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Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai
A Presentation On Internship Training Taken At
BSNL India, Gorakhpur(BSNL).
Presented By:
NIRANJAN: 21BCE5136
About BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. was incorporated on
15th September 2000 . It took over the business
of providing of telecom services and network
management from the erstwhile Central
Government Departments of Telecom Services
(DTS) and Telecom Operations (DTO), with effect
from 1st October‘ 2000 on going concern basis.
It is one of the largest & leading public sector
units providing comprehensive range of telecom
services in India.
TABLE OF CONTENT
 TELECOMMUNICATION
WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION
WHY TELECOMMUNICATION
TYPES OF TELECOMMUNICATION
SWITCHING.
LOCAL EXCHANGE.
MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION.
BROADBAND MARKET SHARE
FIBER OPTICS
•What is Telecommunication!
Telecommunication is the exchange of
information, messages , pictures etc
from one point to another distant point
as per desire of the user and under the
control of some system.
TELECOMMUNICATION
Telecommunication is important as it is key to
• Rapid economic development
• Social development
• Development of Information Technology
• Development of industry
WHY TELECOMMUNICATIONS?
TYPES OF TELECOMMUNICATION
LOCAL EXCHANGE
Telephone wires consists of 2 pairs of copper wires
Distribution box (DB) is installed where a new telephone connection
is needed
 When receiver is placed on the telephone system- ON HOOK
 When the receiver is picked up from the telephone system- OFF HOOK
ON HOOK -
OFF HOOK -
Battery is not supplied
Battery is supplied
DIALTONE- Indication by exchange that it’s ready for the call
to be made
It’s done in EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
After making the call, exchange provides ‘ringback tone’ to the caller and ‘ringing
current’ to the receiver.
CM- Central Module (“heart” of exchange)
BM- Base Module
IOM- Input/Output Module (I/O Processor in
exchange)
AM- Administrative Module
SWITCHING
is basically transfer of
Switching
information from one point to another
point with some intelligence or control
or
Switching is basically establishing a temporary
path or connection between two points or
writing at one point of time and reading at
another point of time.
SWITCHING
TWO MODES OF SWITCHING:
• CIRCUIT SWITCHING
• PACKET SWITCHING
TYPES OF SWITCHING
A CIRCUIT BETWEEN THE CALLING PARTY AND
CALLED PARTY IS SET UP AND THIS CIRCUIT IS
KEPT RESERVED TILL THE CALL IS COMPLETED
CIRCUIT SWITCHING
The information(speech, data etc.) is
divided into packets. Each packet containing
piece of information also bears source and
destination address.
PACKET SWITCHING
MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
 Antenna’s have umbrella-like structure to protect the
Equipment, from the effects of the atmosphere.
 Mobile is an online system always connected to the system of BTS
(Base Transceiver Station).
 As the number of customers increases coverage area decreases.
 Mobile checks 16 BTS available at a time. Whichever has high signal
strength, mobile takes signal from that BTS.
 A Signal Tower has three sectors in its antenna –
 North
 East
 SouthWest
A(1)
B(2)
C(3)
 These are universal direction of sectors.
Base Transceiver
Station (BTS)
Base Switching
Centre (BSC)
Main Switching
Centre (MSC)
Operational
Maintenance Centre
(OMC)
B
T
S
B
SC B
SC B
SC
B
T
S
B
T
S B
T
S
M
S
C
O
M
C
Into the architecture
• BTS – Houses the radio transceivers of the cell
and handles the radio-link protocols with the
mobile
• BSC – Manages radio resources (channel
setup, handover) for one or more BTSs
Into the architecture
• MSC – Mobile Switching Center
• The central component of the network
• Like a telephony switch plus everything for a
mobile subscriber: registration, authentication,
handovers, call routing, connection to fixed
networks.
• Each switch handles dozens of cells
• HLR- Home Location Register
• It contains entry for each subscriber
• Mostly contains static and permanent information about
the subscriber.
• Stores information like Subscriber status, service subscribed
etc.
• Temporary information such as current VLR number and
MSC number.
• Central location to route calls within the respective mobile
operator’s network
INTO THE ARCHITECTURE
Into the architecture
• VLR – Visitor Location Register
• A database that contains part of the data
available in the HLR and other dynamic
information about the mobile stations
• EIR – database of valid equipment
• AuC – Database of users’ secret keys
Sharing
• GSM uses TDMA and FDMA to let everybody
talk.
• FDMA: 25MHz freq. is divided into 124 carrier
frequencies. Each base station gets few of
those.
• TDMA: Each carrier frequency is divided into
bursts [0.577 ms]. 8 bursts are a frame.
BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
 The term BROADBAND refers to high speed internet
access. It is non specific term. In fact there is no
specific international definition for broadband.
 As the Internet market continues to grow, demand for
greater BW and faster connection speed have led to
broadband access to all consumer.
 The rapid growth of distributed business application ,
e-commerce and BW intensive application (such as
multimedia , video conferencing and video on-demand
) generate the demand for BW and access network.
NEED FOR BROADBAND
 PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES:-
Telecommuting
Video conferencing
Home based business
Home office
 ENTERTAINMENT ACTIVITIES:-
Web surfing
Video on-demand
Video games
 CONSUMER ACTIVITIES:-
Telemedicine
Distance learning
Information gathering
Photography
Video conferencing among friends and family
BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY TYPES
• It can be divided in to following categories:
• Wire line technology
• Wireless technology
WIRELINE TECHNOLOGY
• Digital subscriber line(DSL) on copper loop
• Optical fiber technology
• Cable TV networking
• PLC(power line communication)
• Satellite Media
• Terrestrial Wireless
• 3G Mobile
• Wi-Fi(Wireless Fidelity)
• WiMax
• LMDS and MMDS
• FSO (free space optics)
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
OPTICAL FIBER
OPTICAL FIBER
• The main object of optical fiber is to guide
light waves with minimum of attenuation(loss
of signal).
• It is composed of fine threads of glass in layer
called core and cladding.
• The light forms an electromagnetic carrier
wave that is modulated to carry information.
PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBER
• It’s works on total internal reflection with in a
fiber core.
• The core has higher refractive index then then
cladding.
• The beam that strikes the surface at more
then the critical angel to be reflected.
THANK YOU

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BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx

  • 1. Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai A Presentation On Internship Training Taken At BSNL India, Gorakhpur(BSNL). Presented By: NIRANJAN: 21BCE5136
  • 2. About BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. was incorporated on 15th September 2000 . It took over the business of providing of telecom services and network management from the erstwhile Central Government Departments of Telecom Services (DTS) and Telecom Operations (DTO), with effect from 1st October‘ 2000 on going concern basis. It is one of the largest & leading public sector units providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India.
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENT  TELECOMMUNICATION WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION WHY TELECOMMUNICATION TYPES OF TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING. LOCAL EXCHANGE. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION. BROADBAND MARKET SHARE FIBER OPTICS
  • 4. •What is Telecommunication! Telecommunication is the exchange of information, messages , pictures etc from one point to another distant point as per desire of the user and under the control of some system. TELECOMMUNICATION
  • 5. Telecommunication is important as it is key to • Rapid economic development • Social development • Development of Information Technology • Development of industry WHY TELECOMMUNICATIONS?
  • 8. Telephone wires consists of 2 pairs of copper wires Distribution box (DB) is installed where a new telephone connection is needed  When receiver is placed on the telephone system- ON HOOK  When the receiver is picked up from the telephone system- OFF HOOK ON HOOK - OFF HOOK - Battery is not supplied Battery is supplied DIALTONE- Indication by exchange that it’s ready for the call to be made It’s done in EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) After making the call, exchange provides ‘ringback tone’ to the caller and ‘ringing current’ to the receiver.
  • 9. CM- Central Module (“heart” of exchange) BM- Base Module IOM- Input/Output Module (I/O Processor in exchange) AM- Administrative Module
  • 11. is basically transfer of Switching information from one point to another point with some intelligence or control or Switching is basically establishing a temporary path or connection between two points or writing at one point of time and reading at another point of time. SWITCHING
  • 12. TWO MODES OF SWITCHING: • CIRCUIT SWITCHING • PACKET SWITCHING TYPES OF SWITCHING
  • 13. A CIRCUIT BETWEEN THE CALLING PARTY AND CALLED PARTY IS SET UP AND THIS CIRCUIT IS KEPT RESERVED TILL THE CALL IS COMPLETED CIRCUIT SWITCHING
  • 14. The information(speech, data etc.) is divided into packets. Each packet containing piece of information also bears source and destination address. PACKET SWITCHING
  • 16.  Antenna’s have umbrella-like structure to protect the Equipment, from the effects of the atmosphere.  Mobile is an online system always connected to the system of BTS (Base Transceiver Station).  As the number of customers increases coverage area decreases.  Mobile checks 16 BTS available at a time. Whichever has high signal strength, mobile takes signal from that BTS.  A Signal Tower has three sectors in its antenna –  North  East  SouthWest A(1) B(2) C(3)  These are universal direction of sectors.
  • 17. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Switching Centre (BSC) Main Switching Centre (MSC) Operational Maintenance Centre (OMC)
  • 18. B T S B SC B SC B SC B T S B T S B T S M S C O M C
  • 19. Into the architecture • BTS – Houses the radio transceivers of the cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the mobile • BSC – Manages radio resources (channel setup, handover) for one or more BTSs
  • 20. Into the architecture • MSC – Mobile Switching Center • The central component of the network • Like a telephony switch plus everything for a mobile subscriber: registration, authentication, handovers, call routing, connection to fixed networks. • Each switch handles dozens of cells
  • 21. • HLR- Home Location Register • It contains entry for each subscriber • Mostly contains static and permanent information about the subscriber. • Stores information like Subscriber status, service subscribed etc. • Temporary information such as current VLR number and MSC number. • Central location to route calls within the respective mobile operator’s network INTO THE ARCHITECTURE
  • 22. Into the architecture • VLR – Visitor Location Register • A database that contains part of the data available in the HLR and other dynamic information about the mobile stations • EIR – database of valid equipment • AuC – Database of users’ secret keys
  • 23. Sharing • GSM uses TDMA and FDMA to let everybody talk. • FDMA: 25MHz freq. is divided into 124 carrier frequencies. Each base station gets few of those. • TDMA: Each carrier frequency is divided into bursts [0.577 ms]. 8 bursts are a frame.
  • 25. INTRODUCTION  The term BROADBAND refers to high speed internet access. It is non specific term. In fact there is no specific international definition for broadband.  As the Internet market continues to grow, demand for greater BW and faster connection speed have led to broadband access to all consumer.  The rapid growth of distributed business application , e-commerce and BW intensive application (such as multimedia , video conferencing and video on-demand ) generate the demand for BW and access network.
  • 26. NEED FOR BROADBAND  PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES:- Telecommuting Video conferencing Home based business Home office  ENTERTAINMENT ACTIVITIES:- Web surfing Video on-demand Video games  CONSUMER ACTIVITIES:- Telemedicine Distance learning Information gathering Photography Video conferencing among friends and family
  • 27. BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY TYPES • It can be divided in to following categories: • Wire line technology • Wireless technology
  • 28. WIRELINE TECHNOLOGY • Digital subscriber line(DSL) on copper loop • Optical fiber technology • Cable TV networking • PLC(power line communication) • Satellite Media • Terrestrial Wireless • 3G Mobile • Wi-Fi(Wireless Fidelity) • WiMax • LMDS and MMDS • FSO (free space optics) WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
  • 30. OPTICAL FIBER • The main object of optical fiber is to guide light waves with minimum of attenuation(loss of signal). • It is composed of fine threads of glass in layer called core and cladding. • The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.
  • 31. PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBER • It’s works on total internal reflection with in a fiber core. • The core has higher refractive index then then cladding. • The beam that strikes the surface at more then the critical angel to be reflected.
  • 32.