28.6
Vitamin A 35 21.4
Iron - -
11
 Food security
 Education (esp. of women)
 Poverty
 Health care
 Water and sanitation
 Gender equality/women empowerment
 Enabling environment
12
Indicator Prevalence source
% living below poverty line 39.9% NIS, 2012
Life expectancy 55.1 yrs UNPD,
2013
Infant mortality 61/1000 UNPD,
2013
Access to improved drinking water 59.8% NIS, 2012
Use of improved sanitation facilities 52.4% NIS, 2012
Gender inequality index 0.622 UNPD,
2014
Females in secondary school 45.8% NIS, 2014
Govt expenditure on health 5.2% of GDP UNPD,
2014
Govt expenditure on education 3.2% of GDP UNPD,
 Only 20% arable land is cultivated
 53% of nat. pop. live in rural areas, where > 50% live
below national poverty line
 Low productivity, high food exportation to CEMAC,
high influx of refugees, result to high food prices
 Strategies used: eat cheap (72%); eat less (45%);
reduce # meals (33%)
 10% of rural households live in persistent food
insecurity
 Severe food insecurity: FN= 4.1%; N= 3.7%, W= 3.3%
 Food insecurity is recurrent in FN & N Regions
14
 The adoption of a National Policy on Food and
Nutrition in the year 2006;
 The creation of an inter-ministerial commission
on food security in 2010;
 The admission of Cameroon into the SUN
movement in 2013;
 The creation of an inter-ministerial commission
to combat malnutrition in the three northern
regions and the East region in 2014;
 The adoption in 2014 of a national policy on
gender -2011-2020;
 The elaboration of a national policy on food and
nutrition (NPFN) – 2015-2034 in 2015.
15
Identification of stakeholders, clusters and
interactions
16
SH collaboration is essential to achieve common objectives17
Cluster Stakeholders
Policy makers MINSANTE, MINADER, MINEPIA, MINFI, MINRESI
MINPROFF, MINATD, MINEE, MINT, MINCOM
MINESUP, MINSEC, MINEDUB, MINPMEESA, MINCUL, MINTEL, MINAS
Research and training MINRESI, MINESUP, MINEDUB, MINSEC
UN system UNICEF, FAO, WFP, WHO, UNDP, UNHCR, UN Women
NGOs International: HKI, Plan Int., Counterpart Int, French Red Cross,
CARE, SNV, NEPAD
National: WHINCONET, Action for Development, PROPAC
Business world (Food
processors)
Oil processors (Diamaor, Mayor, Palm’or, Mula palm); Salt processors
(Sasel, Ngwang); Flour processors (SCTM, Grand moulins, La Pasta);
SNEC; Water bottling companies (Tangui, Supermont, Semme,
Madiba, Sano)
Farmer’s /Women’s groups CAMNAFAW, OFSAD, MBOSCUDA
Consumer syndicates COSADER, ACDIC, COMINSUD, CAMORIF
Donors AFD, M/S Dell foundation, Bill Gates foundation, WB, USAID, DFATD,
Sight for life, GEF, CERF, Japanese embassy fund, Belgian
government, ADB, EU
Research/
Education
18
Business
world
Farmer/
women
groups
NGOs
Donors
Consumer
syndicates
Mass
media
UN-
system
Policy
makers
Low influence-High importance
MINPROFF, CAMNAFAW, OFSAD,
COSADER, ACDIC, COMINSUD,
Action pour le Developpement,
PROPAC, MBOSCUDA, UN
Women, UNDP
High influence-High importance
MINSANTE, MINADER, MINEPIA,
MINESUP, MINSEC, MINEDUB, MINAS,
UNICEF, FAO, WHO, WFP, WB, AFD,
ADB, M/S Dell foundation, Bill Gates
foundation,
USAID, DFATD, Sight for life, GEF,
CERF, Japanese embassy fund,
Belgian government
Counterpart international, French
Red cross, HKI, CARE, UNHCR, EU,
NEPAD
Low influence-low importance
SNV, Plan international,
MINCUL, MINCOM
High influence-low importance
MINFI, MINATD, MINEE, MINT, Food
processors, CRTV, Cameroon Tribune,
The Post, The Messenger, The Herald,
Canal 2 International, Equinox19
 Vitamin A supplementation
 Iodine supplementation
 Micro minerals supplementation
20
Some key entry points (for intervention)
21
 Valorize indigenous foods: evaluate their
nutritive values.
 Evaluate post harvest losses of major food
commodities for both crop and animal foods.
 Analyze the value chain of major foods from
farm to fork
 Establish standards and evaluate safety of
locally produced and imported foods.
 Creation and updating of data bases (regional
and national levels).
 Make use of existing grey research data
(transform research into practice).
22
 Formal nutrition education: Introduce
relevant nutritional components in all
educational programs and at all levels
 Informal education: education of the
population on cultural practices and culinary
techniques; recruit and assign adequately
trained nutritionists to health centers,
hospitals, councils, districts, etc.
 Sensitization: use mass media
communication tools
23
 Creation of an autonomous national office on
food and nutrition (more visibility and
autonomy)
 Evaluate the cost of malnutrition in monetary
terms (demonstrates the cost of inaction).
 Identify nutrition champions or goodwill
ambassadors (e.g. sports or music stars)
 Encourage the creation of and support food and
nutrition advocacy groups.
24

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Cameroon agriculture-nutrition nexus: actors and key intervention areas

  • 1. CAMEROON AGRICULTURE- NUTRITION NEXUS: ACTORS AND KEY INTERVENTION AREAS BY FLORENCE FONTEH ANYANGWE ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR THE UNIVERSITY OF DSCHANG, CAMEROON Yaounde, 8th December 2016 1
  • 2.  Introduction: justification, objectives, methodology  State of nutrition security in Cameroon  Determinants of nutrition status in Cameroon  Stakeholder identification, clusters & linkages  Some success stories  Some key entry points 2
  • 3.  FNS is of special significance for the ACP region  Without adequate nutrition it will be difficult to attain the sustainable development goals (SDGs)  A mutual relationship exists between agriculture (food supply) and nutrition and the benefits/casualties are bi- directional.  However, insufficient attention has been paid towards improving the agriculture and nutrition nexus 3
  • 4.  Malnutrition does not simply arise just from poor access to food, but also from a host of interacting processes (health care, education, sanitation and hygiene, access to resources, women’s empowerment etc) which are indispensable to the AN nexus  Furthermore, a combination of several options (enabling env, research, SH cooperation, capacity bldg, etc) contribute to strengthening the AN nexus and in achieving the desirable FNS outcomes  The effectiveness of roles played by these options vary tremendously between countries and regions 4
  • 5.  To highlight some indicators of nutritional status and food security in Cameroon  To identify stakeholders, clusters and their interactions  To identify key areas of intervention 5
  • 6.  Desk top review  Interviews with key stakeholders  Stakeholders’ consultation workshops 6
  • 7. 7Figure 1: Map of Cameroon, showing administrative Regions Population : 22.3 million Surface area: 475,650 km2 Pop growth rate : 2.5 % GDP/capita : 1426 USD Life expectancy : 55 years HDI : 0.505
  • 8. Some indicators of nutritional status and food security in Cameroon 8
  • 9. Indicator Prevalence Very high (>35 %) High (30 – 35 %) Moderately high (15 – 29 %) Low (less than 10 %) Undernou rishment Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia Chad, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Zambia Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria Ghana Stunting Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, Congo Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad, Mali, Cote d’Iv, Malawi, Gabon, Tanzania, Uganda, Namibia, Ghana,9
  • 10. 13.6 22.2 18.1 14.6 24.4 29.3 31.7 32.5 3 6 5 5.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1991 1998 2004 2011 % Underweight % growth retardation % Emaciation 10 Figure 2. Evolution of malnutrition in Cameroon
  • 11. Micronutrient Children (1 - 5 yrs) Women (15 – 49 yrs) Zinc 69.1 76.9 Folate 8.4 16.6 Vitamin B12 28.1 28.6 Vitamin A 35 21.4 Iron - - 11
  • 12.  Food security  Education (esp. of women)  Poverty  Health care  Water and sanitation  Gender equality/women empowerment  Enabling environment 12
  • 13. Indicator Prevalence source % living below poverty line 39.9% NIS, 2012 Life expectancy 55.1 yrs UNPD, 2013 Infant mortality 61/1000 UNPD, 2013 Access to improved drinking water 59.8% NIS, 2012 Use of improved sanitation facilities 52.4% NIS, 2012 Gender inequality index 0.622 UNPD, 2014 Females in secondary school 45.8% NIS, 2014 Govt expenditure on health 5.2% of GDP UNPD, 2014 Govt expenditure on education 3.2% of GDP UNPD,
  • 14.  Only 20% arable land is cultivated  53% of nat. pop. live in rural areas, where > 50% live below national poverty line  Low productivity, high food exportation to CEMAC, high influx of refugees, result to high food prices  Strategies used: eat cheap (72%); eat less (45%); reduce # meals (33%)  10% of rural households live in persistent food insecurity  Severe food insecurity: FN= 4.1%; N= 3.7%, W= 3.3%  Food insecurity is recurrent in FN & N Regions 14
  • 15.  The adoption of a National Policy on Food and Nutrition in the year 2006;  The creation of an inter-ministerial commission on food security in 2010;  The admission of Cameroon into the SUN movement in 2013;  The creation of an inter-ministerial commission to combat malnutrition in the three northern regions and the East region in 2014;  The adoption in 2014 of a national policy on gender -2011-2020;  The elaboration of a national policy on food and nutrition (NPFN) – 2015-2034 in 2015. 15
  • 16. Identification of stakeholders, clusters and interactions 16
  • 17. SH collaboration is essential to achieve common objectives17 Cluster Stakeholders Policy makers MINSANTE, MINADER, MINEPIA, MINFI, MINRESI MINPROFF, MINATD, MINEE, MINT, MINCOM MINESUP, MINSEC, MINEDUB, MINPMEESA, MINCUL, MINTEL, MINAS Research and training MINRESI, MINESUP, MINEDUB, MINSEC UN system UNICEF, FAO, WFP, WHO, UNDP, UNHCR, UN Women NGOs International: HKI, Plan Int., Counterpart Int, French Red Cross, CARE, SNV, NEPAD National: WHINCONET, Action for Development, PROPAC Business world (Food processors) Oil processors (Diamaor, Mayor, Palm’or, Mula palm); Salt processors (Sasel, Ngwang); Flour processors (SCTM, Grand moulins, La Pasta); SNEC; Water bottling companies (Tangui, Supermont, Semme, Madiba, Sano) Farmer’s /Women’s groups CAMNAFAW, OFSAD, MBOSCUDA Consumer syndicates COSADER, ACDIC, COMINSUD, CAMORIF Donors AFD, M/S Dell foundation, Bill Gates foundation, WB, USAID, DFATD, Sight for life, GEF, CERF, Japanese embassy fund, Belgian government, ADB, EU
  • 19. Low influence-High importance MINPROFF, CAMNAFAW, OFSAD, COSADER, ACDIC, COMINSUD, Action pour le Developpement, PROPAC, MBOSCUDA, UN Women, UNDP High influence-High importance MINSANTE, MINADER, MINEPIA, MINESUP, MINSEC, MINEDUB, MINAS, UNICEF, FAO, WHO, WFP, WB, AFD, ADB, M/S Dell foundation, Bill Gates foundation, USAID, DFATD, Sight for life, GEF, CERF, Japanese embassy fund, Belgian government Counterpart international, French Red cross, HKI, CARE, UNHCR, EU, NEPAD Low influence-low importance SNV, Plan international, MINCUL, MINCOM High influence-low importance MINFI, MINATD, MINEE, MINT, Food processors, CRTV, Cameroon Tribune, The Post, The Messenger, The Herald, Canal 2 International, Equinox19
  • 20.  Vitamin A supplementation  Iodine supplementation  Micro minerals supplementation 20
  • 21. Some key entry points (for intervention) 21
  • 22.  Valorize indigenous foods: evaluate their nutritive values.  Evaluate post harvest losses of major food commodities for both crop and animal foods.  Analyze the value chain of major foods from farm to fork  Establish standards and evaluate safety of locally produced and imported foods.  Creation and updating of data bases (regional and national levels).  Make use of existing grey research data (transform research into practice). 22
  • 23.  Formal nutrition education: Introduce relevant nutritional components in all educational programs and at all levels  Informal education: education of the population on cultural practices and culinary techniques; recruit and assign adequately trained nutritionists to health centers, hospitals, councils, districts, etc.  Sensitization: use mass media communication tools 23
  • 24.  Creation of an autonomous national office on food and nutrition (more visibility and autonomy)  Evaluate the cost of malnutrition in monetary terms (demonstrates the cost of inaction).  Identify nutrition champions or goodwill ambassadors (e.g. sports or music stars)  Encourage the creation of and support food and nutrition advocacy groups. 24