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BUILDING & TOWNPLANNING
BUILDING BYE-LAWS
BY: PROF. S. M. MADHALE
SLUM DEVELOPMENT AS PER LAWS
WHAT IS BUILDING BY LAWS?
• The rules and regulation framed by Town Planning Authorities covering
the requirements of building, ensuring safety of the public through open
spaces, minimum size of rooms and height and area limitation, are known
as building bye-laws.
• Rules and regulations which largely regulate the building activity should be
formulated to get disciplined growth of building and the better planned
development of towns and cities.
OBJECTIVE OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS
• Pre-planning of building activity.
• Allow orderly growth and prevent haphazard development.
• Provisions of by-laws usually afford safety against fire, noise,
health hazard and structure failure.
• Provide proper utilization of space to achieved maximum efficiency
in planning.
• They provide health, safety and comfort to the people who live
in building.
• Due to these bye-laws, each building will have proper
approaches, light, air and ventilation.
SCOPE OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS
• Aspects of different type of building in building bye-laws:
1. Building frontage line
2. Minimum plot size
3. Built up area of building
4. Height of building
5. Provision of safety, water supply, drainage, proper light and ventilation
6. Requirement for off street parking space
7. Size of structural element
WITHOUT OBEYING ANY RULES THEN THERE WILL BE PROBLEMS
OF
1. Irregular and narrow roads
2. Frequent traffic
3. Problem of parking
4. Health problems due to pollution
5. Poor light and ventilation
6. No proper planning of gardens, play grounds, etc.
7. Problems regarding services like water supply, drainage, telephone, gas,
electricity etc.
8. Noise nuisance in education, hospitals, court etc.
APPLICABILITY OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS
• New construction
• Additional and alternations to a building
• Changing of occupancy of building (residential, education etc.)
• Development of land is undertaken
• In demolition
ZONES
• “Town / City is divided into different areas is called zones”.
• Location of a zone depends upon the suitability for specific activities
• Local authority decides number and types of zones considering the
necessity of town.
• Following are the some of zones
 Residential: Residential buildings, gardens, play grounds, schools,
offices are allowed (Industries, hospitals, whole-sale markets are not
allowed)
 Commercial: Cinema, retail shops, town-halls, restaurants, bank, offices,
shopping centers are allowed (Hospitals and Industries are not allowed)
• Industrial Ordinary: Light industries, Workshops, printing press,
small factories are allowed
(Heavy, Obnoxious and hazardous industries are not allowed)
• Hazardous Industrial: All types of industries allowed
(Residential buildings are totally not allowed)
• Educational: School, collages, sports complex allowed
(Other than education activities are not allowed)
DIFFERENT TYPES OF AREA
• Built up area
• Plinth area
• Floor area
• Carpet area
• Super built up area
BUILT UP AREA
• “The area covered by the building immediately above the plinth level”
• It is also known as covered area.
Details to be included Details not to be included
Basement Steps
Building Structure Otta
Ramps Kundi
Swimming pool Soak pit
Reservoir Fountain
Chimney Manhole
Water purification plant Water tank
PLINTH AREA
• Means the built-up covered area measured at the floor level of the
basement or of any storey.
Area to be included in plinth area Area not to be included in plinth area
Area of walls at floor level excluding
plinth offset, external area of projecting
cladding.
Additional floor to accommodate seats
in theatre, assembly hall, or auditorium
Cover of stair Balcony
Barsati Curvature provided to
improve appearance
Machine room Platform without cover terrace
above floor
Porch without cantilever Dome, tower at terrace, spiral stairs
CARPET AREA
• “It is net usable area within
building”.
• Means the net area within
a unit of a building
excluding walls or
columns, service areas such
as washrooms, kitchen and
pantry, semi- open spaces
such as veranda or balcony,
and corridors or passages.
FLOOR AREA
• “It is usable area on
each floor”
• It including,
• Porch
• Each flat area in
single floor for
apartment
• Stairs
• Corridor
• Door swing place
SET BACK DISTANCE
PERMISSIBLE SET BACK DISTANCE
Width of road Permissible set back
Up to 12 m 1.5
>12 m 2.0
Road width <3 m and
length < 30 m
No set- back
ADVANTAGE OF SET-BACK
• Better condition of air, light and ventilation.
• At corners it improve visibility and safety from traffic.
• Space for parking.
• Protection of building from street nuisance like noise.
• Reduce the danger of fire from neighbor house.
• It provide privacy in building.
BUILDING & CONTROL LINE
• The line up to which the plinth of the building adjoining a street or road
or on future street may lawfully extend is know as building line.
• Building such as cinemas, factories, commercial center which attract large
number of vehicle should be set-back distance apart from the building
line.
• The line up to which such building can be constructed is known as
control line.
LIGHT PLANE
• The angle of light plan is 450 or
63.500.
• So the angle of 63.500 set Back
becomes necessary when the total
height of the building exceeds
twice the width of road or street.
FLOOR SPACE INDEX
𝐹𝑆𝐼 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠
𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
Zone Permissible FSI Remark
Residential(scheme area) 1 Max at G.F 0.4
Residential(city area) 4 Width of road more than 12m
Residential(city area) 3 Width of road less than 12m
Industrial (scheme area) 1.5 Maximum allowed on G.F 1.0
Commercial (scheme area) 1.33 Maximum allowed on G.F 0.4
How To
Calculate FSI
Principles Underlying Building Bye-laws
• Classifying the building with unit as a family and mentioning the requirement.
• Classify rooms according use and then specifying minimum standard of each
room with respect to size, height, floor area, ventilation and light.
• Specify height of compound wall and location of gate in wall.
• Controlling projection in marginal space.
• Insisting on suitable FSI or FAR.
• Specify suitable arrangements with respect to drainage and water supply.
• Specify set-backs, light plan and margin.
• Specify minimum size of plots, their dimension and figure.24
Building Bye-laws For Residential Area
• Size of plots
• Area limitation
• Margin
• Height of the building
• Plinth height
• Minimum area of rooms
• Basement
• Compound wall
• Projection margin
• Parapet wall
• Mezzanine floor
• staircase
1.Size of Plots:
TYPE OF
DEVELOPMENT
PLOT SIZE FRONTAGE
Detached Building >250 m2 Above 12 m
Semi-detached
building
125-250 m2 8-12 m
Row type building 50-125 m2 4.5 to 8 m
2. AREA LIMITATION
• The limitation of area and height of the building of different type of
construction and occupancy class is achieved by satisfying floor area ratio.
• The FAR is specified taking into account the following aspect:
1. Occupancy class
2. Type of construction
3. Width of street frontage the building and the traffic load.
4. Parking facilities
5. Local fire fighting facilities
6. Water supply and drainage.
• Built up area: The FSI shall be 1.0 with maximum utilization up to 0.4 on
ground floor.
Sr. No. Area of plot Maximum permissible covered area
1. < 200 m2 66.67% of the plot area on ground floor and first
floor. Nothing on second floor exceeding 25 % of
the ground floor.
2. 201-500 m2 50 % of the plot area or 133 m2 which ever is more.
3. 501-1000 m2 40 % of the plot area or 250 m2 which ever is more.
4. > 1000 m2 33.33 % of the plot area or 400 m2 which ever is
more.
MARGIN
Theopen spaces insides andaround the building particularly
residential type have to provide to carter for the lighting
and ventilation requirement.
1. Front open space
2. Rear open space
3. Side open space
FOR BUILDING UPTO 300M2 PLOT AREA
Sr. No. Plot area (m2) Front open
space
Rear open
space
Sides open
space
1. Up to 50 0.75 - -
2. 51 to 75 1.0 1.0 0.5
3. 76 to 100 1.25 1.00 0.5
4. 101 to 150 2.0 2.0 1.25
5. 151 to 200 2.0 2.0 1.25
6. 201 to 300 3.0 2.0 1.50
For Building Above 300m2 Plot Area And Height Up to 13 M
1. Minimum front set back
2. Minimum rear set back is 3 m
3. Minimum side backs
Width of road in m Minimum set back in m
Up to 12 3
12 to 18 4
Above 18 4.5
Plot area Minimum set back
301 to 670 1.5 m or 0.25 of the height of the building
on each side
Above 670 3 m on both side or 0.25 of height of the
building which is higher
HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING
• Height of building according to width of street:
1. The maximum height of the building shall not exceed 1.5 times the
width of road.
2. For building in vicinity of aerodromes, the maximum height of the
building is fixed in consultation with civil aviation authorities.
• The height shall not included if building is erected one-third of roof
area, including:
1. Roof tank and its support
2. Ventilating, lift room
3. Roof structure other than pent-house
Plinth Height
• The height of the plinth shall not be less than 450 mm ground level.
• Minimum height of 600 mm is the best from drainage or other
consideration.
• It is minimum 900 mm in water logged soils.
Minimum Size Of Diff. Rooms
No. Name of room Minimum
area
Minimum size of side Height Other
requirement
1. Habitable room
-bed room
-living room
-study room
9.5 m2 2.4 m Not less then
2.75 m from surface of
floor to lowest point of
ceiling
As per need
2. Kitchen 5 m2 1.8 m Not less than
2.75 m
As per need
3. Bath rooms and
water closets
1.8 m2 If bath and water closet
are combined, its floor
area shall not less than
2.8 m2 with minimum
width 1.2 m
Not less than 2.1
m
As per need
No. Name of room Minimum
area
Minimum
size of side
Height Other requirement
4. Store room 3 m2 ----- Not less than 2.2 m -----
5. Garage 12.5
m2
3m x 6m Not less than 2.4 m -----
6. Stair case The minimum
width of stair is
0.9 m.
Clear head room
shall be 2.2 m
• Minimum width
of tread without
nosing 250 mm
in residential.
• The maximum
height of rise
shall be 190 mm
for residential
building.
Basement / Cellar
• The basement shall not be used for residential purpose.
• The basement to be constructed within the prescribed set back and building
lines and subject to maximum on entrance floor may be put to only the
following use:
• Storage of household
• Strongrooms, bank cellars
• Parking places
• Air conditioning equipment and other machine
Requirement Of Basement
• The height of basement from the floor to the underside of the
roofslab or ceiling shall not be less than 2.4 m.
• The maximum height of the ceiling of any basement shall be 0.9 m
and maximum 1.2 m above the average surrounding ground level.
• Adequate arrangement shall be made such that surface drainage does
not enter the basement.
• The walls and floor of the basement shall be watertight.
• The access to the basement shall be separate from the main and
alternative staircase providing access and exit from higher floor.
Compound Wall
• Except with the special permission of the maximum height of
compound wall shall be 1.5 m above center line of front street.
• It is permitted 2.4 m when the top of 0.9 m is open type construction
• In corner plot it is restricted to 0.75 m for a length of 10 m on side and
front intersection.
• The balance height of 0.75 m may be made up through railing and of
design to be approved by the authority.
Mezzanine Floor
• Minimum height of mezzanine floor shall be 2.2 m.
• The minimum size of the mezzanine floor, if it is to be used
as a living room shall not less than 9.5 m2
• The aggregate area of such mezzanine floor in a building
shall in no case exceed 1/3 the plinth area of the building.
 Building By law.pptx

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Building By law.pptx

  • 1. BUILDING & TOWNPLANNING BUILDING BYE-LAWS BY: PROF. S. M. MADHALE
  • 3. WHAT IS BUILDING BY LAWS? • The rules and regulation framed by Town Planning Authorities covering the requirements of building, ensuring safety of the public through open spaces, minimum size of rooms and height and area limitation, are known as building bye-laws. • Rules and regulations which largely regulate the building activity should be formulated to get disciplined growth of building and the better planned development of towns and cities.
  • 4. OBJECTIVE OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS • Pre-planning of building activity. • Allow orderly growth and prevent haphazard development. • Provisions of by-laws usually afford safety against fire, noise, health hazard and structure failure. • Provide proper utilization of space to achieved maximum efficiency in planning. • They provide health, safety and comfort to the people who live in building. • Due to these bye-laws, each building will have proper approaches, light, air and ventilation.
  • 5. SCOPE OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS • Aspects of different type of building in building bye-laws: 1. Building frontage line 2. Minimum plot size 3. Built up area of building 4. Height of building 5. Provision of safety, water supply, drainage, proper light and ventilation 6. Requirement for off street parking space 7. Size of structural element
  • 6. WITHOUT OBEYING ANY RULES THEN THERE WILL BE PROBLEMS OF 1. Irregular and narrow roads 2. Frequent traffic 3. Problem of parking 4. Health problems due to pollution 5. Poor light and ventilation 6. No proper planning of gardens, play grounds, etc. 7. Problems regarding services like water supply, drainage, telephone, gas, electricity etc. 8. Noise nuisance in education, hospitals, court etc.
  • 7. APPLICABILITY OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS • New construction • Additional and alternations to a building • Changing of occupancy of building (residential, education etc.) • Development of land is undertaken • In demolition
  • 8. ZONES • “Town / City is divided into different areas is called zones”. • Location of a zone depends upon the suitability for specific activities • Local authority decides number and types of zones considering the necessity of town. • Following are the some of zones  Residential: Residential buildings, gardens, play grounds, schools, offices are allowed (Industries, hospitals, whole-sale markets are not allowed)  Commercial: Cinema, retail shops, town-halls, restaurants, bank, offices, shopping centers are allowed (Hospitals and Industries are not allowed)
  • 9. • Industrial Ordinary: Light industries, Workshops, printing press, small factories are allowed (Heavy, Obnoxious and hazardous industries are not allowed) • Hazardous Industrial: All types of industries allowed (Residential buildings are totally not allowed) • Educational: School, collages, sports complex allowed (Other than education activities are not allowed)
  • 10. DIFFERENT TYPES OF AREA • Built up area • Plinth area • Floor area • Carpet area • Super built up area
  • 11. BUILT UP AREA • “The area covered by the building immediately above the plinth level” • It is also known as covered area. Details to be included Details not to be included Basement Steps Building Structure Otta Ramps Kundi Swimming pool Soak pit Reservoir Fountain Chimney Manhole Water purification plant Water tank
  • 12. PLINTH AREA • Means the built-up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey. Area to be included in plinth area Area not to be included in plinth area Area of walls at floor level excluding plinth offset, external area of projecting cladding. Additional floor to accommodate seats in theatre, assembly hall, or auditorium Cover of stair Balcony Barsati Curvature provided to improve appearance Machine room Platform without cover terrace above floor Porch without cantilever Dome, tower at terrace, spiral stairs
  • 13. CARPET AREA • “It is net usable area within building”. • Means the net area within a unit of a building excluding walls or columns, service areas such as washrooms, kitchen and pantry, semi- open spaces such as veranda or balcony, and corridors or passages.
  • 14.
  • 15. FLOOR AREA • “It is usable area on each floor” • It including, • Porch • Each flat area in single floor for apartment • Stairs • Corridor • Door swing place
  • 17. PERMISSIBLE SET BACK DISTANCE Width of road Permissible set back Up to 12 m 1.5 >12 m 2.0 Road width <3 m and length < 30 m No set- back
  • 18. ADVANTAGE OF SET-BACK • Better condition of air, light and ventilation. • At corners it improve visibility and safety from traffic. • Space for parking. • Protection of building from street nuisance like noise. • Reduce the danger of fire from neighbor house. • It provide privacy in building.
  • 19. BUILDING & CONTROL LINE • The line up to which the plinth of the building adjoining a street or road or on future street may lawfully extend is know as building line. • Building such as cinemas, factories, commercial center which attract large number of vehicle should be set-back distance apart from the building line. • The line up to which such building can be constructed is known as control line.
  • 20.
  • 21. LIGHT PLANE • The angle of light plan is 450 or 63.500. • So the angle of 63.500 set Back becomes necessary when the total height of the building exceeds twice the width of road or street.
  • 22. FLOOR SPACE INDEX 𝐹𝑆𝐼 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 Zone Permissible FSI Remark Residential(scheme area) 1 Max at G.F 0.4 Residential(city area) 4 Width of road more than 12m Residential(city area) 3 Width of road less than 12m Industrial (scheme area) 1.5 Maximum allowed on G.F 1.0 Commercial (scheme area) 1.33 Maximum allowed on G.F 0.4
  • 24. Principles Underlying Building Bye-laws • Classifying the building with unit as a family and mentioning the requirement. • Classify rooms according use and then specifying minimum standard of each room with respect to size, height, floor area, ventilation and light. • Specify height of compound wall and location of gate in wall. • Controlling projection in marginal space. • Insisting on suitable FSI or FAR. • Specify suitable arrangements with respect to drainage and water supply. • Specify set-backs, light plan and margin. • Specify minimum size of plots, their dimension and figure.24
  • 25. Building Bye-laws For Residential Area • Size of plots • Area limitation • Margin • Height of the building • Plinth height • Minimum area of rooms • Basement • Compound wall • Projection margin • Parapet wall • Mezzanine floor • staircase
  • 26. 1.Size of Plots: TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT PLOT SIZE FRONTAGE Detached Building >250 m2 Above 12 m Semi-detached building 125-250 m2 8-12 m Row type building 50-125 m2 4.5 to 8 m
  • 27.
  • 28. 2. AREA LIMITATION • The limitation of area and height of the building of different type of construction and occupancy class is achieved by satisfying floor area ratio. • The FAR is specified taking into account the following aspect: 1. Occupancy class 2. Type of construction 3. Width of street frontage the building and the traffic load. 4. Parking facilities 5. Local fire fighting facilities 6. Water supply and drainage.
  • 29. • Built up area: The FSI shall be 1.0 with maximum utilization up to 0.4 on ground floor. Sr. No. Area of plot Maximum permissible covered area 1. < 200 m2 66.67% of the plot area on ground floor and first floor. Nothing on second floor exceeding 25 % of the ground floor. 2. 201-500 m2 50 % of the plot area or 133 m2 which ever is more. 3. 501-1000 m2 40 % of the plot area or 250 m2 which ever is more. 4. > 1000 m2 33.33 % of the plot area or 400 m2 which ever is more.
  • 30. MARGIN Theopen spaces insides andaround the building particularly residential type have to provide to carter for the lighting and ventilation requirement. 1. Front open space 2. Rear open space 3. Side open space
  • 31. FOR BUILDING UPTO 300M2 PLOT AREA Sr. No. Plot area (m2) Front open space Rear open space Sides open space 1. Up to 50 0.75 - - 2. 51 to 75 1.0 1.0 0.5 3. 76 to 100 1.25 1.00 0.5 4. 101 to 150 2.0 2.0 1.25 5. 151 to 200 2.0 2.0 1.25 6. 201 to 300 3.0 2.0 1.50
  • 32. For Building Above 300m2 Plot Area And Height Up to 13 M 1. Minimum front set back 2. Minimum rear set back is 3 m 3. Minimum side backs Width of road in m Minimum set back in m Up to 12 3 12 to 18 4 Above 18 4.5 Plot area Minimum set back 301 to 670 1.5 m or 0.25 of the height of the building on each side Above 670 3 m on both side or 0.25 of height of the building which is higher
  • 33. HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING • Height of building according to width of street: 1. The maximum height of the building shall not exceed 1.5 times the width of road. 2. For building in vicinity of aerodromes, the maximum height of the building is fixed in consultation with civil aviation authorities. • The height shall not included if building is erected one-third of roof area, including: 1. Roof tank and its support 2. Ventilating, lift room 3. Roof structure other than pent-house
  • 34. Plinth Height • The height of the plinth shall not be less than 450 mm ground level. • Minimum height of 600 mm is the best from drainage or other consideration. • It is minimum 900 mm in water logged soils.
  • 35. Minimum Size Of Diff. Rooms No. Name of room Minimum area Minimum size of side Height Other requirement 1. Habitable room -bed room -living room -study room 9.5 m2 2.4 m Not less then 2.75 m from surface of floor to lowest point of ceiling As per need 2. Kitchen 5 m2 1.8 m Not less than 2.75 m As per need 3. Bath rooms and water closets 1.8 m2 If bath and water closet are combined, its floor area shall not less than 2.8 m2 with minimum width 1.2 m Not less than 2.1 m As per need
  • 36. No. Name of room Minimum area Minimum size of side Height Other requirement 4. Store room 3 m2 ----- Not less than 2.2 m ----- 5. Garage 12.5 m2 3m x 6m Not less than 2.4 m ----- 6. Stair case The minimum width of stair is 0.9 m. Clear head room shall be 2.2 m • Minimum width of tread without nosing 250 mm in residential. • The maximum height of rise shall be 190 mm for residential building.
  • 37.
  • 38. Basement / Cellar • The basement shall not be used for residential purpose. • The basement to be constructed within the prescribed set back and building lines and subject to maximum on entrance floor may be put to only the following use: • Storage of household • Strongrooms, bank cellars • Parking places • Air conditioning equipment and other machine
  • 39. Requirement Of Basement • The height of basement from the floor to the underside of the roofslab or ceiling shall not be less than 2.4 m. • The maximum height of the ceiling of any basement shall be 0.9 m and maximum 1.2 m above the average surrounding ground level. • Adequate arrangement shall be made such that surface drainage does not enter the basement. • The walls and floor of the basement shall be watertight. • The access to the basement shall be separate from the main and alternative staircase providing access and exit from higher floor.
  • 40. Compound Wall • Except with the special permission of the maximum height of compound wall shall be 1.5 m above center line of front street. • It is permitted 2.4 m when the top of 0.9 m is open type construction • In corner plot it is restricted to 0.75 m for a length of 10 m on side and front intersection. • The balance height of 0.75 m may be made up through railing and of design to be approved by the authority.
  • 41. Mezzanine Floor • Minimum height of mezzanine floor shall be 2.2 m. • The minimum size of the mezzanine floor, if it is to be used as a living room shall not less than 9.5 m2 • The aggregate area of such mezzanine floor in a building shall in no case exceed 1/3 the plinth area of the building.