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Build Your Kubernetes Operator
With the Right Tool!
Rafał Leszko
@RafalLeszko
rafalleszko.com
Hazelcast
About me
● Cloud-Native Team Lead at Hazelcast
● Worked at Google and CERN
● Author of the book "Continuous Delivery
with Docker and Jenkins"
● Trainer and conference speaker
● Live in Kraków, Poland
About Hazelcast
● Distributed Company
● Open Source Software
● 140+ Employees
● Products:
○ Hazelcast IMDG
○ Hazelcast Jet
○ Hazelcast Cloud
@Hazelcast
● Introduction
● Tools for building Operators
○ Operator SDK
■ Helm
■ Ansible
■ Go
○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ...
○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ...
● Summary
Agenda
Introduction
Kubernetes Operator
Kubernetes Operator
Operator is an application that watches a custom Kubernetes
resource and performs some operations upon its changes.
apiVersion: hazelcast.my.domain/v1
kind: Hazelcast
metadata:
name: hazelcast-sample
spec:
size: 1
Resource (hazelcast.yaml)
apiVersion: hazelcast.my.domain/v1
kind: Hazelcast
metadata:
name: hazelcast-sample
spec:
size: 1
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml
Resource (hazelcast.yaml)
Hazelcast
Resource
Kubernetes API
Hazelcast Operator
modify
watches change events
adjust state
Kubernetes
Operators
FRAMEWORKS
KOPF
Operator Similarities
Step 1: Implement the operator logic
Operator Similarities
Step 1: Implement the operator logic
Step 2: Dockerize your operator
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
Operator Similarities
Step 1: Implement the operator logic
Step 2: Dockerize your operator
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
Step 3: Create CRD (Custom Resource Definition)
$ kubectl apply -f hazelast.crd.yaml
Operator Similarities
Operator Similarities
Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding)
$ kubectl apply -f role.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
Operator Similarities
Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding)
$ kubectl apply -f role.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
Step 5: Deploy the operator
$ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml
Operator Similarities
Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding)
$ kubectl apply -f role.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
Step 5: Deploy the operator
$ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml
Step 6: Create your custom resource
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml
Operator Similarities
Step 1: Implement the operator logic
Step 2: Dockerize your operator
Step 3: Create CRD (Custom Resource Definition)
Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding)
Step 5: Deploy the operator
Step 6: Create your custom resource
● Introduction ✔
● Tools for building Operators
○ Operator SDK
■ Helm
■ Ansible
■ Go
○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ...
○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ...
● Summary
Agenda
Operator SDK: Helm
Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes.
It allows you to:
● create templated Kubernetes configurations
● package them into a Helm chart
● render them using parameters defined in values.yaml
Helm: Create Helm Chart
$ helm create chart
# chart/templates/deployment.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: {{ include "hazelcast.fullname" . }}
spec:
replicas: {{ .Values.size }}
selector:
matchLabels:
app: hazelcast
# chart/values.yaml
size: 1
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: hazelcast
spec:
containers:
- name: hazelcast
image: "hazelcast/hazelcast"
Generate Hazelcast Operator
$ operator-sdk init --plugins=helm
$ operator-sdk create api --group=hazelcast --version=v1
--helm-chart=./chart
Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
$ make install
$ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator
$ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml
Helm: Generate Operator
Operator SDK: Operator Capability Levels
What does "Operator SDK: Helm" mean to You?
● Implementation is declarative and
simple
● If you already have a Helm chart, then
no work at all
● Limited to the features available in Helm
● Operator manifest/configuration files
are automatically generated
Operator SDK: Ansible
Ansible is a very powerful tool for IT automation.
It allows you to:
● create tasks in a declarative way
● perform complex DevOps tasks using simple YAML files
● interact with Kubernetes API using the
community.kubernetes.k8s plugin
Ansible: Create Operator
# roles/hazelcast/tasks/main.yml
---
- name: start hazelcast
community.kubernetes.k8s:
definition:
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
name: hazelcast
namespace: '{{ansible_operator_meta.namespace}}'
spec:
replicas: "{{size}}"
selector:
matchLabels:
app: hazelcast
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: hazelcast
spec:
containers:
- name: hazelcast
image: "hazelcast/hazelcast"
$ operator-sdk init --plugins=ansible
$ operator-sdk create api --group hazelcast --version v1 --kind Hazelcast 
--generate-role
Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
$ make install
$ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator
$ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml
Ansible: Build, Install, Use Operator
Operator SDK: Operator Capability Levels
What does "Operator SDK: Ansible" mean to You?
● Implementation is declarative and
therefore concise and human-readable
● YAML configuration is executed via the
community.kubernetes.k8s plugin
● Ansible covers all capability levels
● Operator manifest/configuration files
are automatically generated
Operator SDK: Go
Go is a general-purpose programming language.
Advantages:
● Kubernetes is written in Go
● good Kubernetes client library
● performance
Go: Create Operator
// controllers/hazelcast_controller.go
// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=hazelcast.my.domain,resources=hazelcasts,verbs=get;list…
func (r *HazelcastReconciler) Reconcile(req ctrl.Request) (ctrl.Result, error) {
...
hazelcast := &hazelcastv1.Hazelcast{}
err := r.Get(ctx, req.NamespacedName, hazelcast)
...
found := &appsv1.Deployment{}
err = r.Get(ctx, types.NamespacedName{Name: hazelcast.Name,
Namespace: hazelcast.Namespace}, found)
if err != nil && errors.IsNotFound(err) { dep := r.deploymentForHazelcast(hazelcast) }
...
}
$ operator-sdk init --repo=github.com/<user>/hazelcast-operator
$ operator-sdk create api --version v1 --group=hazelcast --kind Hazelcast --resource=true
--controller=true
Go: Create Operator
// controllers/hazelcast_controller.go
...
Spec: appsv1.DeploymentSpec{
Replicas: &replicas,
Selector: &metav1.LabelSelector{
MatchLabels: ls,
},
Template: corev1.PodTemplateSpec{
ObjectMeta: metav1.ObjectMeta{
Labels: ls,
},
Spec: corev1.PodSpec{
Containers: []corev1.Container{{
Image: "hazelcast/hazelcast",
Name: "hazelcast",
}}, }, }, }, }
// api/v1/hazelcast_types.go
type HazelcastSpec struct {
Size int32 `json:"size,omitempty"`
}
Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
$ make install
$ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator
$ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml
Go: Build, Install, Use Operator
What does "Operator SDK: Go" mean to You?
● Implementation is imperative and
requires more work and caution
● Go language is well integrated with
Kubernetes
● No limits on the functionality
● Operator boilerplate files are
automatically generated
● Introduction ✔
● Tools for building Operators
○ Operator SDK ✔
■ Helm ✔
■ Ansible ✔
■ Go ✔
○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ...
○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ...
● Summary
Agenda
Operator Frameworks
KOPF C# Operator SDK Java
Operator SDK
NodeJS
Operator Framework
Roperator
KOPF C# Operator SDK Java
Operator SDK
NodeJS
Operator Framework
Roperator
KOPF C# Operator SDK Java
Operator SDK
NodeJS
Operator Framework
Roperator
KOPF C# Operator SDK Java
Operator SDK
NodeJS
Operator Framework
Roperator
KOPF: Create Operator
1. Implement configuration and manifest files
● Dockerfile
● hazelcast.crd.yaml
● role.yaml, role_binding.yaml
● operator.yaml
● hazelcast.yaml
2: Implement operator logic in operator.py
KOPF: Create Operator
@kopf.on.create('hazelcast.my.domain','v1','hazelcasts')
def create_fn(spec, **kwargs):
doc = create_deployment(spec)
kopf.adopt(doc)
api = pykube.HTTPClient(pykube.KubeConfig.from_env())
deployment = pykube.Deployment(api, doc)
deployment.create()
api.session.close()
return {'children': [deployment.metadata['uid']]}
def create_deployment(spec):
return yaml.safe_load(f"""
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: hazelcast
spec:
replicas: {spec.get('size', 1)}
selector:
matchLabels:
app: hazelcast
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: hazelcast
spec:
containers:
- name: hazelcast
image: "hazelcast/hazelcast"
""")
Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.crd.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml
KOPF: Build, Install, Use Operator
What does "Operator Framework" mean to You?
● Less developed and popular than
Operator SDK
● No project scaffolding and boilerplate
code generation
● No limits on the functionality
● Kubernetes clients are usually inferior to
the Go Kubernetes client
● Introduction ✔
● Tools for building Operators
○ Operator SDK ✔
■ Helm ✔
■ Ansible ✔
■ Go ✔
○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, … ✔
○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ...
● Summary
Agenda
Bare Programming Language
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
1. Implement configuration and manifest files
● hazelcast.crd.yaml
● role.yaml, role_binding.yaml
● operator.yaml
● hazelcast.yaml
2: Implement Java classes with the operator logic
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream()
.filter(ownerRefMatches)
.collect(toList());
if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) {
client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource));
} else {
for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) {
setSize(deployment, resource);
client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment);
}
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
public class ClientProvider {
@Produces
@Singleton
@Named("namespace")
private String findNamespace() throws IOException {
return new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/namespace")));
}
@Produces
@Singleton
KubernetesClient newClient(@Named("namespace") String namespace) {
return new DefaultKubernetesClient().inNamespace(namespace);
}
@Produces
@Singleton
NonNamespaceOperation<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceList, HazelcastResourceDoneable, Resource<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceDoneable>> makeCustomResourceClient(
KubernetesClient defaultClient, @Named("namespace") String namespace) {
KubernetesDeserializer.registerCustomKind("hazelcast.my.domain/v1", "Hazelcast", HazelcastResource.class);
CustomResourceDefinition crd = defaultClient
.customResourceDefinitions()
.list()
.getItems()
.stream()
.filter(d -> "hazelcasts.hazelcast.my.domain".equals(d.getMetadata().getName()))
.findAny()
.orElseThrow(
() -> new RuntimeException(
"Deployment error: Custom resource definition "hazelcasts.hazelcast.my.domain" not found."));
return defaultClient
.customResources(crd, HazelcastResource.class, HazelcastResourceList.class, HazelcastResourceDoneable.class)
.inNamespace(namespace);
}
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
@ApplicationScoped
public class DeploymentInstaller {
@Inject
private KubernetesClient client;
@Inject
private HazelcastResourceCache cache;
void onStartup(@Observes StartupEvent _ev) {
new Thread(this::runWatch).start();
}
private void runWatch() {
cache.listThenWatch(this::handleEvent);
}
private void handleEvent(Watcher.Action action, String uid) {
try {
HazelcastResource resource = cache.get(uid);
if (resource == null) {
return;
}
Predicate ownerRefMatches = deployments -> deployments.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().stream()
.anyMatch(ownerReference -> ownerReference.getUid().equals(uid));
List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream()
.filter(ownerRefMatches)
.collect(toList());
if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) {
client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource));
} else {
for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) {
setSize(deployment, resource);
client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment);
}
}
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}
}
private Deployment newDeployment(HazelcastResource resource) {
Deployment deployment = client.apps().deployments().load(getClass().getResourceAsStream("/deployment.yaml")).get();
setSize(deployment, resource);
deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setUid(resource.getMetadata().getUid());
deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setName(resource.getMetadata().getName());
return deployment;
}
private void setSize(Deployment deployment, HazelcastResource resource) {
deployment.getSpec().setReplicas(resource.getSpec().getSize());
}
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
@ApplicationScoped
public class DeploymentInstaller {
@Inject
private KubernetesClient client;
@Inject
private HazelcastResourceCache cache;
void onStartup(@Observes StartupEvent _ev) {
new Thread(this::runWatch).start();
}
private void runWatch() {
cache.listThenWatch(this::handleEvent);
}
private void handleEvent(Watcher.Action action, String uid) {
try {
HazelcastResource resource = cache.get(uid);
if (resource == null) {
return;
}
Predicate ownerRefMatches = deployments -> deployments.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().stream()
.anyMatch(ownerReference -> ownerReference.getUid().equals(uid));
List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream()
.filter(ownerRefMatches)
.collect(toList());
if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) {
client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource));
} else {
for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) {
setSize(deployment, resource);
client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment);
}
}
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}
}
private Deployment newDeployment(HazelcastResource resource) {
Deployment deployment = client.apps().deployments().load(getClass().getResourceAsStream("/deployment.yaml")).get();
setSize(deployment, resource);
deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setUid(resource.getMetadata().getUid());
deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setName(resource.getMetadata().getName());
return deployment;
}
private void setSize(Deployment deployment, HazelcastResource resource) {
deployment.getSpec().setReplicas(resource.getSpec().getSize());
}
}
@ApplicationScoped
public class HazelcastResourceCache {
private final Map<String, HazelcastResource> cache = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
@Inject
private NonNamespaceOperation<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceList, HazelcastResourceDoneable, Resource<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceDoneable>> crClient;
private Executor executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
public HazelcastResource get(String uid) {
return cache.get(uid);
}
public void listThenWatch(BiConsumer<Watcher.Action, String> callback) {
try {
// list
crClient
.list()
.getItems()
.forEach(resource -> {
cache.put(resource.getMetadata().getUid(), resource);
String uid = resource.getMetadata().getUid();
executor.execute(() -> callback.accept(Watcher.Action.ADDED, uid));
}
);
// watch
crClient.watch(new Watcher() {
@Override
public void eventReceived(Action action, HazelcastResource resource) {
try {
String uid = resource.getMetadata().getUid();
if (cache.containsKey(uid)) {
int knownResourceVersion = Integer.parseInt(cache.get(uid).getMetadata().getResourceVersion());
int receivedResourceVersion = Integer.parseInt(resource.getMetadata().getResourceVersion());
if (knownResourceVersion > receivedResourceVersion) {
return;
}
}
System.out.println("received " + action + " for resource " + resource);
if (action == Action.ADDED || action == Action.MODIFIED) {
cache.put(uid, resource);
} else if (action == Action.DELETED) {
cache.remove(uid);
} else {
System.err.println("Received unexpected " + action + " event for " + resource);
System.exit(-1);
}
executor.execute(() -> callback.accept(action, uid));
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}
}
@Override
public void onClose(KubernetesClientException cause) {
cause.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}
});
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}
}
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource {
private HazelcastResourceSpec spec;
public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() {
return spec;
}
public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) {
this.spec = spec;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
String name = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getName() : "unknown";
String version = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown";
return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + "
value=" + spec;
}
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource {
private HazelcastResourceSpec spec;
public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() {
return spec;
}
public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) {
this.spec = spec;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
String name = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getName() : "unknown";
String version = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown";
return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + "
value=" + spec;
}
}
public class HazelcastResourceList extends
CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> {
// empty
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource {
private HazelcastResourceSpec spec;
public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() {
return spec;
}
public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) {
this.spec = spec;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
String name = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getName() : "unknown";
String version = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown";
return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + "
value=" + spec;
}
}
@JsonDeserialize
@RegisterForReflection
public class HazelcastResourceSpec {
@JsonProperty("size")
private Integer size;
public Integer getSize() {
return size;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
return "size=" + size;
}
}
public class HazelcastResourceList extends
CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> {
// empty
}
Java + Quarkus: Create Operator
public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource {
private HazelcastResourceSpec spec;
public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() {
return spec;
}
public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) {
this.spec = spec;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
String name = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getName() : "unknown";
String version = getMetadata() != null ?
getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown";
return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + "
value=" + spec;
}
}
@JsonDeserialize
@RegisterForReflection
public class HazelcastResourceSpec {
@JsonProperty("size")
private Integer size;
public Integer getSize() {
return size;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
return "size=" + size;
}
}
public class HazelcastResourceDoneable extends
CustomResourceDoneable<HazelcastResource> {
public HazelcastResourceDoneable(HazelcastResource resource,
Function<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResource> function) {
super(resource, function);
}
}
public class HazelcastResourceList extends
CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> {
// empty
}
Build Docker image
$ mvn package && docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
Build native Docker image
$ mvn package -Pnative -DskipTests -Dnative-image.docker-build=true
$ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator .
Common Operator Steps: push, install, and use
$ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.crd.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml
Java + Quarkus: Build, Install, Use Operator
What does "Bare Programming Language" mean to You?
● Always means writing more code
● Check if your language has a good
Kubernetes client library
● No limits on the functionality
● Only reason: single programming
language in your organization
Summary
Which tool
should I use for
my operator?
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!
Hint 1: If you already have a Helm chart for your software and
you don’t need any complex capability levels
Hint 1: If you already have a Helm chart for your software and
you don’t need any complex capability levels
Operator SDK: Helm
Hint 2: If you want to create your operator quickly and you
don’t need any complex capability levels
Hint 2: If you want to create your operator quickly and you
don’t need any complex capability levels
Operator SDK: Helm
Hint 3: If you want complex features or/and be flexible about
any future implementations
Hint 3: If you want complex features or/and be flexible about
any future implementations
Operator SDK: Go
Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in
your organization
Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in
your organization
● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language
or/and you want to contribute to it
Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in
your organization
● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language
or/and you want to contribute to it
Operator Framework
Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in
your organization
● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language
or/and you want to contribute to it
● If no popular Operator Framework exists for your
programming language
Operator Framework
Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in
your organization
● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language
or/and you want to contribute to it
● If no popular Operator Framework exists for your
programming language
Operator Framework
Bare Programming Language
Hint 5: If none of the mentioned
Hint 5: If none of the mentioned
Operator SDK: Go
Resources
● Code for this presentation:
https://github.com/leszko/build-your-operator
● Operator SDK:
https://sdk.operatorframework.io/
● Java + Quarkus operator description:
https://www.instana.com/blog/writing-a-kubernetes-operator-in-jav
a-part-1/
● KOPF (Kubernetes Operators Framework):
https://kopf.readthedocs.io/en/stable/
Thank You!
Rafał Leszko
@RafalLeszko
rafalleszko.com

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Build Your Kubernetes Operator with the Right Tool!

  • 1. Build Your Kubernetes Operator With the Right Tool! Rafał Leszko @RafalLeszko rafalleszko.com Hazelcast
  • 2. About me ● Cloud-Native Team Lead at Hazelcast ● Worked at Google and CERN ● Author of the book "Continuous Delivery with Docker and Jenkins" ● Trainer and conference speaker ● Live in Kraków, Poland
  • 3. About Hazelcast ● Distributed Company ● Open Source Software ● 140+ Employees ● Products: ○ Hazelcast IMDG ○ Hazelcast Jet ○ Hazelcast Cloud @Hazelcast
  • 4. ● Introduction ● Tools for building Operators ○ Operator SDK ■ Helm ■ Ansible ■ Go ○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ... ○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ... ● Summary Agenda
  • 7. Kubernetes Operator Operator is an application that watches a custom Kubernetes resource and performs some operations upon its changes.
  • 8. apiVersion: hazelcast.my.domain/v1 kind: Hazelcast metadata: name: hazelcast-sample spec: size: 1 Resource (hazelcast.yaml)
  • 9. apiVersion: hazelcast.my.domain/v1 kind: Hazelcast metadata: name: hazelcast-sample spec: size: 1 $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml Resource (hazelcast.yaml)
  • 12. Operator Similarities Step 1: Implement the operator logic
  • 13. Operator Similarities Step 1: Implement the operator logic Step 2: Dockerize your operator $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator
  • 14. Operator Similarities Step 1: Implement the operator logic Step 2: Dockerize your operator $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator Step 3: Create CRD (Custom Resource Definition) $ kubectl apply -f hazelast.crd.yaml
  • 16. Operator Similarities Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding) $ kubectl apply -f role.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml
  • 17. Operator Similarities Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding) $ kubectl apply -f role.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml Step 5: Deploy the operator $ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml
  • 18. Operator Similarities Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding) $ kubectl apply -f role.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml Step 5: Deploy the operator $ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml Step 6: Create your custom resource $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml
  • 19. Operator Similarities Step 1: Implement the operator logic Step 2: Dockerize your operator Step 3: Create CRD (Custom Resource Definition) Step 4: Create RBAC (Role and Role Binding) Step 5: Deploy the operator Step 6: Create your custom resource
  • 20. ● Introduction ✔ ● Tools for building Operators ○ Operator SDK ■ Helm ■ Ansible ■ Go ○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ... ○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ... ● Summary Agenda
  • 22. Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes. It allows you to: ● create templated Kubernetes configurations ● package them into a Helm chart ● render them using parameters defined in values.yaml
  • 23. Helm: Create Helm Chart $ helm create chart # chart/templates/deployment.yaml apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: {{ include "hazelcast.fullname" . }} spec: replicas: {{ .Values.size }} selector: matchLabels: app: hazelcast # chart/values.yaml size: 1 template: metadata: labels: app: hazelcast spec: containers: - name: hazelcast image: "hazelcast/hazelcast"
  • 24. Generate Hazelcast Operator $ operator-sdk init --plugins=helm $ operator-sdk create api --group=hazelcast --version=v1 --helm-chart=./chart Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator $ make install $ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator $ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml Helm: Generate Operator
  • 25. Operator SDK: Operator Capability Levels
  • 26. What does "Operator SDK: Helm" mean to You? ● Implementation is declarative and simple ● If you already have a Helm chart, then no work at all ● Limited to the features available in Helm ● Operator manifest/configuration files are automatically generated
  • 28. Ansible is a very powerful tool for IT automation. It allows you to: ● create tasks in a declarative way ● perform complex DevOps tasks using simple YAML files ● interact with Kubernetes API using the community.kubernetes.k8s plugin
  • 29. Ansible: Create Operator # roles/hazelcast/tasks/main.yml --- - name: start hazelcast community.kubernetes.k8s: definition: kind: Deployment apiVersion: apps/v1 metadata: name: hazelcast namespace: '{{ansible_operator_meta.namespace}}' spec: replicas: "{{size}}" selector: matchLabels: app: hazelcast template: metadata: labels: app: hazelcast spec: containers: - name: hazelcast image: "hazelcast/hazelcast" $ operator-sdk init --plugins=ansible $ operator-sdk create api --group hazelcast --version v1 --kind Hazelcast --generate-role
  • 30. Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator $ make install $ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator $ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml Ansible: Build, Install, Use Operator
  • 31. Operator SDK: Operator Capability Levels
  • 32. What does "Operator SDK: Ansible" mean to You? ● Implementation is declarative and therefore concise and human-readable ● YAML configuration is executed via the community.kubernetes.k8s plugin ● Ansible covers all capability levels ● Operator manifest/configuration files are automatically generated
  • 34. Go is a general-purpose programming language. Advantages: ● Kubernetes is written in Go ● good Kubernetes client library ● performance
  • 35. Go: Create Operator // controllers/hazelcast_controller.go // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=hazelcast.my.domain,resources=hazelcasts,verbs=get;list… func (r *HazelcastReconciler) Reconcile(req ctrl.Request) (ctrl.Result, error) { ... hazelcast := &hazelcastv1.Hazelcast{} err := r.Get(ctx, req.NamespacedName, hazelcast) ... found := &appsv1.Deployment{} err = r.Get(ctx, types.NamespacedName{Name: hazelcast.Name, Namespace: hazelcast.Namespace}, found) if err != nil && errors.IsNotFound(err) { dep := r.deploymentForHazelcast(hazelcast) } ... } $ operator-sdk init --repo=github.com/<user>/hazelcast-operator $ operator-sdk create api --version v1 --group=hazelcast --kind Hazelcast --resource=true --controller=true
  • 36. Go: Create Operator // controllers/hazelcast_controller.go ... Spec: appsv1.DeploymentSpec{ Replicas: &replicas, Selector: &metav1.LabelSelector{ MatchLabels: ls, }, Template: corev1.PodTemplateSpec{ ObjectMeta: metav1.ObjectMeta{ Labels: ls, }, Spec: corev1.PodSpec{ Containers: []corev1.Container{{ Image: "hazelcast/hazelcast", Name: "hazelcast", }}, }, }, }, } // api/v1/hazelcast_types.go type HazelcastSpec struct { Size int32 `json:"size,omitempty"` }
  • 37. Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator $ make install $ make deploy IMG=<user>/hazelcast-operator $ kubectl apply -f config/samples/hazelcast_v1_hazelcast.yaml Go: Build, Install, Use Operator
  • 38. What does "Operator SDK: Go" mean to You? ● Implementation is imperative and requires more work and caution ● Go language is well integrated with Kubernetes ● No limits on the functionality ● Operator boilerplate files are automatically generated
  • 39. ● Introduction ✔ ● Tools for building Operators ○ Operator SDK ✔ ■ Helm ✔ ■ Ansible ✔ ■ Go ✔ ○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, ... ○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ... ● Summary Agenda
  • 41. KOPF C# Operator SDK Java Operator SDK NodeJS Operator Framework Roperator
  • 42. KOPF C# Operator SDK Java Operator SDK NodeJS Operator Framework Roperator
  • 43. KOPF C# Operator SDK Java Operator SDK NodeJS Operator Framework Roperator
  • 44. KOPF C# Operator SDK Java Operator SDK NodeJS Operator Framework Roperator
  • 45. KOPF: Create Operator 1. Implement configuration and manifest files ● Dockerfile ● hazelcast.crd.yaml ● role.yaml, role_binding.yaml ● operator.yaml ● hazelcast.yaml 2: Implement operator logic in operator.py
  • 46. KOPF: Create Operator @kopf.on.create('hazelcast.my.domain','v1','hazelcasts') def create_fn(spec, **kwargs): doc = create_deployment(spec) kopf.adopt(doc) api = pykube.HTTPClient(pykube.KubeConfig.from_env()) deployment = pykube.Deployment(api, doc) deployment.create() api.session.close() return {'children': [deployment.metadata['uid']]} def create_deployment(spec): return yaml.safe_load(f""" apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: hazelcast spec: replicas: {spec.get('size', 1)} selector: matchLabels: app: hazelcast template: metadata: labels: app: hazelcast spec: containers: - name: hazelcast image: "hazelcast/hazelcast" """)
  • 47. Common Operator Steps: build, install, and use $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.crd.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml $ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml KOPF: Build, Install, Use Operator
  • 48. What does "Operator Framework" mean to You? ● Less developed and popular than Operator SDK ● No project scaffolding and boilerplate code generation ● No limits on the functionality ● Kubernetes clients are usually inferior to the Go Kubernetes client
  • 49. ● Introduction ✔ ● Tools for building Operators ○ Operator SDK ✔ ■ Helm ✔ ■ Ansible ✔ ■ Go ✔ ○ Operator Frameworks: KOPF, Java Operator SDK, … ✔ ○ Bare Programming Language: Java, Kotlin, C#, ... ● Summary Agenda
  • 52. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator 1. Implement configuration and manifest files ● hazelcast.crd.yaml ● role.yaml, role_binding.yaml ● operator.yaml ● hazelcast.yaml 2: Implement Java classes with the operator logic
  • 53. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream() .filter(ownerRefMatches) .collect(toList()); if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) { client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource)); } else { for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) { setSize(deployment, resource); client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment); } }
  • 54. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator public class ClientProvider { @Produces @Singleton @Named("namespace") private String findNamespace() throws IOException { return new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/namespace"))); } @Produces @Singleton KubernetesClient newClient(@Named("namespace") String namespace) { return new DefaultKubernetesClient().inNamespace(namespace); } @Produces @Singleton NonNamespaceOperation<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceList, HazelcastResourceDoneable, Resource<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceDoneable>> makeCustomResourceClient( KubernetesClient defaultClient, @Named("namespace") String namespace) { KubernetesDeserializer.registerCustomKind("hazelcast.my.domain/v1", "Hazelcast", HazelcastResource.class); CustomResourceDefinition crd = defaultClient .customResourceDefinitions() .list() .getItems() .stream() .filter(d -> "hazelcasts.hazelcast.my.domain".equals(d.getMetadata().getName())) .findAny() .orElseThrow( () -> new RuntimeException( "Deployment error: Custom resource definition "hazelcasts.hazelcast.my.domain" not found.")); return defaultClient .customResources(crd, HazelcastResource.class, HazelcastResourceList.class, HazelcastResourceDoneable.class) .inNamespace(namespace); } }
  • 55. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator @ApplicationScoped public class DeploymentInstaller { @Inject private KubernetesClient client; @Inject private HazelcastResourceCache cache; void onStartup(@Observes StartupEvent _ev) { new Thread(this::runWatch).start(); } private void runWatch() { cache.listThenWatch(this::handleEvent); } private void handleEvent(Watcher.Action action, String uid) { try { HazelcastResource resource = cache.get(uid); if (resource == null) { return; } Predicate ownerRefMatches = deployments -> deployments.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().stream() .anyMatch(ownerReference -> ownerReference.getUid().equals(uid)); List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream() .filter(ownerRefMatches) .collect(toList()); if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) { client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource)); } else { for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) { setSize(deployment, resource); client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment); } } } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(-1); } } private Deployment newDeployment(HazelcastResource resource) { Deployment deployment = client.apps().deployments().load(getClass().getResourceAsStream("/deployment.yaml")).get(); setSize(deployment, resource); deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setUid(resource.getMetadata().getUid()); deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setName(resource.getMetadata().getName()); return deployment; } private void setSize(Deployment deployment, HazelcastResource resource) { deployment.getSpec().setReplicas(resource.getSpec().getSize()); } }
  • 56. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator @ApplicationScoped public class DeploymentInstaller { @Inject private KubernetesClient client; @Inject private HazelcastResourceCache cache; void onStartup(@Observes StartupEvent _ev) { new Thread(this::runWatch).start(); } private void runWatch() { cache.listThenWatch(this::handleEvent); } private void handleEvent(Watcher.Action action, String uid) { try { HazelcastResource resource = cache.get(uid); if (resource == null) { return; } Predicate ownerRefMatches = deployments -> deployments.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().stream() .anyMatch(ownerReference -> ownerReference.getUid().equals(uid)); List hazelcastDeployments = client.apps().deployments().list().getItems().stream() .filter(ownerRefMatches) .collect(toList()); if (hazelcastDeployments.isEmpty()) { client.apps().deployments().create(newDeployment(resource)); } else { for (Deployment deployment : hazelcastDeployments) { setSize(deployment, resource); client.apps().deployments().createOrReplace(deployment); } } } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(-1); } } private Deployment newDeployment(HazelcastResource resource) { Deployment deployment = client.apps().deployments().load(getClass().getResourceAsStream("/deployment.yaml")).get(); setSize(deployment, resource); deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setUid(resource.getMetadata().getUid()); deployment.getMetadata().getOwnerReferences().get(0).setName(resource.getMetadata().getName()); return deployment; } private void setSize(Deployment deployment, HazelcastResource resource) { deployment.getSpec().setReplicas(resource.getSpec().getSize()); } } @ApplicationScoped public class HazelcastResourceCache { private final Map<String, HazelcastResource> cache = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(); @Inject private NonNamespaceOperation<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceList, HazelcastResourceDoneable, Resource<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResourceDoneable>> crClient; private Executor executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor(); public HazelcastResource get(String uid) { return cache.get(uid); } public void listThenWatch(BiConsumer<Watcher.Action, String> callback) { try { // list crClient .list() .getItems() .forEach(resource -> { cache.put(resource.getMetadata().getUid(), resource); String uid = resource.getMetadata().getUid(); executor.execute(() -> callback.accept(Watcher.Action.ADDED, uid)); } ); // watch crClient.watch(new Watcher() { @Override public void eventReceived(Action action, HazelcastResource resource) { try { String uid = resource.getMetadata().getUid(); if (cache.containsKey(uid)) { int knownResourceVersion = Integer.parseInt(cache.get(uid).getMetadata().getResourceVersion()); int receivedResourceVersion = Integer.parseInt(resource.getMetadata().getResourceVersion()); if (knownResourceVersion > receivedResourceVersion) { return; } } System.out.println("received " + action + " for resource " + resource); if (action == Action.ADDED || action == Action.MODIFIED) { cache.put(uid, resource); } else if (action == Action.DELETED) { cache.remove(uid); } else { System.err.println("Received unexpected " + action + " event for " + resource); System.exit(-1); } executor.execute(() -> callback.accept(action, uid)); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(-1); } } @Override public void onClose(KubernetesClientException cause) { cause.printStackTrace(); System.exit(-1); } }); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(-1); } } }
  • 57. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource { private HazelcastResourceSpec spec; public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() { return spec; } public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) { this.spec = spec; } @Override public String toString() { String name = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getName() : "unknown"; String version = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown"; return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + " value=" + spec; } }
  • 58. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource { private HazelcastResourceSpec spec; public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() { return spec; } public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) { this.spec = spec; } @Override public String toString() { String name = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getName() : "unknown"; String version = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown"; return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + " value=" + spec; } } public class HazelcastResourceList extends CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> { // empty }
  • 59. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource { private HazelcastResourceSpec spec; public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() { return spec; } public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) { this.spec = spec; } @Override public String toString() { String name = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getName() : "unknown"; String version = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown"; return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + " value=" + spec; } } @JsonDeserialize @RegisterForReflection public class HazelcastResourceSpec { @JsonProperty("size") private Integer size; public Integer getSize() { return size; } @Override public String toString() { return "size=" + size; } } public class HazelcastResourceList extends CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> { // empty }
  • 60. Java + Quarkus: Create Operator public class HazelcastResource extends CustomResource { private HazelcastResourceSpec spec; public HazelcastResourceSpec getSpec() { return spec; } public void setSpec(HazelcastResourceSpec spec) { this.spec = spec; } @Override public String toString() { String name = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getName() : "unknown"; String version = getMetadata() != null ? getMetadata().getResourceVersion() : "unknown"; return "name=" + name + " version=" + version + " value=" + spec; } } @JsonDeserialize @RegisterForReflection public class HazelcastResourceSpec { @JsonProperty("size") private Integer size; public Integer getSize() { return size; } @Override public String toString() { return "size=" + size; } } public class HazelcastResourceDoneable extends CustomResourceDoneable<HazelcastResource> { public HazelcastResourceDoneable(HazelcastResource resource, Function<HazelcastResource, HazelcastResource> function) { super(resource, function); } } public class HazelcastResourceList extends CustomResourceList<HazelcastResource> { // empty }
  • 61. Build Docker image $ mvn package && docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . Build native Docker image $ mvn package -Pnative -DskipTests -Dnative-image.docker-build=true $ docker build -t <user>/hazelcast-operator . Common Operator Steps: push, install, and use $ docker push <user>/hazelcast-operator $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.crd.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role.yaml $ kubectl apply -f role_binding.yaml $ kubectl apply -f operator.yaml $ kubectl apply -f hazelcast.yaml Java + Quarkus: Build, Install, Use Operator
  • 62. What does "Bare Programming Language" mean to You? ● Always means writing more code ● Check if your language has a good Kubernetes client library ● No limits on the functionality ● Only reason: single programming language in your organization
  • 64. Which tool should I use for my operator?
  • 78. Hint 1: If you already have a Helm chart for your software and you don’t need any complex capability levels
  • 79. Hint 1: If you already have a Helm chart for your software and you don’t need any complex capability levels Operator SDK: Helm
  • 80. Hint 2: If you want to create your operator quickly and you don’t need any complex capability levels
  • 81. Hint 2: If you want to create your operator quickly and you don’t need any complex capability levels Operator SDK: Helm
  • 82. Hint 3: If you want complex features or/and be flexible about any future implementations
  • 83. Hint 3: If you want complex features or/and be flexible about any future implementations Operator SDK: Go
  • 84. Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in your organization
  • 85. Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in your organization ● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language or/and you want to contribute to it
  • 86. Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in your organization ● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language or/and you want to contribute to it Operator Framework
  • 87. Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in your organization ● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language or/and you want to contribute to it ● If no popular Operator Framework exists for your programming language Operator Framework
  • 88. Hint 4: If you want to keep a single programming language in your organization ● If a popular Operator Framework exists for your language or/and you want to contribute to it ● If no popular Operator Framework exists for your programming language Operator Framework Bare Programming Language
  • 89. Hint 5: If none of the mentioned
  • 90. Hint 5: If none of the mentioned Operator SDK: Go
  • 91. Resources ● Code for this presentation: https://github.com/leszko/build-your-operator ● Operator SDK: https://sdk.operatorframework.io/ ● Java + Quarkus operator description: https://www.instana.com/blog/writing-a-kubernetes-operator-in-jav a-part-1/ ● KOPF (Kubernetes Operators Framework): https://kopf.readthedocs.io/en/stable/