SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ATBC, Cairns 20-24 July 2014
van Vliet N., Cornelis D. and Nasi R.
Bushmeat research in the past 3 decades:
What has it changed for sustainable
hunting?
www.cifor.org/bushmeat
Introduction
Mammals
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Bushmeat is defined by the CBD (2008) as any non-domesticated terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles and
amphibians harvested for food. Insects, crustaceans, grubs, molluscs and fish are excluded from this
definition.
Introduction
 4 million tons / year in the
Congo Basin
 1 million tons/ year in the
Amazon
BeefBushmeat
• Europe produces 7,5 million tons
/year of beef
• Brazil (second world producer)
produces 8,5 million tons /year of
beef
Bushmeat as an evolving topic
• Ecological issues
• Socio-economic issues
• Health issues
• Cultural issues
Transitions in disciplines, theoretical frameworks and
management options tested in the field
Future trends in bushmeat research
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Ecological issues (1990-onwards)
Empty forest syndrom
Bushmeat research in the past 3 decades: What has it changed for sustainable hunting?
Ecological issues (1990s-onwards)
Simple biological models
Robinson & Redford, 1991
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Ecological issues (1990s-onwards)
Law enforcement and sensitization
(Hyp: Hunting is criminal, unsafe and
unsustainable)
Department of Geography & Geology
"According to BIOLOGICAL MODELS,
HUNTING IS UNSUSTAINABLE AND
DUIKERS ARE BOUND TO BECOME
EXTINCT, but DUIKERs don't know
anything about BIOLOGICAL
MODELS, so they ahead and SURVIVE
anyway.”
Nathalie van Vliet
Transitions in terms of the theoretical
frameworks used for the analysis
Ecological issues (1990s-onwards)
“Long-term population monitoring programmes
will be the most informative approach to provide
baseline information against which any hunting
effects and/or conservation interventions can be
monitored”
REV I EW A N D
SY N TH ESI S Searching for sustainability: are assessments of wildlife
harvests behind the times?
Karen Z. Weinbaum,1
* Justin S.
Brashares,1
Christopher D.
Golden1,3
and Wayne M. Getz1,2
Abstract
The unsustainable harvest of wildlife is a major threat to global biodiversity and to the millions of people
who depend on wildlife for food and income. Past research has called attention to the fact that commonly
used methods to evaluate the sustainability of wildlife hunting perform poorly, yet these methods remain in
popular use today. Here, we conduct a systematic review of empirical sustainability assessments to quantify
Ecology Letters, (2013) 16: 99–111 doi: 10.1111/ele.12008
REV I EW A N D
SY N TH ESI S Searching for sustainability: a
harvests behind the times?
Karen Z. Weinbaum,1
* Justin S.
Brashares,1
Christopher D.
Golden1,3
and Wayne M. Getz1,2
Abstract
The unsustainable harvest of wildlife is a major t
who depend on wildlife for food and income. Pas
used methods to evaluate the sustainability of wild
popular use today. Here, we conduct a systematic
the use of sustainability indicators in the scientifi
Ecology Letters, (2013) 16: 99–111
Ecological issues (1990s-onwards)
Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards)
“There is a need to shift the bushmeat debate onto more
positive terrain, recognizing the many benefits which the
trade in wild meat offers the range state economies”.
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Ecological issues (1990s onwards)
Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards)
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Markets
Food
security
and
nutrition
Local
livelihoods
Poverty
and
income
Department of Geography & Geology
Ecological issues (1990s-onwards)
Law enforcement
and sensitization
Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards)
Alternatives of livelihood
(Hyp: People will switch to
other alternatives of
income and food if those
were made available)
Ecological issues (1990 s onwards)
Socio economic issues (2000 onwards)
Health issues (2005 onwards)
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Ecological issues (1990s onwards)
Socio economic issues (2000 onwards)
Health issues (2005 onwards)
Cultural aspects (2010 onwards)
Transitions in disciplines and theoretical
frameworks related to Bushmeat
Bushmeat in the international policy framework
Future trends in Bushmeat research
Food security and
health
Cultural Identity
Ecological foot print
Department of Geography & Geology
Multifuntionality of hunting
Sustainable hunting and trade?
Future trends in Bushmeat research
Is sustainable hunting still possible?
Future trends in bushmeat research
Resilience
theory and
socio-
ecological
systems
Biological
models
Bio-economic
models
Spatially explicit
models
Multidisciplinary approaches:
Economy
Ecology
Ethno biology
Health ….
Innovative techniques
Camera trapping
Genetics
Telemetry
Bio-chemical analysis
Modeling tools
….
Pictures: Nathalie
Van Vliet, Daniel
Cornelis, Blanca
Yague
THANK YOU
In Cairns
FORESTS, WILDLIFE & NUTRITION
Bushmeat research in the past 3 decades: What has it changed for sustainable hunting?
Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services
provided by Bushmeat
 Should African governments pull bushmeat trade out the shadows in the Congo Basin? (Cornelis D.)
 Can alternative livelihoods projects reduce hunting pressure? Lessons from Central Africa for practitioners and
donors (Coad L.)
 Health and economic valuation of the subsistence harvest of wildlife in Madagascar (Golden C.)
 Change in Game Harvest Composition, southeastern Cameroon: A Potential Indicator of Overhunting for Local
People (Yasuoka H.)
 Towards Sustainable Bushmeat Procurement To Improve Food And Income Security In Amazonia (Pinedo Vasquez
M.)
 Predicting hunting behavior among indigenous communities in Ecuador: insights from a bioeconomic model (de la
Montaña E.)
 Participatory monitoring of the bushmeat trade in the amazonian triborder frontier (Colombia, Peru & Brazil) (Cruz
D.)
 Economic value of bushmeat in the Amazon and poverty alliviation (Hernandes S.)
 Cultural Connections of Periurban Indigenous Communities to Tropical Forest through Bushmeat Networks in
Leticia (Colombia) (Yagüe B.)
 Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as a source of micronutrients in the tri-frontier region (Brazil-Colombian-Peru)
(Mori F.)
 Certifying bushmeat market chains: an option for sustainable hunting in Colombian Amazon ? (Quiceno M.P.)

More Related Content

More from CIFOR-ICRAF

Managers not labourers
Managers not labourersManagers not labourers
Managers not labourers
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systemsDeforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food productionEmerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systemsExploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approachesLessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruanaLecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Contexto de TransMoni
Contexto de TransMoniContexto de TransMoni
Contexto de TransMoni
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de ParísAvances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian AmazonAlert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Land tenure and forest landscape restoration in Cameroon and Madagascar
Land tenure and forest landscape  restoration in Cameroon and  MadagascarLand tenure and forest landscape  restoration in Cameroon and  Madagascar
Land tenure and forest landscape restoration in Cameroon and Madagascar
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdfReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projetReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche InnovationsIntroductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnershipsIntroducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with MangrovesA Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Data analysis and findings
Data analysis and findingsData analysis and findings
Data analysis and findings
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG LonderangPeat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
CIFOR-ICRAF
 

More from CIFOR-ICRAF (20)

Managers not labourers
Managers not labourersManagers not labourers
Managers not labourers
 
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systemsDeforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
Deforestation-free commodities can contribute to low-emission food systems
 
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food productionEmerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
Emerging Earth Observation methods for monitoring sustainable food production
 
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systemsExploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
 
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approachesLessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
Lessons from operationalizing integrated landscape approaches
 
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
Mejorando la estimación de emisiones GEI conversión bosque degradado a planta...
 
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruanaLecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
Lecciones para el monitoreo transparente Experiencias de la Amazonía peruana
 
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
Inclusión y transparencia como clave del éxito para el mecanismo de transfere...
 
Contexto de TransMoni
Contexto de TransMoniContexto de TransMoni
Contexto de TransMoni
 
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de ParísAvances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
Avances de Perú con relación al marco de transparencia del Acuerdo de París
 
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian AmazonAlert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
Alert-driven Community-based Forest monitoring: A case of the Peruvian Amazon
 
Land tenure and forest landscape restoration in Cameroon and Madagascar
Land tenure and forest landscape  restoration in Cameroon and  MadagascarLand tenure and forest landscape  restoration in Cameroon and  Madagascar
Land tenure and forest landscape restoration in Cameroon and Madagascar
 
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdfReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
ReSI-NoC - Strategie de mise en oeuvre.pdf
 
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projetReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
ReSI-NoC: Introduction au contexte du projet
 
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
Renforcer les Systèmes d’Innovations agrosylvopastorales économiquement renta...
 
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche InnovationsIntroductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
Introductions aux termes clés du projet ReSi-NoC - Approche Innovations
 
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnershipsIntroducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
 
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with MangrovesA Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
 
Data analysis and findings
Data analysis and findingsData analysis and findings
Data analysis and findings
 
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG LonderangPeat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
 

Bushmeat research in the past 3 decades: What has it changed for sustainable hunting?

  • 1. ATBC, Cairns 20-24 July 2014 van Vliet N., Cornelis D. and Nasi R. Bushmeat research in the past 3 decades: What has it changed for sustainable hunting? www.cifor.org/bushmeat
  • 2. Introduction Mammals Amphibians Reptiles Birds Bushmeat is defined by the CBD (2008) as any non-domesticated terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians harvested for food. Insects, crustaceans, grubs, molluscs and fish are excluded from this definition.
  • 3. Introduction  4 million tons / year in the Congo Basin  1 million tons/ year in the Amazon BeefBushmeat • Europe produces 7,5 million tons /year of beef • Brazil (second world producer) produces 8,5 million tons /year of beef
  • 4. Bushmeat as an evolving topic • Ecological issues • Socio-economic issues • Health issues • Cultural issues Transitions in disciplines, theoretical frameworks and management options tested in the field Future trends in bushmeat research
  • 5. Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat Ecological issues (1990-onwards)
  • 8. Ecological issues (1990s-onwards) Simple biological models Robinson & Redford, 1991 Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat
  • 9. Ecological issues (1990s-onwards) Law enforcement and sensitization (Hyp: Hunting is criminal, unsafe and unsustainable) Department of Geography & Geology
  • 10. "According to BIOLOGICAL MODELS, HUNTING IS UNSUSTAINABLE AND DUIKERS ARE BOUND TO BECOME EXTINCT, but DUIKERs don't know anything about BIOLOGICAL MODELS, so they ahead and SURVIVE anyway.” Nathalie van Vliet
  • 11. Transitions in terms of the theoretical frameworks used for the analysis Ecological issues (1990s-onwards) “Long-term population monitoring programmes will be the most informative approach to provide baseline information against which any hunting effects and/or conservation interventions can be monitored” REV I EW A N D SY N TH ESI S Searching for sustainability: are assessments of wildlife harvests behind the times? Karen Z. Weinbaum,1 * Justin S. Brashares,1 Christopher D. Golden1,3 and Wayne M. Getz1,2 Abstract The unsustainable harvest of wildlife is a major threat to global biodiversity and to the millions of people who depend on wildlife for food and income. Past research has called attention to the fact that commonly used methods to evaluate the sustainability of wildlife hunting perform poorly, yet these methods remain in popular use today. Here, we conduct a systematic review of empirical sustainability assessments to quantify Ecology Letters, (2013) 16: 99–111 doi: 10.1111/ele.12008 REV I EW A N D SY N TH ESI S Searching for sustainability: a harvests behind the times? Karen Z. Weinbaum,1 * Justin S. Brashares,1 Christopher D. Golden1,3 and Wayne M. Getz1,2 Abstract The unsustainable harvest of wildlife is a major t who depend on wildlife for food and income. Pas used methods to evaluate the sustainability of wild popular use today. Here, we conduct a systematic the use of sustainability indicators in the scientifi Ecology Letters, (2013) 16: 99–111
  • 12. Ecological issues (1990s-onwards) Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards) “There is a need to shift the bushmeat debate onto more positive terrain, recognizing the many benefits which the trade in wild meat offers the range state economies”. Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat
  • 13. Ecological issues (1990s onwards) Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards) Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat Markets Food security and nutrition Local livelihoods Poverty and income
  • 14. Department of Geography & Geology Ecological issues (1990s-onwards) Law enforcement and sensitization Socio-economic issues (2000 onwards) Alternatives of livelihood (Hyp: People will switch to other alternatives of income and food if those were made available)
  • 15. Ecological issues (1990 s onwards) Socio economic issues (2000 onwards) Health issues (2005 onwards) Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat
  • 16. Ecological issues (1990s onwards) Socio economic issues (2000 onwards) Health issues (2005 onwards) Cultural aspects (2010 onwards) Transitions in disciplines and theoretical frameworks related to Bushmeat
  • 17. Bushmeat in the international policy framework
  • 18. Future trends in Bushmeat research Food security and health Cultural Identity Ecological foot print
  • 19. Department of Geography & Geology Multifuntionality of hunting Sustainable hunting and trade?
  • 20. Future trends in Bushmeat research Is sustainable hunting still possible?
  • 21. Future trends in bushmeat research Resilience theory and socio- ecological systems Biological models Bio-economic models Spatially explicit models Multidisciplinary approaches: Economy Ecology Ethno biology Health …. Innovative techniques Camera trapping Genetics Telemetry Bio-chemical analysis Modeling tools ….
  • 22. Pictures: Nathalie Van Vliet, Daniel Cornelis, Blanca Yague THANK YOU In Cairns FORESTS, WILDLIFE & NUTRITION
  • 24. Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by Bushmeat  Should African governments pull bushmeat trade out the shadows in the Congo Basin? (Cornelis D.)  Can alternative livelihoods projects reduce hunting pressure? Lessons from Central Africa for practitioners and donors (Coad L.)  Health and economic valuation of the subsistence harvest of wildlife in Madagascar (Golden C.)  Change in Game Harvest Composition, southeastern Cameroon: A Potential Indicator of Overhunting for Local People (Yasuoka H.)  Towards Sustainable Bushmeat Procurement To Improve Food And Income Security In Amazonia (Pinedo Vasquez M.)  Predicting hunting behavior among indigenous communities in Ecuador: insights from a bioeconomic model (de la Montaña E.)  Participatory monitoring of the bushmeat trade in the amazonian triborder frontier (Colombia, Peru & Brazil) (Cruz D.)  Economic value of bushmeat in the Amazon and poverty alliviation (Hernandes S.)  Cultural Connections of Periurban Indigenous Communities to Tropical Forest through Bushmeat Networks in Leticia (Colombia) (Yagüe B.)  Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as a source of micronutrients in the tri-frontier region (Brazil-Colombian-Peru) (Mori F.)  Certifying bushmeat market chains: an option for sustainable hunting in Colombian Amazon ? (Quiceno M.P.)