SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Ms. Hemangi Narvekar
Clinical Psychologist
National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with
Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai
Introduction
Why Brief Therapy?
Characteristics
Types Of Brief Therapies
Application
Strengths & Weaknesses
Summary
 Brief therapy, sometimes also referred to as short
term therapy (usually 10 to 20 sessions) , is a
generic label for any form of therapy in which time
is an explicit element in treatment planning.
 Milton Erickson was a practitioner of brief therapy,
using clinical hypnosis as his primary tool.
 Richard Bandler, the co-founder of neuro-linguistic
programming, is another firm proponent of brief
therapy.
 Brief therapy differs from other schools of therapy in that it emphasizes a
focus on a specific problem and direct intervention.
 In brief therapy, the therapist takes responsibility for working more pro-
actively with the client in order to treat clinical and subjective conditions
faster.
 It also emphasizes precise observation, utilization of natural resources, and
a temporary suspension of disbelief to consider new perspectives and
multiple viewpoints.
 Tight economic conditions in community clinics, counseling centers,
hospitals—and especially among insurers—have guaranteed that most
psychotherapy is swift and targeted.
 Limited time and financial resources among patients also helps to
ensure that much therapy is brief.
 A third, and more personal, reason for learning brief therapy is that it
opens the door to creative, as well as efficacious, ways of assisting
individuals and couples.
 Therapies that are designed as short-term therapies promise relief from
symptoms with minimal time and without having to dig up one's entire
childhood. This can be very appealing and can make a lot of intuitive
sense.
 Some people fear that they will open up if they engage in a deeper
therapy. Sometimes a person with these kinds of fears wants to treat
just the surface if at all possible.
 One of the most important is that short-term therapies are effective in
treating a wide range of emotional disorders (Barlow 2001; Koss and
Shiang 1994; Steenbarger 1992).
• Typically target specific patterns rather
than attempt broader personality changes.Focus
• Characteristically adopt active methods to
maintain the focus of treatment and
promote self-understanding and change.
Activity level of
the therapist
• The efficient utilization of time requires that
clients be absorbed in change efforts
between sessions, as well as during them.
Activity level of
the client
• Therapy typically begins with an
assessment to determine the
appropriateness of brief treatment for a
particular client.
Client selection
• People appear to be more receptive to
change when they are in altered and
enhanced states of experiencing.
Enhanced
experiencing
• Typically focus on advancing readiness
for change rather than working through
long-term resistance.
Emphasis upon
readiness for
change
• Brief therapists typically regard the
emotional power of interventions, rather
than their absolute duration, as critical
to change.
Emphasis on
impact of
intervention
Duration of the
presenting problem
Interpersonal
history
Severity of
presenting problem
Complexity
Understanding Social support
Engagement Intervention Termination
 Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT), often referred to as simply
'solution focused therapy' or 'brief therapy', is a type of talking
therapy that is based upon social constructionist philosophy.
 The title SFBT, and the specific steps involved in its practice, are
attributed to husband and wife Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg
and their team at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee,
USA.
 It focuses on what clients want to achieve through therapy rather
than on the problem(s) that made them to seek help. The approach
does not focus on the past, but instead, focuses on the present and
future.
 Solution focused therapists believe that change is constant. By helping
people identify the things that they wish to have changed in their life and
also to attend to those things that are currently happening that they wish to
continue to have happen, SFBT therapists help their clients to construct a
concrete vision of a preferred future for themselves.
 The SFBT therapist then helps the client to identify times in their current life
that are closer to this future, and examines what is different on these
occasions. By bringing these small successes to their awareness, and
helping them to repeat these successful things they do when the problem is
not there or less severe, the therapists helps the client move towards the
preferred future they have identified.
 ƒThere are significant advantages in focusing on
the positive and on solutions for the future. ƒ
 Individuals who come to therapy do have the
capacity to act effectively. This capacity, however
is temporarily blocked by negative cognitions.
 ƒThere are exceptions to every problem.
 ƒClients tend to present one side of the problem.
Solution focused therapists invite clients to view
their problems from a different side.
 ƒSmall change fosters bigger change.
 ƒClients want to change, they have the capacity to
change and they are doing their best to make
change happen.
 ƒAs each individual is unique, so too is every
solution.
 Psychodynamic therapy focuses on
unconscious processes as they are
manifested in the client's present behavior.
 The goals of psychodynamic therapy are client
self-awareness and understanding of the
influence of the past on present behavior.
 In its brief form, a psycho dynamic approach
enables the client to examine unresolved
conflicts and symptoms that arise from past
dysfunctional relationships and manifest
themselves in some or other way.
 This type of therapy is generally conducted over the course of only a few
sessions, or even just one session in some cases.
 Sometimes an individual struggling with a specific problem only needs to
make a few important connections to overcome that problem. For
instance, if a client is suffering from acute anxiety with no known source,
the identification of an event or circumstance that gave rise to this anxiety
and a strategy for coping can be accomplished in one session.
 While resolution of problems should not be expected in one session for all
those seeking treatment, there are several instances where identifying
and dealing with a specific problem can be a relatively brief investment.
 In the treatment, defenses are seen as a means of resisting change—
changes that inevitably involve eliminating or at least reducing problem
behaviours. The following strategies are recommended for avoiding
ineffective adversarial interactions around the client's use of defenses:
• Working with the client's perceptions of reality rather than arguing
• Asking questions
• Sidestepping rather than confronting defenses
• Demonstrating the denial defense while interacting with the client to show
her how it works
 Brief psychodynamic therapy has been applied in situations like:
Rape Accident (traffic, physical injury, etc.)
Act of terrorism
Acute psychological disturbances (like anxiety or depression)
Traumatic family event (discovery of a secret, divorce, etc.)
 The cognitive–behavioral model assumes clients are deficient in coping skills.
 To achieve the therapeutic goals, CBT incorporates three core elements:
• Functional analysis - This analysis attempts to identify the antecedents and
consequences of behavior, which serve as triggering and maintaining factors.
• Coping skills training - A major component in CBT is the development of appropriate
coping skills.
• Relapse prevention - These approaches rely heavily on functional analyses,
identification of high risk relapse situations, and coping skills training, but also incorporate
additional features.
 Engaging in brief, cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for
helping people with
 Problematic caffeine use
 Anxiety disorders
 Alcohol dependence
 Depression
 Schizophrenia
 Weight loss
 Humanistic and existential therapies are united by an
emphasis on understanding human experience and a
focus on the client rather than the symptom.
 Psychological problems are viewed as the result of
inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and
self-directed choices about how to live.
 The opening session is extremely important in brief
therapy for building an alliance, developing
therapeutic rapport, and creating a climate of mutual
respect.
 Client-centered therapy can be used immediately to establish rapport and
to clarify issues throughout the session.
 Existential therapy may be used most effectively when a client has access
to emotional experiences or when obstacles must be overcome to facilitate a
client's entry into or continuation of recovery.
 Gestalt approaches can be used throughout therapy to facilitate a genuine
encounter with the therapist and the client's own experience.
 Transpersonal therapy can enhance spiritual development by focusing on
the intangible aspects of human experience and awareness of unrealized
spiritual capacity.
 For many individuals, interactions with their family
of origin, as well as their current family, set the
patterns and dynamics for their problems.
 Furthermore, family member interactions with the
client can either perpetuate and aggravate the
problem or substantially assist in resolving it.
 Family therapy offers an opportunity to:
• Focus on the expectation of change within the
family
• Test new patterns of behavior
• Teach how a family system works and how the
family supports symptoms and maintains needed
roles
• Elicit the strengths of every family member
• Explore the meaning of substance abuse within the
family
Short-term therapy is an option that could be used in the following circumstances:
 When resolving a specific problem in the family and working toward a solution
 When the therapeutic goals do not require in-depth, multigenerational family
history, but rather a focus on present interactions
 When the family as a whole can benefit from teaching and communication to
better understand some aspect of the disorder
Family therapy can involve a network beyond the immediate family, may involve
only one family member in treatment or a few members of the family system, or may
even include several families at once.
 The purpose of couples therapy is to restore a better level of functioning in
couples who experience relationship distress.
 The reasons for distress can include poor communication skills,
incompatibility, or a broad spectrum of psychological disorders.
 The focus of couples therapy is to identify the presence of dissatisfaction
and distress in the relationship, and to devise and implement a treatment
plan with objectives designed to improve or alleviate the presenting
symptoms and restore the relationship to a better and healthier level of
functioning.
 Couples therapy can assist persons who are having complaints of intimacy,
sexual, and communication difficulties.
 Couples should have a desire to modify and/or change dysfunctional behaviors.
Honesty and emotional openness is a necessary component for treatment.
 This couples assessment process usually includes in-depth information
gathering concerning the presenting problem, and assessment of occupations,
schooling, employment, childhood development, parental history, substance
abuse, religion, relational, medical, legal, and past psychological history, in the
form an interview.
 The psychotherapist can then devise the best course of treatment planning.
 Short-term group therapy is a logical choice for reasons of cost-effectiveness.
The prospect of simultaneously treating an entire group of patients in a brief
period is appealing.
 Some of the reservations associated with short-term group therapy are patient-
based. Preference for individual rather than group therapy is common among
psychiatric outpatients.
 The prospect of disclosing private, often painful, aspects of one's life to a group
of strangers is usually unsettling. Anxiety about such issues as control,
individuality, understanding, privacy, and safety are common. Patients require
convincing that the more public nature of the group situation, where
individualized attention from the therapist is inevitably less, provides definite
benefits.
 Careful attention to patient preparation is a requirement of referral to all
forms of group therapy, short-term group therapy in particular.
 Another reason that Brief Group Therapy is so effective is because of the
economic changes that people are living through. Oftentimes, clients have
only a limited number of sessions they are able to attend for reasons such
as time or money so longer group sessions would not be as useful.
 The brief therapy approach can be brief and this makes it an approach that
can be well integrated into the typically fast-paced lifestyle of the
contemporary client.
 As such, brief therapy has been successfully applied to a variety of client
concerns, including drug and alcohol abuse, depression, relationship
difficulties, relationship breakdown, eating disorders, anger management,
communication difficulties and crisis intervention to name but a few.
 In addition, brief therapy approaches have been effectively applied to a vast
array of client groups, including children, families, couples and mandated
clients.
a) Because brief therapy is compact and most of the therapeutic work occurs
between sessions, clients are more active and responsible for the
improvements that occur.
b) Because clients are more active, the focus is more on their capabilities than
deficits.
c) Since it is more focused, with more specific goals, clients more clearly
understand their difficulties, the reasons for their difficulties, and the changes
that need to occur.
d) Because there is not the time to fully analyze all difficulties originating from
childhood, brief therapy is strength based, focusing more on identifying and
appreciating capabilities rather than deficits or problems. Problems are not
ignored but are secondary to capabilities.
e) Related to this, at the end of therapy, clients more clearly recognize what
they have achieved. This leads to a heightened sense of mastery and increase
in hope.
 The main weakness of brief therapy is that it doesn’t go in-depth into clients
issues.
 Also it is not applicable to severe and complex problems/disorders.
 Another drawback is that it works well with short-term goals.
 For example, if a person has just been diagnosed with a serious medical
problem, they might best be helped by structured techniques to manage
fear, or guided imagery to boost immune functioning, or techniques to
reframe panic-inducing perceptions. These are short term goals.
 On the other hand, if that same person wants to reevaluate how they've lived
their life so far, or if unresolved feelings from the loss of a parent have been
opened up, or if they want to grieve the losses of health and safety and
future that they might be feeling, a short-term therapy that targets surface
thoughts or behaviors is not well suited for those goals. Goals like this
involve self exploration, and self exploration requires a longer and more
organic (less structured) inner process.
 Brief therapy is a systematic, focused process that relies on assessment,
client engagement, and rapid implementation of change strategies.
 Indicators for the use of brief or very brief psychotherapy include: a state of
emotional turmoil or distress that is related to a core conflict which is
contributing to the distress.
 The literature that demonstrates that psychotherapy is effective really
concludes that brief psychotherapy is effective because the average number
of sessions in the studies is less than 26 (e.g. Smith Glass & Miller, 1980;
Elkin et al., 1989).
 Budman, S. H., & Gurman, A. S. (1988). Theory and Practice of Brief
Therapy. New York: The Guilford press.
 Dewan, M. J., Steenbarger,B. N., Greenberg, R. P. (Ed.) (2018). The Art and
Science of Brief Psychotherapies: A Practitioner's Guide.USA: American
Psychiatric Association Publishing.
 Brief Interventions and Brief Therapies for Substance Abuse. Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64947

More Related Content

What's hot

Ethical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
Ethical and Legal Constraints in PsychotherapyEthical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
Ethical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
Prachi Sanghvi
 
Gestalt Therapy
Gestalt TherapyGestalt Therapy
Mindfulness based therapy
Mindfulness based therapyMindfulness based therapy
Mindfulness based therapy
rpeart
 
Lecture 4 strategic family therapy
Lecture 4 strategic family therapyLecture 4 strategic family therapy
Lecture 4 strategic family therapy
Newham College University Centre Stratford Newham
 
Person centered therapy
Person centered therapyPerson centered therapy
Person centered therapy
anilkumarani
 
Models of mental health & illness
Models of mental health & illnessModels of mental health & illness
Models of mental health & illness
Sudarshana Dasgupta
 
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral TherapyCognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
RuppaMercy
 
Brief CBT & Case Presentation
Brief CBT & Case PresentationBrief CBT & Case Presentation
Brief CBT & Case Presentation
Aastha_Dhingra
 
Interpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapyInterpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy
Muhammad Musawar Ali
 
Group therapy
Group therapyGroup therapy
Group therapy
saba ghayas
 
Existential psychotherapy
Existential psychotherapyExistential psychotherapy
Existential psychotherapy
Aoun Ali
 
Applications Of CBT In Group Therapies
Applications Of CBT In Group TherapiesApplications Of CBT In Group Therapies
Applications Of CBT In Group Therapies
Kevin J. Drab
 
Crisis counseling
Crisis counseling Crisis counseling
Crisis counseling
raveen mayi
 
psychodynamic psychotherapy
psychodynamic psychotherapypsychodynamic psychotherapy
psychodynamic psychotherapy
Dr. Sriram Raghavendran
 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): BasicsAcceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
J. Ryan Fuller
 
Psychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapiesPsychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapies
sssfcpsychology
 
Couple therapy
Couple therapyCouple therapy
Couple therapy
Mona Sajid
 
Family therapy
Family therapyFamily therapy
Family therapy
Pranay Shelokar
 
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
Asma Shihabeddin
 
Motivational enhancement therapy
Motivational enhancement therapyMotivational enhancement therapy
Motivational enhancement therapy
Dr Ajay Kumar
 

What's hot (20)

Ethical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
Ethical and Legal Constraints in PsychotherapyEthical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
Ethical and Legal Constraints in Psychotherapy
 
Gestalt Therapy
Gestalt TherapyGestalt Therapy
Gestalt Therapy
 
Mindfulness based therapy
Mindfulness based therapyMindfulness based therapy
Mindfulness based therapy
 
Lecture 4 strategic family therapy
Lecture 4 strategic family therapyLecture 4 strategic family therapy
Lecture 4 strategic family therapy
 
Person centered therapy
Person centered therapyPerson centered therapy
Person centered therapy
 
Models of mental health & illness
Models of mental health & illnessModels of mental health & illness
Models of mental health & illness
 
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral TherapyCognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
 
Brief CBT & Case Presentation
Brief CBT & Case PresentationBrief CBT & Case Presentation
Brief CBT & Case Presentation
 
Interpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapyInterpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy
 
Group therapy
Group therapyGroup therapy
Group therapy
 
Existential psychotherapy
Existential psychotherapyExistential psychotherapy
Existential psychotherapy
 
Applications Of CBT In Group Therapies
Applications Of CBT In Group TherapiesApplications Of CBT In Group Therapies
Applications Of CBT In Group Therapies
 
Crisis counseling
Crisis counseling Crisis counseling
Crisis counseling
 
psychodynamic psychotherapy
psychodynamic psychotherapypsychodynamic psychotherapy
psychodynamic psychotherapy
 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): BasicsAcceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): Basics
 
Psychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapiesPsychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapies
 
Couple therapy
Couple therapyCouple therapy
Couple therapy
 
Family therapy
Family therapyFamily therapy
Family therapy
 
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
Dialectical behavior therapy (2)
 
Motivational enhancement therapy
Motivational enhancement therapyMotivational enhancement therapy
Motivational enhancement therapy
 

Similar to Brief Psychotherapy

The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy JournalThe Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
Adam Smith
 
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptxPsychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
Prachi
 
REALITY THERAPY.pdf
REALITY THERAPY.pdfREALITY THERAPY.pdf
REALITY THERAPY.pdf
VanessaManos3
 
Reality Therapy
Reality TherapyReality Therapy
Reality Therapy
AgnesRizalTechnological
 
Medical counselling
Medical counsellingMedical counselling
Medical counselling
Spero Healthcare
 
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptxCounseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
yakemichael
 
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPTBEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
NiveditaMenonC
 
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MDMotivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
ravikolli
 
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docxThe Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
gabrielaj9
 
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docxThe Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
ssusera34210
 
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptxNon pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
RobinBaghla
 
Counselling Basics
Counselling BasicsCounselling Basics
Counselling Basics
DR.SOUMITRA DAS
 
Interventions in counseling
Interventions in counselingInterventions in counseling
Interventions in counseling
Dr. Satish Kumar
 
07 Person Centered Therapy
07 Person Centered Therapy07 Person Centered Therapy
07 Person Centered Therapy
Dr. Debi Smith
 
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh WellnessTypes of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
Solh Wellness
 
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docxlearning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
croysierkathey
 
Motivational interviewing
Motivational interviewing Motivational interviewing
Motivational interviewing
corbettaRDC
 
Cbt
CbtCbt
postmodern approaches
postmodern approachespostmodern approaches
postmodern approaches
Amanishraq
 
Psychotherapy -Individual & Group
Psychotherapy -Individual & GroupPsychotherapy -Individual & Group
Psychotherapy -Individual & Group
divya2709
 

Similar to Brief Psychotherapy (20)

The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy JournalThe Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Journal
 
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptxPsychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
Psychotherapy Mental health nursing.pptx
 
REALITY THERAPY.pdf
REALITY THERAPY.pdfREALITY THERAPY.pdf
REALITY THERAPY.pdf
 
Reality Therapy
Reality TherapyReality Therapy
Reality Therapy
 
Medical counselling
Medical counsellingMedical counselling
Medical counselling
 
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptxCounseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
Counseling the patient with chronic illness & Crisis.pptx
 
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPTBEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT
 
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MDMotivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
Motivational Interviewing by Ravi Kolli,MD
 
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docxThe Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
 
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docxThe Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in CounselingDrawing on T.docx
 
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptxNon pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
Non pharmacological treatment of SUD.pptx
 
Counselling Basics
Counselling BasicsCounselling Basics
Counselling Basics
 
Interventions in counseling
Interventions in counselingInterventions in counseling
Interventions in counseling
 
07 Person Centered Therapy
07 Person Centered Therapy07 Person Centered Therapy
07 Person Centered Therapy
 
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh WellnessTypes of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
Types of Psychotherapy: Which One is Best for You? | Solh Wellness
 
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docxlearning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
learning objectives 16 16.1 Who seeks therapy and what are the goa.docx
 
Motivational interviewing
Motivational interviewing Motivational interviewing
Motivational interviewing
 
Cbt
CbtCbt
Cbt
 
postmodern approaches
postmodern approachespostmodern approaches
postmodern approaches
 
Psychotherapy -Individual & Group
Psychotherapy -Individual & GroupPsychotherapy -Individual & Group
Psychotherapy -Individual & Group
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for Teachers
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Psychological Assessment
Psychological AssessmentPsychological Assessment
Psychological Assessment
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial DevelopmentPsychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development
Hemangi Narvekar
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for Children
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Preparing for Amputation
Preparing for AmputationPreparing for Amputation
Preparing for Amputation
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Dental Anxiety
Dental AnxietyDental Anxiety
Dental Anxiety
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Hemangi Narvekar
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
Hemangi Narvekar
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Disorders of Emotions
Disorders of EmotionsDisorders of Emotions
Disorders of Emotions
Hemangi Narvekar
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Hemangi Narvekar
 
Parkinson disease
Parkinson diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinson disease
Hemangi Narvekar
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar (17)

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for Teachers
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Psychological Assessment
Psychological AssessmentPsychological Assessment
Psychological Assessment
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive Matrices
 
Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial DevelopmentPsychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for Children
 
Preparing for Amputation
Preparing for AmputationPreparing for Amputation
Preparing for Amputation
 
Dental Anxiety
Dental AnxietyDental Anxiety
Dental Anxiety
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at Work
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
 
Disorders of Emotions
Disorders of EmotionsDisorders of Emotions
Disorders of Emotions
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
 
Parkinson disease
Parkinson diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinson disease
 

Recently uploaded

Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
Gokul Rangarajan
 
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdfKnow Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
Dr. Sujit Chatterjee CEO Hiranandani Hospital
 
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 BathindaBathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
varun0kumar00
 
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
xkute
 
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
DrDevTaneja1
 
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
rightmanforbloodline
 
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCWPRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
dnee1
 
FACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVEFACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVE
aditigupta1117
 
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every DaySimple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Lucas Smith
 
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptxEnglish Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
MatSouthwell1
 
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in TripuraMonopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
SKG Internationals
 
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
Santhosh Raj
 
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanSatisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanDiscover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdfElectrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
Elackkiya Balamurugan
 
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
Media Logic
 
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
ozcot
 
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptxSectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
SatvikaPrasad
 
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
obowu
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
Health Tech Market Intelligence Prelim Questions -
 
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdfKnow Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
Know Latest Hiranandani Hospital Powai News.pdf
 
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 BathindaBathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
Bathinda ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 7742996321 ℂ𝕒𝕝𝕝 𝔾𝕚𝕣𝕝𝕤 Bathinda
 
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
 
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
Digital Health in India_Health Informatics Trained Manpower _DrDevTaneja_15.0...
 
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
Test bank advanced health assessment and differential diagnosis essentials fo...
 
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCWPRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
 
FACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVEFACIAL NERVE
FACIAL NERVE
 
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every DaySimple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
 
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptxEnglish Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
English Drug and Alcohol Commissioners June 2024.pptx
 
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in TripuraMonopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
Monopoly PCD Pharma Franchise in Tripura
 
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
05 CLINICAL AUDIT-ORTHO done at a peripheral.pptx
 
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanSatisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Satisfying Spa Massage Experience at Just 99 AED - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanDiscover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdfElectrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
Electrocardiogram_20240614_173859_0000.pdf
 
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
2024 Media Preferences of Older Adults: Consumer Survey and Marketing Implica...
 
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
 
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptxSectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
Sectional dentures for microstomia patients.pptx
 
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
 

Brief Psychotherapy

  • 1. Ms. Hemangi Narvekar Clinical Psychologist National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai
  • 2. Introduction Why Brief Therapy? Characteristics Types Of Brief Therapies Application Strengths & Weaknesses Summary
  • 3.  Brief therapy, sometimes also referred to as short term therapy (usually 10 to 20 sessions) , is a generic label for any form of therapy in which time is an explicit element in treatment planning.  Milton Erickson was a practitioner of brief therapy, using clinical hypnosis as his primary tool.  Richard Bandler, the co-founder of neuro-linguistic programming, is another firm proponent of brief therapy.
  • 4.  Brief therapy differs from other schools of therapy in that it emphasizes a focus on a specific problem and direct intervention.  In brief therapy, the therapist takes responsibility for working more pro- actively with the client in order to treat clinical and subjective conditions faster.  It also emphasizes precise observation, utilization of natural resources, and a temporary suspension of disbelief to consider new perspectives and multiple viewpoints.
  • 5.  Tight economic conditions in community clinics, counseling centers, hospitals—and especially among insurers—have guaranteed that most psychotherapy is swift and targeted.  Limited time and financial resources among patients also helps to ensure that much therapy is brief.  A third, and more personal, reason for learning brief therapy is that it opens the door to creative, as well as efficacious, ways of assisting individuals and couples.
  • 6.  Therapies that are designed as short-term therapies promise relief from symptoms with minimal time and without having to dig up one's entire childhood. This can be very appealing and can make a lot of intuitive sense.  Some people fear that they will open up if they engage in a deeper therapy. Sometimes a person with these kinds of fears wants to treat just the surface if at all possible.  One of the most important is that short-term therapies are effective in treating a wide range of emotional disorders (Barlow 2001; Koss and Shiang 1994; Steenbarger 1992).
  • 7. • Typically target specific patterns rather than attempt broader personality changes.Focus • Characteristically adopt active methods to maintain the focus of treatment and promote self-understanding and change. Activity level of the therapist • The efficient utilization of time requires that clients be absorbed in change efforts between sessions, as well as during them. Activity level of the client
  • 8. • Therapy typically begins with an assessment to determine the appropriateness of brief treatment for a particular client. Client selection • People appear to be more receptive to change when they are in altered and enhanced states of experiencing. Enhanced experiencing
  • 9. • Typically focus on advancing readiness for change rather than working through long-term resistance. Emphasis upon readiness for change • Brief therapists typically regard the emotional power of interventions, rather than their absolute duration, as critical to change. Emphasis on impact of intervention
  • 10. Duration of the presenting problem Interpersonal history Severity of presenting problem Complexity Understanding Social support
  • 12.  Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT), often referred to as simply 'solution focused therapy' or 'brief therapy', is a type of talking therapy that is based upon social constructionist philosophy.  The title SFBT, and the specific steps involved in its practice, are attributed to husband and wife Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg and their team at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee, USA.  It focuses on what clients want to achieve through therapy rather than on the problem(s) that made them to seek help. The approach does not focus on the past, but instead, focuses on the present and future.
  • 13.  Solution focused therapists believe that change is constant. By helping people identify the things that they wish to have changed in their life and also to attend to those things that are currently happening that they wish to continue to have happen, SFBT therapists help their clients to construct a concrete vision of a preferred future for themselves.  The SFBT therapist then helps the client to identify times in their current life that are closer to this future, and examines what is different on these occasions. By bringing these small successes to their awareness, and helping them to repeat these successful things they do when the problem is not there or less severe, the therapists helps the client move towards the preferred future they have identified.
  • 14.  ƒThere are significant advantages in focusing on the positive and on solutions for the future. ƒ  Individuals who come to therapy do have the capacity to act effectively. This capacity, however is temporarily blocked by negative cognitions.  ƒThere are exceptions to every problem.  ƒClients tend to present one side of the problem. Solution focused therapists invite clients to view their problems from a different side.  ƒSmall change fosters bigger change.  ƒClients want to change, they have the capacity to change and they are doing their best to make change happen.  ƒAs each individual is unique, so too is every solution.
  • 15.  Psychodynamic therapy focuses on unconscious processes as they are manifested in the client's present behavior.  The goals of psychodynamic therapy are client self-awareness and understanding of the influence of the past on present behavior.  In its brief form, a psycho dynamic approach enables the client to examine unresolved conflicts and symptoms that arise from past dysfunctional relationships and manifest themselves in some or other way.
  • 16.  This type of therapy is generally conducted over the course of only a few sessions, or even just one session in some cases.  Sometimes an individual struggling with a specific problem only needs to make a few important connections to overcome that problem. For instance, if a client is suffering from acute anxiety with no known source, the identification of an event or circumstance that gave rise to this anxiety and a strategy for coping can be accomplished in one session.  While resolution of problems should not be expected in one session for all those seeking treatment, there are several instances where identifying and dealing with a specific problem can be a relatively brief investment.
  • 17.  In the treatment, defenses are seen as a means of resisting change— changes that inevitably involve eliminating or at least reducing problem behaviours. The following strategies are recommended for avoiding ineffective adversarial interactions around the client's use of defenses: • Working with the client's perceptions of reality rather than arguing • Asking questions • Sidestepping rather than confronting defenses • Demonstrating the denial defense while interacting with the client to show her how it works  Brief psychodynamic therapy has been applied in situations like: Rape Accident (traffic, physical injury, etc.) Act of terrorism Acute psychological disturbances (like anxiety or depression) Traumatic family event (discovery of a secret, divorce, etc.)
  • 18.  The cognitive–behavioral model assumes clients are deficient in coping skills.  To achieve the therapeutic goals, CBT incorporates three core elements: • Functional analysis - This analysis attempts to identify the antecedents and consequences of behavior, which serve as triggering and maintaining factors. • Coping skills training - A major component in CBT is the development of appropriate coping skills. • Relapse prevention - These approaches rely heavily on functional analyses, identification of high risk relapse situations, and coping skills training, but also incorporate additional features.
  • 19.  Engaging in brief, cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for helping people with  Problematic caffeine use  Anxiety disorders  Alcohol dependence  Depression  Schizophrenia  Weight loss
  • 20.  Humanistic and existential therapies are united by an emphasis on understanding human experience and a focus on the client rather than the symptom.  Psychological problems are viewed as the result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self-directed choices about how to live.  The opening session is extremely important in brief therapy for building an alliance, developing therapeutic rapport, and creating a climate of mutual respect.
  • 21.  Client-centered therapy can be used immediately to establish rapport and to clarify issues throughout the session.  Existential therapy may be used most effectively when a client has access to emotional experiences or when obstacles must be overcome to facilitate a client's entry into or continuation of recovery.  Gestalt approaches can be used throughout therapy to facilitate a genuine encounter with the therapist and the client's own experience.  Transpersonal therapy can enhance spiritual development by focusing on the intangible aspects of human experience and awareness of unrealized spiritual capacity.
  • 22.  For many individuals, interactions with their family of origin, as well as their current family, set the patterns and dynamics for their problems.  Furthermore, family member interactions with the client can either perpetuate and aggravate the problem or substantially assist in resolving it.  Family therapy offers an opportunity to: • Focus on the expectation of change within the family • Test new patterns of behavior • Teach how a family system works and how the family supports symptoms and maintains needed roles • Elicit the strengths of every family member • Explore the meaning of substance abuse within the family
  • 23. Short-term therapy is an option that could be used in the following circumstances:  When resolving a specific problem in the family and working toward a solution  When the therapeutic goals do not require in-depth, multigenerational family history, but rather a focus on present interactions  When the family as a whole can benefit from teaching and communication to better understand some aspect of the disorder Family therapy can involve a network beyond the immediate family, may involve only one family member in treatment or a few members of the family system, or may even include several families at once.
  • 24.  The purpose of couples therapy is to restore a better level of functioning in couples who experience relationship distress.  The reasons for distress can include poor communication skills, incompatibility, or a broad spectrum of psychological disorders.  The focus of couples therapy is to identify the presence of dissatisfaction and distress in the relationship, and to devise and implement a treatment plan with objectives designed to improve or alleviate the presenting symptoms and restore the relationship to a better and healthier level of functioning.
  • 25.  Couples therapy can assist persons who are having complaints of intimacy, sexual, and communication difficulties.  Couples should have a desire to modify and/or change dysfunctional behaviors. Honesty and emotional openness is a necessary component for treatment.  This couples assessment process usually includes in-depth information gathering concerning the presenting problem, and assessment of occupations, schooling, employment, childhood development, parental history, substance abuse, religion, relational, medical, legal, and past psychological history, in the form an interview.  The psychotherapist can then devise the best course of treatment planning.
  • 26.  Short-term group therapy is a logical choice for reasons of cost-effectiveness. The prospect of simultaneously treating an entire group of patients in a brief period is appealing.  Some of the reservations associated with short-term group therapy are patient- based. Preference for individual rather than group therapy is common among psychiatric outpatients.  The prospect of disclosing private, often painful, aspects of one's life to a group of strangers is usually unsettling. Anxiety about such issues as control, individuality, understanding, privacy, and safety are common. Patients require convincing that the more public nature of the group situation, where individualized attention from the therapist is inevitably less, provides definite benefits.
  • 27.  Careful attention to patient preparation is a requirement of referral to all forms of group therapy, short-term group therapy in particular.  Another reason that Brief Group Therapy is so effective is because of the economic changes that people are living through. Oftentimes, clients have only a limited number of sessions they are able to attend for reasons such as time or money so longer group sessions would not be as useful.
  • 28.  The brief therapy approach can be brief and this makes it an approach that can be well integrated into the typically fast-paced lifestyle of the contemporary client.  As such, brief therapy has been successfully applied to a variety of client concerns, including drug and alcohol abuse, depression, relationship difficulties, relationship breakdown, eating disorders, anger management, communication difficulties and crisis intervention to name but a few.  In addition, brief therapy approaches have been effectively applied to a vast array of client groups, including children, families, couples and mandated clients.
  • 29. a) Because brief therapy is compact and most of the therapeutic work occurs between sessions, clients are more active and responsible for the improvements that occur. b) Because clients are more active, the focus is more on their capabilities than deficits. c) Since it is more focused, with more specific goals, clients more clearly understand their difficulties, the reasons for their difficulties, and the changes that need to occur. d) Because there is not the time to fully analyze all difficulties originating from childhood, brief therapy is strength based, focusing more on identifying and appreciating capabilities rather than deficits or problems. Problems are not ignored but are secondary to capabilities. e) Related to this, at the end of therapy, clients more clearly recognize what they have achieved. This leads to a heightened sense of mastery and increase in hope.
  • 30.  The main weakness of brief therapy is that it doesn’t go in-depth into clients issues.  Also it is not applicable to severe and complex problems/disorders.  Another drawback is that it works well with short-term goals.  For example, if a person has just been diagnosed with a serious medical problem, they might best be helped by structured techniques to manage fear, or guided imagery to boost immune functioning, or techniques to reframe panic-inducing perceptions. These are short term goals.  On the other hand, if that same person wants to reevaluate how they've lived their life so far, or if unresolved feelings from the loss of a parent have been opened up, or if they want to grieve the losses of health and safety and future that they might be feeling, a short-term therapy that targets surface thoughts or behaviors is not well suited for those goals. Goals like this involve self exploration, and self exploration requires a longer and more organic (less structured) inner process.
  • 31.  Brief therapy is a systematic, focused process that relies on assessment, client engagement, and rapid implementation of change strategies.  Indicators for the use of brief or very brief psychotherapy include: a state of emotional turmoil or distress that is related to a core conflict which is contributing to the distress.  The literature that demonstrates that psychotherapy is effective really concludes that brief psychotherapy is effective because the average number of sessions in the studies is less than 26 (e.g. Smith Glass & Miller, 1980; Elkin et al., 1989).
  • 32.  Budman, S. H., & Gurman, A. S. (1988). Theory and Practice of Brief Therapy. New York: The Guilford press.  Dewan, M. J., Steenbarger,B. N., Greenberg, R. P. (Ed.) (2018). The Art and Science of Brief Psychotherapies: A Practitioner's Guide.USA: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.  Brief Interventions and Brief Therapies for Substance Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64947