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Traffic Volume Studies
The number of vehicles that pass appoint on a
highway facility during a specified time period.
15 min. ------------- 1 year.
Purpose of Traffic Volume Studies
1. Obtain information for the seasonal and annual
changes in the volume of vehicles.
2. Comparative economic sense when doing improving or
modulating roads.
3. Design of intersections and choose the number of
lanes.
4. Selection and design of pedestrian crossing areas.
5. Structural design of roads (tiling thickness and
quality).
Traffic Fluctuation
Highway
Capacity
Highway
Congested
Traffic Fluctuation
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
Daily
Traffic
Volume
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Monthly
Average
Daily
Traffic
Volume
Methods of Traffic Volume Counts
1- Manual Counting Method
 Use filed personnel to count and classify traffic
flowing past a fixed point.
 Determine of vehicle classification, turning
movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements.
 It used for periods of less than a day. Normal
intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes.
Methods of Traffic Volume Counts
1- Manual Counting Method
Multibank hand tally counter
Methods of Traffic Volume Counts
1- Manual Counting Method
Methods of Traffic Volume Counts
2- Automatic Counting Method
Determine of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or
seasonal variations and growth trends, or annual traffic
estimates.
It are usually taken in 1-hour intervals for each 24-
hour period. When the counts are recorded for each
24-hour time period, the peak flow period can be
identified.
Methods of Traffic Volume Counts
1- Manual Counting Method
 Detector (sensor): Pneumatic tube (road tube)
 Recording Mechanism
- Counting register
- Printed output
- Electronic system
Types of Traffic Volume
1- Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT):
The average (24-hr) volume at a given location over a full 365-
days year
It is useful for:
a. Estimation of highway user revenues.
b. Traffic volume trends.
c. Development of hierarchical system of facilities.
2- Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT):
The average (24-hr) volume occurring on weekdays over a full
365-days year
* The weekdays are 260, considering 5-days per week.
3- Average Daily Traffic (ADT):
The average 24-hr volume at a given location over a defined time
period less than one year
It is useful for:
a. Planning of highway activities
b. Measurement of current demand
c. Evaluation of existing traffic flow
4- Average Weekday Traffic (AWT):
The average 24-hr weekday volume at a given location over a
defined time period less than one year
Types of Traffic Volume
Example-1
5- Peak Hour Volume (PHV):
Maximum number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway during
a period of 60 consecutive minutes
It is useful for:
a. Functional classification of highways.
b. Design of geometric characteristics.
c. Capacity analysis.
d. Traffic operational plans.
e. Parking regulations.
Types of Traffic Volume
Types of Traffic Volume
6- Design Hour Volume (DHV):
Is a representation of peak hour traffic, usually for the future,
or horizon year, It is the 30th highest hourly volume of the year
(abbreviated 30 HV). It is used for design purpose.
DHV = AADT * K
= ADT * K
Where (K) is the proportion of
AADT occurring in the peak hour
K: (10 -17) % for two way.
K: (7 – 18)% for one way.
K: (0.12 (urban) – 0.15 (rural road)).
Example-2
Peak Hour Factor (PHF)
It is the ratio of the total hourly volume to the
maximum 15min. rate of flow within the hour.
Where:
V: hourly volume (vph).
V15: volume during the peak 15 min.
Example-3
Directional Distribution (D):
Although traffic flows in each direction on a highway
tend to be approximately the same over 24-hour
period, during peak hours or on specific days there is
likely to be higher percentage of traffic in one
direction.
Traffic Composition:
Traffic Composition
Class of Vehicle
Terrain
Flat Hilly Mountains
Motorcycle, Bicycle 0.5 0.5 0.5
Private car, Taxi 1.00 1.00 1.00
Pick up, Van, Bus up to 24 passenger 1.25 1.75 3.00
Single truck, Bus above 24 passenger 2.00 3.00 6.00
Truck and trailer, Heavy vehicle 3.00 5.00 10.00
Example-4
Traffic Forecast
 The design of new highways or of improvements to
existing highways is based on the future traffic.
 A period of 15 to 20 years is widely used for design
traffic.
F = Traffic forecast factor
i = Annual rate of traffic increase
= (% normal growth + % development traffic +
% generated traffic)
n = Traffic analysis period
Example-5
Example-6
Quiz
The following table show the results of current traffic counts for
a rural highway at each 15 min. intervals during two hrs.
Calculate:
1. Peak hour volume
2. Peak hour factor
3. Current and future design hour volume
If the design life is 25 years and construction time 6 years
Time
7:00-
7:15
7:15-
7:30
7:30-
7:45
7:45-
8:00
8:00-
8:15
8:15-
8:30
8:30-
8:45
8:45-
9:00
Volume
(veh.)
100 200 700 800 600 300 100 50
Adjustment of Periodic Counts
1.Hourly expansion factors (HEF)
2.Daily expansion factors (DEF)
3.Monthly expansion factors (DEF)
Example-7
Example-7
Example-8
Example-9
For design of an urban road within a city. The counting of
traffic was for two hours in a peak morning during Sunday in
February 2014 in both directions, as shown below. The
traffic components are 60% small car, 15% buses, and 25%
heavy trucks. The design life of road is 15 years and
expected to finish the road in 2016. If you know: the annual
growth rate is 3%, the direction distribution is 40/60 %, the
expansion factor of traffic are (Hourly: 36.1, 40.8 for first and
second hour respectively, Daily: 6.1, Monthly: 0.8). Calculate
the following:
1. Peak hour factor and design hour volume for the data.
2. No. of lanes required for the road, if the lane capacity is
700 pcu/hr
Time
7:00-
7:15
7:15-
7:30
7:30-
7:45
7:45-
8:00
8:00-
8:15
8:15-
8:30
8:30-
8:45
8:45-
9:00
Volume
(veh.)
82 112 100 98 116 110 100 95
H.W
Cahier_Traffic_volume.pptx

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Cahier_Traffic_volume.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Traffic Volume Studies The number of vehicles that pass appoint on a highway facility during a specified time period. 15 min. ------------- 1 year.
  • 3. Purpose of Traffic Volume Studies 1. Obtain information for the seasonal and annual changes in the volume of vehicles. 2. Comparative economic sense when doing improving or modulating roads. 3. Design of intersections and choose the number of lanes. 4. Selection and design of pedestrian crossing areas. 5. Structural design of roads (tiling thickness and quality).
  • 6. Methods of Traffic Volume Counts 1- Manual Counting Method  Use filed personnel to count and classify traffic flowing past a fixed point.  Determine of vehicle classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements.  It used for periods of less than a day. Normal intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes.
  • 7. Methods of Traffic Volume Counts 1- Manual Counting Method Multibank hand tally counter
  • 8. Methods of Traffic Volume Counts 1- Manual Counting Method
  • 9. Methods of Traffic Volume Counts 2- Automatic Counting Method Determine of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or seasonal variations and growth trends, or annual traffic estimates. It are usually taken in 1-hour intervals for each 24- hour period. When the counts are recorded for each 24-hour time period, the peak flow period can be identified.
  • 10. Methods of Traffic Volume Counts 1- Manual Counting Method  Detector (sensor): Pneumatic tube (road tube)  Recording Mechanism - Counting register - Printed output - Electronic system
  • 11. Types of Traffic Volume 1- Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT): The average (24-hr) volume at a given location over a full 365- days year It is useful for: a. Estimation of highway user revenues. b. Traffic volume trends. c. Development of hierarchical system of facilities. 2- Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT): The average (24-hr) volume occurring on weekdays over a full 365-days year * The weekdays are 260, considering 5-days per week.
  • 12. 3- Average Daily Traffic (ADT): The average 24-hr volume at a given location over a defined time period less than one year It is useful for: a. Planning of highway activities b. Measurement of current demand c. Evaluation of existing traffic flow 4- Average Weekday Traffic (AWT): The average 24-hr weekday volume at a given location over a defined time period less than one year Types of Traffic Volume
  • 14. 5- Peak Hour Volume (PHV): Maximum number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway during a period of 60 consecutive minutes It is useful for: a. Functional classification of highways. b. Design of geometric characteristics. c. Capacity analysis. d. Traffic operational plans. e. Parking regulations. Types of Traffic Volume
  • 15. Types of Traffic Volume 6- Design Hour Volume (DHV): Is a representation of peak hour traffic, usually for the future, or horizon year, It is the 30th highest hourly volume of the year (abbreviated 30 HV). It is used for design purpose. DHV = AADT * K = ADT * K Where (K) is the proportion of AADT occurring in the peak hour K: (10 -17) % for two way. K: (7 – 18)% for one way. K: (0.12 (urban) – 0.15 (rural road)).
  • 17. Peak Hour Factor (PHF) It is the ratio of the total hourly volume to the maximum 15min. rate of flow within the hour. Where: V: hourly volume (vph). V15: volume during the peak 15 min.
  • 19. Directional Distribution (D): Although traffic flows in each direction on a highway tend to be approximately the same over 24-hour period, during peak hours or on specific days there is likely to be higher percentage of traffic in one direction.
  • 21. Traffic Composition Class of Vehicle Terrain Flat Hilly Mountains Motorcycle, Bicycle 0.5 0.5 0.5 Private car, Taxi 1.00 1.00 1.00 Pick up, Van, Bus up to 24 passenger 1.25 1.75 3.00 Single truck, Bus above 24 passenger 2.00 3.00 6.00 Truck and trailer, Heavy vehicle 3.00 5.00 10.00
  • 23. Traffic Forecast  The design of new highways or of improvements to existing highways is based on the future traffic.  A period of 15 to 20 years is widely used for design traffic. F = Traffic forecast factor i = Annual rate of traffic increase = (% normal growth + % development traffic + % generated traffic) n = Traffic analysis period
  • 26. Quiz The following table show the results of current traffic counts for a rural highway at each 15 min. intervals during two hrs. Calculate: 1. Peak hour volume 2. Peak hour factor 3. Current and future design hour volume If the design life is 25 years and construction time 6 years Time 7:00- 7:15 7:15- 7:30 7:30- 7:45 7:45- 8:00 8:00- 8:15 8:15- 8:30 8:30- 8:45 8:45- 9:00 Volume (veh.) 100 200 700 800 600 300 100 50
  • 27. Adjustment of Periodic Counts 1.Hourly expansion factors (HEF) 2.Daily expansion factors (DEF) 3.Monthly expansion factors (DEF)
  • 32. For design of an urban road within a city. The counting of traffic was for two hours in a peak morning during Sunday in February 2014 in both directions, as shown below. The traffic components are 60% small car, 15% buses, and 25% heavy trucks. The design life of road is 15 years and expected to finish the road in 2016. If you know: the annual growth rate is 3%, the direction distribution is 40/60 %, the expansion factor of traffic are (Hourly: 36.1, 40.8 for first and second hour respectively, Daily: 6.1, Monthly: 0.8). Calculate the following: 1. Peak hour factor and design hour volume for the data. 2. No. of lanes required for the road, if the lane capacity is 700 pcu/hr Time 7:00- 7:15 7:15- 7:30 7:30- 7:45 7:45- 8:00 8:00- 8:15 8:15- 8:30 8:30- 8:45 8:45- 9:00 Volume (veh.) 82 112 100 98 116 110 100 95 H.W