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B.S. Detection for Digital Content



                Craig Silverman
  Editor of Regret the Error & Adjunct Faculty
                Poynter Institute
               @craigsilverman
Verifying Social Media Info




With thanks to Mandy Jenkins (@mjenkins, ZombieJournalism.com)
Old School Never Gets Old
• Develop human sources.

• Contact people, talk to them.

• Be skeptical. Too good to be true?

• Consult credible sources.

• Familiarize yourself with search and research
  methods.

• Communicate and work together.
Evaluate the Account & Person
• On Twitter, check when account was created. Be
  suspicious of brand new accounts.

• Analyze the network: friends, followers,
  conversations, retweets.
• What do they usually tweet/post about? Where do
  they say they are? How does it compare?
• Evaluate tweets before and after.


• Check their Klout score
Check Outside Social Media

• Google the handle/name with “spam, scam, spammer”
  etc. to see if others have complained.

• See if you can find other accounts online with the info
  you have. Search the username, or use Identify in
  Firefox, HoverMe in Chrome.
Contact/Crowdsource

• DM them, get one the phone, Skype. Get details
  and additional corroboration form people, images
  etc.

• Are others reporting this?

• Bring in the crowd by asking for help, additional
  info. Be clear about what you don’t know.
Lessons
• Andy is not just about SM. Lots of old school work
  comes first.
• What you don’t know is just as, or more, important
  as what you do.
• Hedging often gets stripped, so work to confirm
  before you tweet
• Questions encourage interaction, convey
  uncertainty.
• He RTs and adds context and info.
• He develops sources.
• He is present.
Law of Incorrect Tweets


The initial, mistaken information will be
  retweeted more than any subsequent
                 correction
Verifying Images
• Check exif info: regex.info/exif.cgi

• Check for edits to photos: errorlevelanalysis.com/

• Check history of photo: TinEye

• Reference locations against maps and existing images
  from the area.

• Check clothes/buildings/language/license
  plates/vehicles etc. Do they support the image?

• Examine weather reports, shadows to confirm
  conditions shown fit date and time.
Verifying Images

• Review the uploader’s history/location to see if he/
  she has shared credible content in the past or may
  be scraping from others.

• Are there images before and after you can
  compare to?

• Get them on the phone/Skype to talk about the
  image.

• Beware of the amazing shot in a breaking news
  situation.
Verifying Web Info
• Whois lookup on the domain.

• Check Internet archive and overall history of the
  site/organization/person.

• Check site's PageRank.

• Is clear and credible ownership/credit information
  offered? Footer information point to a real
  ownership entity?

• Does site/page have life? (Comments, likes,
  tweets, recent content, links in & out...)
Verifying Web Info
• Do blog and news searches to see if
  it/people/company has been talked about/covered
  already. Find the original source.

• Are people bookmarking it on Diigo or Delicious?

• Use the phone, send some emails before you
  publish anything.

• Check names. Do they have a personal history?
  Drawn from history or literature?

• Do the numbers add up?
Debunking B.S.

 “It would seem that expecting people to be
convinced by the facts flies in the face of, you
              know, the facts.”
Two Researchers
1. Brendan Nyhan, Dartmouth
   College/Columbia Journalism Review
2. Jason Reifler, Georgia State University

                 One Paper
Misinformation and Fact-checking: Research Finding
Four Concepts
1. Selective Disclosure

“People seek out information that is consistent
  with their pre-existing views and avoid
  information that contradicts their prior
  beliefs …”
Four Concepts

1. Selective Disclosure

2. The Backfire Effect

“When your deepest convictions are
 challenged by contradictory evidence, your
 beliefs get stronger.” (David McRaney)
Four Concepts

1. Selective Disclosure

2. The Backfire Effect

3. Motivated reasoning

  We are highly biased about topics we care a
  great deal about. Causes rationalizing rather
   than reasoning. Selecting experts. Choosing
                     science.
Four Concepts

1. Selective Disclosure

2. The Backfire Effect

3. Motivated reasoning

4. Illusion of Truth

  Familiar claims start to seem true over time.
               Beware of repetition.
Understand
1. Facts alone are not enough
2. Our brains resist correction
3. Repetition is effective, regardless of the
   information.
4. The purveyors of misinformation are
   organized, motivated and very experienced at
   pushing lies.
5. Beware of the “rumor bomb”
6. Journalists are surprisingly bad at correcting
   misinformation.
Tips
• Don’t hesitate.
• Be positive: “Barack Obama is a Christian.”
• Avoid condemnation: don’t personalize, or
  partisanize.
• Find experts who have credibility and no
  baggage. (And who adhere to #3.)
• Appeal to their views/values.
• Tell a story, show a picture.
• Once debunked, don’t look back.
Additional Reading

• Best practices for social media verification
• Accuracy and accountability checklist for social media
• The journalist’s guide to gutless online verification
• The human algorithm
• BBC processes for verifying social media content
• Meet Andy Carvin, verification machine
• The challenge of verifying crowdsourced information
• Resources to help journalists with accuracy and
  verification
• How to: verify content from social media
• Misinformation and Fact-checking: Research Findings from Social S

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B.S. Detection for Digital Content

  • 1. B.S. Detection for Digital Content Craig Silverman Editor of Regret the Error & Adjunct Faculty Poynter Institute @craigsilverman
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Verifying Social Media Info With thanks to Mandy Jenkins (@mjenkins, ZombieJournalism.com)
  • 6. Old School Never Gets Old • Develop human sources. • Contact people, talk to them. • Be skeptical. Too good to be true? • Consult credible sources. • Familiarize yourself with search and research methods. • Communicate and work together.
  • 7. Evaluate the Account & Person • On Twitter, check when account was created. Be suspicious of brand new accounts. • Analyze the network: friends, followers, conversations, retweets. • What do they usually tweet/post about? Where do they say they are? How does it compare? • Evaluate tweets before and after. • Check their Klout score
  • 8. Check Outside Social Media • Google the handle/name with “spam, scam, spammer” etc. to see if others have complained. • See if you can find other accounts online with the info you have. Search the username, or use Identify in Firefox, HoverMe in Chrome.
  • 9. Contact/Crowdsource • DM them, get one the phone, Skype. Get details and additional corroboration form people, images etc. • Are others reporting this? • Bring in the crowd by asking for help, additional info. Be clear about what you don’t know.
  • 10.
  • 11. Lessons • Andy is not just about SM. Lots of old school work comes first. • What you don’t know is just as, or more, important as what you do. • Hedging often gets stripped, so work to confirm before you tweet • Questions encourage interaction, convey uncertainty. • He RTs and adds context and info. • He develops sources. • He is present.
  • 12. Law of Incorrect Tweets The initial, mistaken information will be retweeted more than any subsequent correction
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Verifying Images • Check exif info: regex.info/exif.cgi • Check for edits to photos: errorlevelanalysis.com/ • Check history of photo: TinEye • Reference locations against maps and existing images from the area. • Check clothes/buildings/language/license plates/vehicles etc. Do they support the image? • Examine weather reports, shadows to confirm conditions shown fit date and time.
  • 17.
  • 18. Verifying Images • Review the uploader’s history/location to see if he/ she has shared credible content in the past or may be scraping from others. • Are there images before and after you can compare to? • Get them on the phone/Skype to talk about the image. • Beware of the amazing shot in a breaking news situation.
  • 19.
  • 20. Verifying Web Info • Whois lookup on the domain. • Check Internet archive and overall history of the site/organization/person. • Check site's PageRank. • Is clear and credible ownership/credit information offered? Footer information point to a real ownership entity? • Does site/page have life? (Comments, likes, tweets, recent content, links in & out...)
  • 21. Verifying Web Info • Do blog and news searches to see if it/people/company has been talked about/covered already. Find the original source. • Are people bookmarking it on Diigo or Delicious? • Use the phone, send some emails before you publish anything. • Check names. Do they have a personal history? Drawn from history or literature? • Do the numbers add up?
  • 22. Debunking B.S. “It would seem that expecting people to be convinced by the facts flies in the face of, you know, the facts.”
  • 23. Two Researchers 1. Brendan Nyhan, Dartmouth College/Columbia Journalism Review 2. Jason Reifler, Georgia State University One Paper Misinformation and Fact-checking: Research Finding
  • 24. Four Concepts 1. Selective Disclosure “People seek out information that is consistent with their pre-existing views and avoid information that contradicts their prior beliefs …”
  • 25. Four Concepts 1. Selective Disclosure 2. The Backfire Effect “When your deepest convictions are challenged by contradictory evidence, your beliefs get stronger.” (David McRaney)
  • 26. Four Concepts 1. Selective Disclosure 2. The Backfire Effect 3. Motivated reasoning We are highly biased about topics we care a great deal about. Causes rationalizing rather than reasoning. Selecting experts. Choosing science.
  • 27. Four Concepts 1. Selective Disclosure 2. The Backfire Effect 3. Motivated reasoning 4. Illusion of Truth Familiar claims start to seem true over time. Beware of repetition.
  • 28. Understand 1. Facts alone are not enough 2. Our brains resist correction 3. Repetition is effective, regardless of the information. 4. The purveyors of misinformation are organized, motivated and very experienced at pushing lies. 5. Beware of the “rumor bomb” 6. Journalists are surprisingly bad at correcting misinformation.
  • 29. Tips • Don’t hesitate. • Be positive: “Barack Obama is a Christian.” • Avoid condemnation: don’t personalize, or partisanize. • Find experts who have credibility and no baggage. (And who adhere to #3.) • Appeal to their views/values. • Tell a story, show a picture. • Once debunked, don’t look back.
  • 30. Additional Reading • Best practices for social media verification • Accuracy and accountability checklist for social media • The journalist’s guide to gutless online verification • The human algorithm • BBC processes for verifying social media content • Meet Andy Carvin, verification machine • The challenge of verifying crowdsourced information • Resources to help journalists with accuracy and verification • How to: verify content from social media • Misinformation and Fact-checking: Research Findings from Social S