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DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Building-integrated photovoltaics as energy
producing façades.
Design options and examples
23 maggio 2022
1
Prof. Dr. Francesco Frontini
Head of Building System sector
Swiss BIPV competence centre
SUPSI-ISAAC ConstructPV Project, small scale facade Demo, design UNStudio
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
SUPSI Swiss BIPV CC and SUPSI-PVLab
• Over 15 years of experience in the use of photovoltaics in architecture in collaboration with industry
• First BIPV project in 2003-2004
• Multidisciplinary team: architects, engineers, physicists, technicians
• Collaboration with industries, architects and building owners for market transfer (from TRL4 to TRL8)
• Unique ISO 17025 accreditated PV Lab in Switzerland
2
Demonstration and applied
research
New Technology
Sensitization and
communication
Test & Qualification
PVLab
PVLab
www.solarchitecture.ch
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Solar evolution: beyond technology, beyond cosmetics
23/05/2022
3
2000
© HUGGENBERGERFRIES, Solaris, Zurich
® Rolf Disch, Solar Settlement, Freiburg
© Thomas Herzog, Solar house in Munich
1979 2018
© Rohspace, Hanwha Group, UNStudio arch. Seoul
2019
First Age
First Age Second Age
Second Age
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
VARIEGATED (NEW) MARKET DEMANDS AND DESIGN COMPLEXITY
23/05/2022
4
«MY PV ROOF» «AVARAGE» BUILDINGS «VALUABLE» BUILDINGS NZEB or PEB
RETROFIT
Scognamiglio A., Frontini F, “BIPV”. GETTING THE TECHNOLOGY
AND INTEGRATION BALANCE RIGHT, 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference | EUPVSEC
NEW
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
NEW REQUIREMENTS (COMPLEXITY)
R&D FOR DIFFERENT ACTORS
23/05/2022
5
«MY PV ROOF» «AVARAGE» BUILDINGS «VALUABLE» BUILDINGS NZEB or PEB
STANDARD
PHOTOVOLTAIC
MODULES
+
MOUNTING
SYSTEMS
“PREFABRICATED”
PHOTOVOLTAIC
COMPONENTS
INCLUDING
INSULATION
(RETROFITTING)
CUSTOMISED
PHOTOVOLTAIC
MODULES
“PREFABRICATED”
PHOTOVOLTAIC
COMPONENTS
(INCLUDING INSULATION)
+
PART OF AN ENERGY
SOLUTION SET
active energy
performance
passive energy
performance
+
active energy
performance
+
integrability
active energy
performance
+
visual
appearance
+
integrability
passive energy
performance
+
active energy
performance
+
integrability
“complete”
energy
system
INNOVATION POTENTIAL
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Roof solutions
Full integration, dimension and color
23/05/2022
6
Source: www.solarchitecture.ch, Casa Schneller Bader
Arch. Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG
Tiles: 3S Solar Plus
Source: www.solarchitecture.ch, Casa Schneller Bader
Arch. Lutz architectes
Tiles: Ernst Schweizer AG, Solstis AG, CSEM
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Roof solutions
Different forms and dimensions possible
23/05/2022
7
3S Solar Plus, Megaslate tiles, min 985x875
Swisspearl, Integral, 1300x900mm Solariresuisse, Sunstyle
Panotron, 375x155mm
Soltop, 996x1660 mm
SchweizerMetalabau Flisom lightweigh roof solution
Flisom lightweigh roof solution
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Façade solutions: opaque vs transparent
23/05/2022
8
(source: Kamaleon Solar) (source: AGC Technovation center,
Gosselies, Belgium)
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Façade solutions: different possibilities with different performances and “targets”
23/05/2022
9
Source: prSIA 2062 Photovoltaik auf und an Gebäuden
*(Cat. A and B are for Roofs )
*
Light construction Heavy constructions
Categorization of BIPV applications
https://iea-pvps.org/key-topics/categorization-of-bipv-applications/
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Façade solutions: different possibilities with different performances and “targets”
23/05/2022
10
Source: prSIA 2062
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Back rail system (hided joint)
23/05/2022
11
Source: solarchitecture.ch
Picture SwissInso, Martin Zeller
Solar Silo, Basel, Baüburo In situ AG
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 12
Overlapping solution with hook holder
23/05/2022
Source: solarchitecture.ch
Picture: Beat Bühler
Project in Zwirnerstrasse, René Schmid Architekten AG
Source: solarchitecture.ch
Drawing: ETHZ
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 13
Aluminum rail system suspended on metal structure
23/05/2022
Source: solarchitecture.ch
Picture: DMK Architecture Photography
Silo Bleu, Renens, Epure Architecture et Urbanisme SA
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
New aesthetic potentials for active opaque facades
23/05/2022
14
(source: SUNOVATION)
(source: ERTEX)
(source: ISSOL)
(source: SOLAXESS)
(source: SWISSINSO)
(source: COMPAZ)
(source: Kamaleon Solar)
(source: Sunage SunCol)
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Power vs color
How much does the aesthetics "cost"?
23/05/2022
15
IEA PVPS Task 15: ST-E report: Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development
© HSLU © Berger © HSLU © CSEM
© ConstructPV © ECN © Smart-flex
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 16
23/05/2022
(source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT)
(https://solarchitecture.ch/polis/)
Transforming a conventional cladding
in an energy-producing façade
The BIPV facade of
Centro Polis in Lugano
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 17
Centro Polis in Lugano: the active surfaces
Year of construction: 2017 – 2021
• PV façade (rainscreen façade): 173 kWp - 1’675 m2
• PV roof (BAPV on flat roof): 112 kWp - 603 m2
Main goals of our FER project:
• Monitoring of facade energy performance in operation
• Simulation of PV-energy and performance-gap
• Techno-econimic analysis of costs and revenues
• Citizens sensitization and communication
23/05/2022
(source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT)
Fondo Energie Rinnovabili
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 18
Solar Potential
Yield from 215 to 835 kWh/kWp
Max difference between the most and
less irradiated points: ∆yearly (kWh/m2):
65% (Façade 7)
50% (Façade 10)
23/05/2022
Facades 7 & 8 – 21/12 h.16
Facades 7 & 8 – 21/3 h.13
Facade 2 ‐ 21/12 h.10
a
a
b
c
Façade 10 – Global yearly irradiation (source: SUPSI)
Façade 7 – Global Spring irradiation (source: SUPSI)
b
b
c
a. Shading from the urban surrounding
b. Shading from the roof overhang
c. Self-shadings from the building
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 19
Building skin: cladding (module) electrical concept
• Sunage Suncol glass-glass modules
(custom-made)
Aesthetic customization:
• Effect of glass colour (compared to a
transparent front glass): reduction of
25-30% power output in STC
Module electrical features:
• C-Si mono
• 4 horizontal sub-modules 48cells (4 JB)
• 4 diodes
• Specific power: 110/130 Wp/m²
23/05/2022
(Source: Sunage-Alsolis)
(Source: SUPSI)
Source:
2905
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 20
Cost competitiveness
23/05/2022
242 CHF/m2
Extra cost
in comparison to a rainscreen facade with a fibercement composite
panel (alternative of the original project) –VAT excluded.
Single/aggregated facades analysis
(Facades 1&7 South)
• Co: +46 CHF/m2 (PayBackTime: 13 years)*
Global analysis:
• Co: -78 CHF/m2 (PBT >30years)*
*analysis are based on energy simulated data
• Co=NPV/A = €/m2
• Simulated energy data, 30 years, 100% SC
Analysis will be validated with real data
(Source: SUPSI –Bequerel)
(Source: SUPSI For more details see: BIPV Status Report 2020)
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
Lessons learned
“I want a solar building”
• Decision making, makes the difference
• Multifunctionality is the starting point…
…interdisciplinarity is all the rest:
• Architecture & PV energy concept
• Construction and PV technologies
• Building and electric engineering
• Energy and economy optimization
• Construction and PV processes
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 22
Decision making
“Regarding the PV façade, it was simply an adaptation of a fiber-cement ventilated
façade, which we then converted during the design phase together with the city of
Lugano, aiming to maintain the same style and the same architectural concept”.
Architect Rosario Galgano -Studio Mario Campi SA
“The Polis building was a challenge on several counts. We started with a project that was
already well advanced and designed using a traditional non-active cladding. Replacing
the traditional cladding with our BIPV modules required a major effort to find the best
possible solution in terms of aesthetics and efficiency”
Gazmend Luzi -Manager at Sunage SA
23/05/2022 See complete interview on www.solarchitecture.ch
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit
More details ? On the platform of «sun as a building material»: www.solarchitecture.ch
23/05/2022
23
DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 24
Thank you very much for your attention
Prof. Francesco Frontini
francesco.frontini@supsi.ch
www.supsi.ch/isaac
www.solarchitecture.ch
23/05/2022
This project has received funding from the European Union’s
Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under
grant agreement N° 817991. The information reflects only
the project's view and the Commission is not responsible for
any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT
40 anni TISO, 19 May 2022, Campus Mendrisio
https://www.supsi.ch/isaac/eventi-
comunicazioni/eventi/2022/2022-05-19.html

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Building-integrated photovoltaics as energy producing façades

  • 1. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Building-integrated photovoltaics as energy producing façades. Design options and examples 23 maggio 2022 1 Prof. Dr. Francesco Frontini Head of Building System sector Swiss BIPV competence centre SUPSI-ISAAC ConstructPV Project, small scale facade Demo, design UNStudio
  • 2. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit SUPSI Swiss BIPV CC and SUPSI-PVLab • Over 15 years of experience in the use of photovoltaics in architecture in collaboration with industry • First BIPV project in 2003-2004 • Multidisciplinary team: architects, engineers, physicists, technicians • Collaboration with industries, architects and building owners for market transfer (from TRL4 to TRL8) • Unique ISO 17025 accreditated PV Lab in Switzerland 2 Demonstration and applied research New Technology Sensitization and communication Test & Qualification PVLab PVLab www.solarchitecture.ch
  • 3. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Solar evolution: beyond technology, beyond cosmetics 23/05/2022 3 2000 © HUGGENBERGERFRIES, Solaris, Zurich ® Rolf Disch, Solar Settlement, Freiburg © Thomas Herzog, Solar house in Munich 1979 2018 © Rohspace, Hanwha Group, UNStudio arch. Seoul 2019 First Age First Age Second Age Second Age
  • 4. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit VARIEGATED (NEW) MARKET DEMANDS AND DESIGN COMPLEXITY 23/05/2022 4 «MY PV ROOF» «AVARAGE» BUILDINGS «VALUABLE» BUILDINGS NZEB or PEB RETROFIT Scognamiglio A., Frontini F, “BIPV”. GETTING THE TECHNOLOGY AND INTEGRATION BALANCE RIGHT, 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference | EUPVSEC NEW
  • 5. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit NEW REQUIREMENTS (COMPLEXITY) R&D FOR DIFFERENT ACTORS 23/05/2022 5 «MY PV ROOF» «AVARAGE» BUILDINGS «VALUABLE» BUILDINGS NZEB or PEB STANDARD PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES + MOUNTING SYSTEMS “PREFABRICATED” PHOTOVOLTAIC COMPONENTS INCLUDING INSULATION (RETROFITTING) CUSTOMISED PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES “PREFABRICATED” PHOTOVOLTAIC COMPONENTS (INCLUDING INSULATION) + PART OF AN ENERGY SOLUTION SET active energy performance passive energy performance + active energy performance + integrability active energy performance + visual appearance + integrability passive energy performance + active energy performance + integrability “complete” energy system INNOVATION POTENTIAL
  • 6. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Roof solutions Full integration, dimension and color 23/05/2022 6 Source: www.solarchitecture.ch, Casa Schneller Bader Arch. Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG Tiles: 3S Solar Plus Source: www.solarchitecture.ch, Casa Schneller Bader Arch. Lutz architectes Tiles: Ernst Schweizer AG, Solstis AG, CSEM
  • 7. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Roof solutions Different forms and dimensions possible 23/05/2022 7 3S Solar Plus, Megaslate tiles, min 985x875 Swisspearl, Integral, 1300x900mm Solariresuisse, Sunstyle Panotron, 375x155mm Soltop, 996x1660 mm SchweizerMetalabau Flisom lightweigh roof solution Flisom lightweigh roof solution
  • 8. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Façade solutions: opaque vs transparent 23/05/2022 8 (source: Kamaleon Solar) (source: AGC Technovation center, Gosselies, Belgium)
  • 9. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Façade solutions: different possibilities with different performances and “targets” 23/05/2022 9 Source: prSIA 2062 Photovoltaik auf und an Gebäuden *(Cat. A and B are for Roofs ) * Light construction Heavy constructions Categorization of BIPV applications https://iea-pvps.org/key-topics/categorization-of-bipv-applications/
  • 10. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Façade solutions: different possibilities with different performances and “targets” 23/05/2022 10 Source: prSIA 2062
  • 11. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Back rail system (hided joint) 23/05/2022 11 Source: solarchitecture.ch Picture SwissInso, Martin Zeller Solar Silo, Basel, Baüburo In situ AG
  • 12. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 12 Overlapping solution with hook holder 23/05/2022 Source: solarchitecture.ch Picture: Beat Bühler Project in Zwirnerstrasse, René Schmid Architekten AG Source: solarchitecture.ch Drawing: ETHZ
  • 13. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 13 Aluminum rail system suspended on metal structure 23/05/2022 Source: solarchitecture.ch Picture: DMK Architecture Photography Silo Bleu, Renens, Epure Architecture et Urbanisme SA
  • 14. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit New aesthetic potentials for active opaque facades 23/05/2022 14 (source: SUNOVATION) (source: ERTEX) (source: ISSOL) (source: SOLAXESS) (source: SWISSINSO) (source: COMPAZ) (source: Kamaleon Solar) (source: Sunage SunCol)
  • 15. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Power vs color How much does the aesthetics "cost"? 23/05/2022 15 IEA PVPS Task 15: ST-E report: Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development © HSLU © Berger © HSLU © CSEM © ConstructPV © ECN © Smart-flex
  • 16. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 16 23/05/2022 (source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT) (https://solarchitecture.ch/polis/) Transforming a conventional cladding in an energy-producing façade The BIPV facade of Centro Polis in Lugano
  • 17. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 17 Centro Polis in Lugano: the active surfaces Year of construction: 2017 – 2021 • PV façade (rainscreen façade): 173 kWp - 1’675 m2 • PV roof (BAPV on flat roof): 112 kWp - 603 m2 Main goals of our FER project: • Monitoring of facade energy performance in operation • Simulation of PV-energy and performance-gap • Techno-econimic analysis of costs and revenues • Citizens sensitization and communication 23/05/2022 (source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT) Fondo Energie Rinnovabili
  • 18. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 18 Solar Potential Yield from 215 to 835 kWh/kWp Max difference between the most and less irradiated points: ∆yearly (kWh/m2): 65% (Façade 7) 50% (Façade 10) 23/05/2022 Facades 7 & 8 – 21/12 h.16 Facades 7 & 8 – 21/3 h.13 Facade 2 ‐ 21/12 h.10 a a b c Façade 10 – Global yearly irradiation (source: SUPSI) Façade 7 – Global Spring irradiation (source: SUPSI) b b c a. Shading from the urban surrounding b. Shading from the roof overhang c. Self-shadings from the building
  • 19. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 19 Building skin: cladding (module) electrical concept • Sunage Suncol glass-glass modules (custom-made) Aesthetic customization: • Effect of glass colour (compared to a transparent front glass): reduction of 25-30% power output in STC Module electrical features: • C-Si mono • 4 horizontal sub-modules 48cells (4 JB) • 4 diodes • Specific power: 110/130 Wp/m² 23/05/2022 (Source: Sunage-Alsolis) (Source: SUPSI) Source: 2905
  • 20. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 20 Cost competitiveness 23/05/2022 242 CHF/m2 Extra cost in comparison to a rainscreen facade with a fibercement composite panel (alternative of the original project) –VAT excluded. Single/aggregated facades analysis (Facades 1&7 South) • Co: +46 CHF/m2 (PayBackTime: 13 years)* Global analysis: • Co: -78 CHF/m2 (PBT >30years)* *analysis are based on energy simulated data • Co=NPV/A = €/m2 • Simulated energy data, 30 years, 100% SC Analysis will be validated with real data (Source: SUPSI –Bequerel) (Source: SUPSI For more details see: BIPV Status Report 2020)
  • 21. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit Lessons learned “I want a solar building” • Decision making, makes the difference • Multifunctionality is the starting point… …interdisciplinarity is all the rest: • Architecture & PV energy concept • Construction and PV technologies • Building and electric engineering • Energy and economy optimization • Construction and PV processes
  • 22. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 22 Decision making “Regarding the PV façade, it was simply an adaptation of a fiber-cement ventilated façade, which we then converted during the design phase together with the city of Lugano, aiming to maintain the same style and the same architectural concept”. Architect Rosario Galgano -Studio Mario Campi SA “The Polis building was a challenge on several counts. We started with a project that was already well advanced and designed using a traditional non-active cladding. Replacing the traditional cladding with our BIPV modules required a major effort to find the best possible solution in terms of aesthetics and efficiency” Gazmend Luzi -Manager at Sunage SA 23/05/2022 See complete interview on www.solarchitecture.ch
  • 23. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit More details ? On the platform of «sun as a building material»: www.solarchitecture.ch 23/05/2022 23
  • 24. DACD / ISAAC / Energiefassaden – Potenzial, Technologien und Wirtschaftlichkeit 24 Thank you very much for your attention Prof. Francesco Frontini francesco.frontini@supsi.ch www.supsi.ch/isaac www.solarchitecture.ch 23/05/2022 This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement N° 817991. The information reflects only the project's view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. Source: Alessandro Rabaglio – Città di Lugano & Chiara Zocchetti – CdT 40 anni TISO, 19 May 2022, Campus Mendrisio https://www.supsi.ch/isaac/eventi- comunicazioni/eventi/2022/2022-05-19.html