SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 22
Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Transit
Information on Bus Riders in Tampa, Florida
Candace Brakewood, PhD Candidate in Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech
Dr. Kari Watkins, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech
Dr. Sean Barbeau, Principal Mobile Software Architect for R&D, University of South Florida
APTA Bus, Kansas City, MO
May 5, 2014
Overview
• Background on OneBusAway
• OneBusAway Interfaces
• Research in Tampa
2
What is OneBusAway?
• What? Suite of tools that
provides real-time bus/train
tracking information
– Open source software
– Free to riders
• Why? Make riding public transit
easier by providing good
information in usable formats
– Research to evaluate the impacts
3
iPhone App
Where is OneBusAway?
4
Seattle WA:
Original deployment
New York, NY:
Adapted for the MTA
(Bus Time)
Washington, DC: Beta
Atlanta, GA:
Launched in
early fall 2013
Tampa, FL:
Launched in late
summer 2013
York, CA:
Beta
How do you use OneBusAway?
5
ONEBUSAWAY INTERFACES
6
Website
onebusaway.org 7
Mobile Web
8
Smartphone browser Text-only browser
Mobile Apps
Android
Windows Phone &
Windows 8
iPhone
9
Mobile App Features
• Location-aware
• Bookmarking
• Service alerts
• Problem
reporting
10
Android App
Sign Mode
• Web interface optimized for monitor display
• Multiple route and stop selection capabilities
– E.g., showing a cluster of stops outside a coffee shop
• Set-up with Monitor & Google Chromecast
11
Image source: www.google.com/chromecast
TAMPA RESEARCH PROJECT
How does real time information change user
perceptions and behavior?
12
Key Prior Studies
Decreased
Wait Times
•Watkins et al.
(2011)
•Location:
Seattle, King
County Metro
•Conclusion:
Both actual wait
times and
perceived wait
times of real-
time bus
information
users were less
than non-users
could
lead to
Increased
Satisfaction
•Zhang, Shen &
Clifton (2008)
•Location:
University of
Maryland
•Conclusion:
Overall
satisfaction with
transit service
increased due to
real-time shuttle
bus information
could
lead to
Increased
Ridership
•Tang &
Thakuriah
(2012)
•Location:
CTA, Chicago
•Conclusion:
Modest increase
in ridership (126
rides/route on
average
weekday)
attributable to
real-time bus
information
1. Watkins, K. E., Ferris, B., Borning, A., Rutherford, G. S., & Layton, D. (2011). Where Is My Bus? Impact of mobile real-time
information on the perceived and actual wait time of transit riders. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(8), 839–848.
2. Zhang, F., Shen, Q., & Clifton, K. J. (2008). Examination of Traveler Responses to Real-Time Information About Bus Arrivals Using
Panel Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2082, 107–115.
3. Tang, L., & Thakuriah, P. (Vonu). (2012). Ridership effects of real-time bus information system: A case study in the City of Chicago.
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 22, 146–161.
13
Methodology:
Before-After Control Group
• Motivation: HART provided USF & Georgia Tech
special access to real-time data
• Recruitment: HART website/email list
(Incentive of 1 day bus pass)
• Measurement: Web-based surveys
• Group Assignment: Random number generator
• User Group: 5 interfaces of OneBusAway
(3 websites & 2 smartphone apps)
• Study Period: 3 months
Android App
14
Analysis of Usual Wait Times
3%3% 31% 38% 26%
0% 50% 100%
I spend much more time waiting
I spend somewhat more time waiting
I spend about the same time waiting
I spend somewhat less time waiting
I spend much less time waiting
• Identical questions about usual wait time on regular route on the before and after surveys
Usual Wait Time
(minutes)
Sample Size Before After Difference
n Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean
Control Group 102
10.71 10.50
-0.21
(3.88) (4.25)
OneBusAway Group 107
11.36 9.56
-1.79
(4.06) (4.68)
Comparison Difference of Means: t=2.65, two-tailed p=0.009 < 0.01
• Experimental group post-wave survey only: Has using OneBusAway changed the amount of
time you wait at the bus stop?
Bottom graphic: n=109. Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent.
15
Analysis of Feelings
While Waiting for the Bus
• Experimental group post-wave survey only asked: Since you began using OneBusAway, do
you feel more relaxed when waiting for the bus?
• Identical questions about feelings while waiting asked on the before and after surveys
28% 40% 27% 4%
0% 50% 100%
Agree strongly
Agree somewhat
Neutral
Disagree somewhat
Disagree strongly
Bottom graphic: n=108; Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent.
Control Group OneBusAway User Group Diff. in Gain Scores
% Frequently + Always % Frequently + Always Wilcoxon Test
Feelings Before After Before After W p-value
Productive 11% 10% 10% 17% 6201 0.051 *
Anxious 18% 19% 26% 25% 4548 0.082 *
Relaxed 34% 34% 27% 25% 5518 0.592
Frustrated 24% 26% 25% 18% 4241 0.006 ***
Significance: * p<0.10; ** p<0.05; *** p<0.01
16
Analysis of Satisfaction
• Experimental group post-wave survey only asked: Since you began using OneBusAway, do you
feel more satisfied riding HART buses?
• Identical questions about satisfaction asked on the before and after surveys
32% 38% 26% 3%
0% 50% 100%
Agree strongly
Agree somewhat
Neutral
Disagree somewhat
Disagree strongly
Bottom graphic: n=107
Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent.
Control Group OneBusAway Group Diff. in Gain Scores
% Satisfied % Satisfied Wilcoxon Test
Before After Before After W p-value
How frequently the bus comes 37% 41% 40% 44% 5812 0.459
How long you have to wait for the bus 39% 34% 36% 46% 6425 0.020 **
How often the bus arrives at the stop on time 54% 45% 45% 59% 7094 0.0001 ***
How often you arrive at your destination on time 57% 53% 55% 63% 5835 0.236
How often you have to transfer buses to get to your destination 44% 42% 38% 36% 4916 0.342
Overall HART bus service 63% 59% 57% 58% 5717 0.410
Significance: * p<0.10; ** p<0.05; *** p<0.01
17
Analysis of Bus Trips/Week
• Identical questions about the number of HART bus trips/week on the before and after surveys
Bottom graphic: n=108. 0% selected “I ride somewhat less.” Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent.
Trips/Week
Sample Size Before After Difference
n Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean
Control Group 107
7.03 6.63
-0.40
(3.79) (4.09)
Experimental Group 110
7.09 6.40
-0.69
(3.94) (3.71)
Comparison Difference of Means: t=0.66, two-tailed p=0.512
• Experimental group post-wave survey only: Has using OneBusAway changed the number of
HART bus trips that you take?
20% 19% 60% 1%
0% 50% 100%
I ride much more often
I ride somewhat more
I ride about the same
I ride much less
18
Conclusions
• Significant improvements in the waiting experience
– Decreases in self-reported usual wait times
– Decreases in negative feelings, particularly frustration
– Increases in satisfaction with wait times
• Little evidence supporting a change in transit trips
– Approx. 1/3 of RTI users stated they ride the bus more frequently,
perhaps because of:
• Affirmation bias of respondents
• Scale of measurement (trips per week)
– Only riders within sphere of transit agency
• Check out OneBusAway at onebusaway.org
– Especially if you want to launch OneBusAway in your region!
19
20
QUESTIONS?
Contact Information
Candace Brakewood: candace.brakewood@gatech.edu
Sean Barbeau: barbeau@cutr.usf.edu
Kari Watkins: kari.watkins@ce.gatech.edu
Acknowledgements: This work was funded by a US DOT Eisenhower Graduate
Fellowship, the National Center for Transit Research (NCTR), and the National
Center for Transportation Systems Productivity and Management (NCTSPM). I am
also very grateful to the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART) for
their support, particularly Shannon Haney.
Appendix: New Region Checklist
 Transit Data in GTFS format
 AVL system that provides arrival
estimates
 Implement a GTFS-realtime (or SIRI)
feed
 Set up a OneBusAway Server
 Do some quality-control testing
 Launch OneBusAway apps in new city!
21
Appendix: Limitations
• Length of Study
– June 2013 BRT opening in Tampa
• Representativeness of sample to all
HART riders
– More Caucasian respondents
– Higher household income levels
– Higher levels of car ownership (but
fewer licenses)
• Applicability beyond Tampa
– Limited to transit-dependent
populations BRT Stop
22

More Related Content

Similar to Impacts of Real-Time Transit Info on Riders

2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...
2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...
2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...Sean Barbeau
 
Erik pill ass4
Erik pill ass4Erik pill ass4
Erik pill ass4epil9279
 
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and Cyberspace
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and CyberspaceCommuting Connections: Carpooling and Cyberspace
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and CyberspaceSmart Commute
 
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devices
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devicesImproving transport timetables usability for mobile devices
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devicesManuel Martín
 
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology SessionSean Barbeau
 
Barbeau enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...
Barbeau   enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...Barbeau   enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...
Barbeau enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...Sean Barbeau
 
Capital Bikeshare Presentation
Capital Bikeshare PresentationCapital Bikeshare Presentation
Capital Bikeshare Presentationdonahuerm
 
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway Tampa
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway TampaAdding New Agencies to OneBusAway Tampa
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway TampaSean Barbeau
 
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...Sean Barbeau
 
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Report
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final ReportCUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Report
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Reportsmarziano
 
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop Slides
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop SlidesVadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop Slides
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop SlidesPrithviraj (Raj) Dasgupta
 
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016CHC Connecticut
 
Quality Control Report
Quality Control ReportQuality Control Report
Quality Control Reportshankarkar09
 
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction survey
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction surveyDecember 2014 nhs choices satisfaction survey
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction surveyNHSChoices
 
Trouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare GatesTrouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare GatesAdina Levin
 
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced Information
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced InformationClosing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced Information
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced InformationSean Barbeau
 

Similar to Impacts of Real-Time Transit Info on Riders (20)

2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...
2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...
2017 SeeClickFix Workshop - Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crow...
 
Usability Report
Usability ReportUsability Report
Usability Report
 
Erik pill ass4
Erik pill ass4Erik pill ass4
Erik pill ass4
 
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and Cyberspace
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and CyberspaceCommuting Connections: Carpooling and Cyberspace
Commuting Connections: Carpooling and Cyberspace
 
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devices
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devicesImproving transport timetables usability for mobile devices
Improving transport timetables usability for mobile devices
 
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session
2016 Commuter Choice Summit - TDM Technology Session
 
Barbeau enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...
Barbeau   enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...Barbeau   enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...
Barbeau enabling better mobility through innovations for mobile devices - o...
 
Survey on BEST buses Mumbai
Survey on BEST  buses MumbaiSurvey on BEST  buses Mumbai
Survey on BEST buses Mumbai
 
Capital Bikeshare Presentation
Capital Bikeshare PresentationCapital Bikeshare Presentation
Capital Bikeshare Presentation
 
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway Tampa
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway TampaAdding New Agencies to OneBusAway Tampa
Adding New Agencies to OneBusAway Tampa
 
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...
2013 UTC Southeast - OneBusAway – Sharing real time transit information via o...
 
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Report
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final ReportCUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Report
CUTGroup #8 - Waitbot Final Report
 
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop Slides
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop SlidesVadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop Slides
Vadakpat-UAV Intelligent Transportation Workshop Slides
 
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016
Project ECHO QI: Communicating and Advocating Using Data June 29, 2016
 
Quality Control Report
Quality Control ReportQuality Control Report
Quality Control Report
 
CUTGroup 12 Roll with Me Final Report
CUTGroup 12 Roll with Me Final ReportCUTGroup 12 Roll with Me Final Report
CUTGroup 12 Roll with Me Final Report
 
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction survey
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction surveyDecember 2014 nhs choices satisfaction survey
December 2014 nhs choices satisfaction survey
 
Trouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare GatesTrouble at the Fare Gates
Trouble at the Fare Gates
 
OneBusAway User Research
OneBusAway User ResearchOneBusAway User Research
OneBusAway User Research
 
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced Information
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced InformationClosing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced Information
Closing the Loop - Improving Transit through Crowd-sourced Information
 

More from Sean Barbeau

Smart Columbus Executive Summary Overview
Smart Columbus Executive Summary OverviewSmart Columbus Executive Summary Overview
Smart Columbus Executive Summary OverviewSean Barbeau
 
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case StudyOpen Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case StudySean Barbeau
 
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB poster
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB posterOpen Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB poster
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB posterSean Barbeau
 
OneBusAway Android - 2020 Update
OneBusAway Android - 2020 UpdateOneBusAway Android - 2020 Update
OneBusAway Android - 2020 UpdateSean Barbeau
 
Open Transit Data - A Developer's Perspective
Open Transit Data - A Developer's PerspectiveOpen Transit Data - A Developer's Perspective
Open Transit Data - A Developer's PerspectiveSean Barbeau
 
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...Sean Barbeau
 
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public TransportationSean Barbeau
 
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) format
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) formatWork Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) format
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) formatSean Barbeau
 
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public TransportationEnhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public TransportationSean Barbeau
 
Fare payment in OneBusAway
Fare payment in OneBusAwayFare payment in OneBusAway
Fare payment in OneBusAwaySean Barbeau
 
Open-source Transit Software
Open-source Transit SoftwareOpen-source Transit Software
Open-source Transit SoftwareSean Barbeau
 
GTFS-realtime v2.0
GTFS-realtime v2.0GTFS-realtime v2.0
GTFS-realtime v2.0Sean Barbeau
 
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS Data
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS DataNTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS Data
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS DataSean Barbeau
 
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...Sean Barbeau
 
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway Android
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway AndroidOneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway Android
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway AndroidSean Barbeau
 
GTFS Maintenance & More
GTFS Maintenance & MoreGTFS Maintenance & More
GTFS Maintenance & MoreSean Barbeau
 
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and Improvements
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and ImprovementsOneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and Improvements
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and ImprovementsSean Barbeau
 
USF Travel Options App
USF Travel Options AppUSF Travel Options App
USF Travel Options AppSean Barbeau
 
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devices
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devicesEnergy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devices
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devicesSean Barbeau
 

More from Sean Barbeau (20)

Smart Columbus Executive Summary Overview
Smart Columbus Executive Summary OverviewSmart Columbus Executive Summary Overview
Smart Columbus Executive Summary Overview
 
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case StudyOpen Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study
 
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB poster
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB posterOpen Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB poster
Open Source Software in Public Transportation: A Case Study - TRB poster
 
OneBusAway Android - 2020 Update
OneBusAway Android - 2020 UpdateOneBusAway Android - 2020 Update
OneBusAway Android - 2020 Update
 
Open Transit Data - A Developer's Perspective
Open Transit Data - A Developer's PerspectiveOpen Transit Data - A Developer's Perspective
Open Transit Data - A Developer's Perspective
 
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...
TRB 2020 - Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Mobile Fare Payment Applications:...
 
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
2019 FPTA - Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
 
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) format
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) formatWork Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) format
Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) format
 
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public TransportationEnhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
Enhancing Cybersecurity in Public Transportation
 
Fare payment in OneBusAway
Fare payment in OneBusAwayFare payment in OneBusAway
Fare payment in OneBusAway
 
Open-source Transit Software
Open-source Transit SoftwareOpen-source Transit Software
Open-source Transit Software
 
GTFS-realtime v2.0
GTFS-realtime v2.0GTFS-realtime v2.0
GTFS-realtime v2.0
 
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS Data
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS DataNTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS Data
NTI 2017 Workshop - Many Uses of GTFS Data
 
USF Maps App
USF Maps AppUSF Maps App
USF Maps App
 
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...
Opening the Door to Multimodal Applications - Creation, Maintenance, and Appl...
 
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway Android
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway AndroidOneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway Android
OneBusAway - New issue reporting flow in OneBusAway Android
 
GTFS Maintenance & More
GTFS Maintenance & MoreGTFS Maintenance & More
GTFS Maintenance & More
 
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and Improvements
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and ImprovementsOneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and Improvements
OneBusAway - Issue reporting - Challenges and Improvements
 
USF Travel Options App
USF Travel Options AppUSF Travel Options App
USF Travel Options App
 
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devices
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devicesEnergy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devices
Energy Smart Apps - Location-aware algorithms to save energy on mobile devices
 

Recently uploaded

[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality AssuranceInflectra
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterMydbops
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPathCommunity
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersRaghuram Pandurangan
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLScyllaDB
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsNathaniel Shimoni
 
"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan
"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan
"ML in Production",Oleksandr BaganFwdays
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanDatabarracks
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesSanjay Willie
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxDigital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 3652toLead Limited
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfMounikaPolabathina
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningLars Bell
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.Curtis Poe
 

Recently uploaded (20)

[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
 
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to HeroUiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
UiPath Community: Communication Mining from Zero to Hero
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
 
"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan
"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan
"ML in Production",Oleksandr Bagan
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxDigital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
 

Impacts of Real-Time Transit Info on Riders

  • 1. Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Transit Information on Bus Riders in Tampa, Florida Candace Brakewood, PhD Candidate in Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech Dr. Kari Watkins, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech Dr. Sean Barbeau, Principal Mobile Software Architect for R&D, University of South Florida APTA Bus, Kansas City, MO May 5, 2014
  • 2. Overview • Background on OneBusAway • OneBusAway Interfaces • Research in Tampa 2
  • 3. What is OneBusAway? • What? Suite of tools that provides real-time bus/train tracking information – Open source software – Free to riders • Why? Make riding public transit easier by providing good information in usable formats – Research to evaluate the impacts 3 iPhone App
  • 4. Where is OneBusAway? 4 Seattle WA: Original deployment New York, NY: Adapted for the MTA (Bus Time) Washington, DC: Beta Atlanta, GA: Launched in early fall 2013 Tampa, FL: Launched in late summer 2013 York, CA: Beta
  • 5. How do you use OneBusAway? 5
  • 9. Mobile Apps Android Windows Phone & Windows 8 iPhone 9
  • 10. Mobile App Features • Location-aware • Bookmarking • Service alerts • Problem reporting 10 Android App
  • 11. Sign Mode • Web interface optimized for monitor display • Multiple route and stop selection capabilities – E.g., showing a cluster of stops outside a coffee shop • Set-up with Monitor & Google Chromecast 11 Image source: www.google.com/chromecast
  • 12. TAMPA RESEARCH PROJECT How does real time information change user perceptions and behavior? 12
  • 13. Key Prior Studies Decreased Wait Times •Watkins et al. (2011) •Location: Seattle, King County Metro •Conclusion: Both actual wait times and perceived wait times of real- time bus information users were less than non-users could lead to Increased Satisfaction •Zhang, Shen & Clifton (2008) •Location: University of Maryland •Conclusion: Overall satisfaction with transit service increased due to real-time shuttle bus information could lead to Increased Ridership •Tang & Thakuriah (2012) •Location: CTA, Chicago •Conclusion: Modest increase in ridership (126 rides/route on average weekday) attributable to real-time bus information 1. Watkins, K. E., Ferris, B., Borning, A., Rutherford, G. S., & Layton, D. (2011). Where Is My Bus? Impact of mobile real-time information on the perceived and actual wait time of transit riders. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(8), 839–848. 2. Zhang, F., Shen, Q., & Clifton, K. J. (2008). Examination of Traveler Responses to Real-Time Information About Bus Arrivals Using Panel Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2082, 107–115. 3. Tang, L., & Thakuriah, P. (Vonu). (2012). Ridership effects of real-time bus information system: A case study in the City of Chicago. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 22, 146–161. 13
  • 14. Methodology: Before-After Control Group • Motivation: HART provided USF & Georgia Tech special access to real-time data • Recruitment: HART website/email list (Incentive of 1 day bus pass) • Measurement: Web-based surveys • Group Assignment: Random number generator • User Group: 5 interfaces of OneBusAway (3 websites & 2 smartphone apps) • Study Period: 3 months Android App 14
  • 15. Analysis of Usual Wait Times 3%3% 31% 38% 26% 0% 50% 100% I spend much more time waiting I spend somewhat more time waiting I spend about the same time waiting I spend somewhat less time waiting I spend much less time waiting • Identical questions about usual wait time on regular route on the before and after surveys Usual Wait Time (minutes) Sample Size Before After Difference n Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean Control Group 102 10.71 10.50 -0.21 (3.88) (4.25) OneBusAway Group 107 11.36 9.56 -1.79 (4.06) (4.68) Comparison Difference of Means: t=2.65, two-tailed p=0.009 < 0.01 • Experimental group post-wave survey only: Has using OneBusAway changed the amount of time you wait at the bus stop? Bottom graphic: n=109. Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent. 15
  • 16. Analysis of Feelings While Waiting for the Bus • Experimental group post-wave survey only asked: Since you began using OneBusAway, do you feel more relaxed when waiting for the bus? • Identical questions about feelings while waiting asked on the before and after surveys 28% 40% 27% 4% 0% 50% 100% Agree strongly Agree somewhat Neutral Disagree somewhat Disagree strongly Bottom graphic: n=108; Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent. Control Group OneBusAway User Group Diff. in Gain Scores % Frequently + Always % Frequently + Always Wilcoxon Test Feelings Before After Before After W p-value Productive 11% 10% 10% 17% 6201 0.051 * Anxious 18% 19% 26% 25% 4548 0.082 * Relaxed 34% 34% 27% 25% 5518 0.592 Frustrated 24% 26% 25% 18% 4241 0.006 *** Significance: * p<0.10; ** p<0.05; *** p<0.01 16
  • 17. Analysis of Satisfaction • Experimental group post-wave survey only asked: Since you began using OneBusAway, do you feel more satisfied riding HART buses? • Identical questions about satisfaction asked on the before and after surveys 32% 38% 26% 3% 0% 50% 100% Agree strongly Agree somewhat Neutral Disagree somewhat Disagree strongly Bottom graphic: n=107 Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent. Control Group OneBusAway Group Diff. in Gain Scores % Satisfied % Satisfied Wilcoxon Test Before After Before After W p-value How frequently the bus comes 37% 41% 40% 44% 5812 0.459 How long you have to wait for the bus 39% 34% 36% 46% 6425 0.020 ** How often the bus arrives at the stop on time 54% 45% 45% 59% 7094 0.0001 *** How often you arrive at your destination on time 57% 53% 55% 63% 5835 0.236 How often you have to transfer buses to get to your destination 44% 42% 38% 36% 4916 0.342 Overall HART bus service 63% 59% 57% 58% 5717 0.410 Significance: * p<0.10; ** p<0.05; *** p<0.01 17
  • 18. Analysis of Bus Trips/Week • Identical questions about the number of HART bus trips/week on the before and after surveys Bottom graphic: n=108. 0% selected “I ride somewhat less.” Figures rounded to the nearest whole percent. Trips/Week Sample Size Before After Difference n Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean Control Group 107 7.03 6.63 -0.40 (3.79) (4.09) Experimental Group 110 7.09 6.40 -0.69 (3.94) (3.71) Comparison Difference of Means: t=0.66, two-tailed p=0.512 • Experimental group post-wave survey only: Has using OneBusAway changed the number of HART bus trips that you take? 20% 19% 60% 1% 0% 50% 100% I ride much more often I ride somewhat more I ride about the same I ride much less 18
  • 19. Conclusions • Significant improvements in the waiting experience – Decreases in self-reported usual wait times – Decreases in negative feelings, particularly frustration – Increases in satisfaction with wait times • Little evidence supporting a change in transit trips – Approx. 1/3 of RTI users stated they ride the bus more frequently, perhaps because of: • Affirmation bias of respondents • Scale of measurement (trips per week) – Only riders within sphere of transit agency • Check out OneBusAway at onebusaway.org – Especially if you want to launch OneBusAway in your region! 19
  • 20. 20 QUESTIONS? Contact Information Candace Brakewood: candace.brakewood@gatech.edu Sean Barbeau: barbeau@cutr.usf.edu Kari Watkins: kari.watkins@ce.gatech.edu Acknowledgements: This work was funded by a US DOT Eisenhower Graduate Fellowship, the National Center for Transit Research (NCTR), and the National Center for Transportation Systems Productivity and Management (NCTSPM). I am also very grateful to the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART) for their support, particularly Shannon Haney.
  • 21. Appendix: New Region Checklist  Transit Data in GTFS format  AVL system that provides arrival estimates  Implement a GTFS-realtime (or SIRI) feed  Set up a OneBusAway Server  Do some quality-control testing  Launch OneBusAway apps in new city! 21
  • 22. Appendix: Limitations • Length of Study – June 2013 BRT opening in Tampa • Representativeness of sample to all HART riders – More Caucasian respondents – Higher household income levels – Higher levels of car ownership (but fewer licenses) • Applicability beyond Tampa – Limited to transit-dependent populations BRT Stop 22

Editor's Notes

  1. Searchable map interface for locating information at the stop level; Supports real-time and static data
  2. Seattle: Actual wait times of real-time users were almost 2 minutes less than non-users. Perceived wait times of riders with real-time information 31% less Chicago: A panel regression model from 2002-2010 showed real-time information caused a “modest” increase in ridership (126 rides per route on an average weekday)
  3. Pre wave survey in February 2013; Post-wave survey in May 2013
  4. Ridership is the key focus of 2 additional studies.