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Botany, Propagation methods
and Varieties of Orchid
Practical No : 11
HC 3131
Introduction - Botany
 Family – Orchidaceae
 Native orchids in Sri Lanka
Eg:
Types of orchids
 According to growth habitat
◦ Terrestrial orchids
◦ Lithophytes
◦ Epiphytes
 According to the growth pattern of stem
◦ Monopodial orchid
◦ Sympodial orchid
Monopodial Orchid
 Grows as a single upright “stem”
 Do not produce pseudobulbs
 Produce aerial roots
Eg: Vanda
Phalaenopsis
Arachnis
Sympodial Orchid
 Apical bud grows horizontally
 Plant produce a series of adjacent shoots
 Grow to a certain size and bloom, then stop
growing
 Produce pseudo bulbs
Eg: Dendrobium
Cattleya
Oncidium
Orchid flower
Propagation of orchids
 Seeds – artificial pollination
Pollination
 Select the parents
 Flowers should be at the correct stage
◦ Female – sticky stagmatic surface
◦ Male – matured pollinia
 Avoid self pollination by removing pollinia from
female parent flower
 Collect pollens from male parent flower and
place on the stigmatic surface of the female
parent flower
 Cover the female parent flower
 The flower fades 1-2 days after pollination
 Time taken to mature the fruit
◦ Dendrobium & Phalaenopsis : 2 ½ - 3 months
◦ Vanda : 4 – 5 months
 Harvest mature pods (yellow colour) before
splitting
 Sterilize and culture in-vitro
 Divisions
 Pseudo bulbs
 Top cuttings
 Aerial shoots/ off sets
 Tissue culture
Divisions
 Common method used for sympodial orchids
 Overgrown plants are separated into parts with
3-4 pseudo bulbs for each divisions
 Treat with a fungicide before planting
Pseudo bulbs
 Leafless pseudo bulbs are separated and
planted in a sand bed
 After 6 weeks – produce roots and can be
planted as a new plant
Top cuttings
 Used to propagate monopodial orchids
 Vanda : 30 – 37cm long stem cuttings
 Arachnis : 45 – 60 cm long stem cuttings
 Cut end should be treated with fungicide
Aerial suckers
 Some old pseudo bulbs produced aerial
suckers in sympodial plants
 They can be separated and planted
Tissue culture
 Highly successful in cloning of orchids and to
get virus free plants
 The ex-plant isolate from the shoots and
cultured in desired medium
Potting of orchids
 Potting media
◦ Broken brick/ tile pieces - 1 part
◦ Charcoal pieces - 1 part
 Coconut husk in seedling stage
pots
 Porous clay pots
 Plastic pots
 Wooden craft
Potting of orchids
 Treat seedling in a diluted fungicidal solution for 4-5
minutes
 Fill 2/3 of the pot with potting mixture
 Place the seedling on the media
 Then additional media is packed tightly around the
plant to hold it in place
 A support can be given by fixing a bamboo strip
 Sympodial orchid, plants are kept near to the edge of
the pot as it has horizontal growth
Repotting of orchids
 To provide fresh media
 Repot orchids when,
◦ Orchid roots are overflowing the pot
◦ The plant itself is gong to over the edge of the
pot
◦ Potting material is getting soggy and drains
poorly
 Ideal time to repot most orchids is when the
plant starts new growth – usually right after it
finishes flowering
Important genera of orchids
 Cattleya
 Dendrobium
 Oncidium
 Phalaenopsis
 Arachnis
 Cymbidium
 Vanda
Thank you…..

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Botany, Propagation methods and Varieties of Orchid in Sri Lanka

  • 1.
  • 2. Botany, Propagation methods and Varieties of Orchid Practical No : 11 HC 3131
  • 3. Introduction - Botany  Family – Orchidaceae  Native orchids in Sri Lanka Eg:
  • 4. Types of orchids  According to growth habitat ◦ Terrestrial orchids ◦ Lithophytes ◦ Epiphytes  According to the growth pattern of stem ◦ Monopodial orchid ◦ Sympodial orchid
  • 5.
  • 6. Monopodial Orchid  Grows as a single upright “stem”  Do not produce pseudobulbs  Produce aerial roots Eg: Vanda Phalaenopsis Arachnis
  • 7.
  • 8. Sympodial Orchid  Apical bud grows horizontally  Plant produce a series of adjacent shoots  Grow to a certain size and bloom, then stop growing  Produce pseudo bulbs Eg: Dendrobium Cattleya Oncidium
  • 9.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Propagation of orchids  Seeds – artificial pollination
  • 15. Pollination  Select the parents  Flowers should be at the correct stage ◦ Female – sticky stagmatic surface ◦ Male – matured pollinia  Avoid self pollination by removing pollinia from female parent flower  Collect pollens from male parent flower and place on the stigmatic surface of the female parent flower  Cover the female parent flower
  • 16.  The flower fades 1-2 days after pollination  Time taken to mature the fruit ◦ Dendrobium & Phalaenopsis : 2 ½ - 3 months ◦ Vanda : 4 – 5 months  Harvest mature pods (yellow colour) before splitting  Sterilize and culture in-vitro
  • 17.  Divisions  Pseudo bulbs  Top cuttings  Aerial shoots/ off sets  Tissue culture
  • 18. Divisions  Common method used for sympodial orchids  Overgrown plants are separated into parts with 3-4 pseudo bulbs for each divisions  Treat with a fungicide before planting
  • 19. Pseudo bulbs  Leafless pseudo bulbs are separated and planted in a sand bed  After 6 weeks – produce roots and can be planted as a new plant
  • 20. Top cuttings  Used to propagate monopodial orchids  Vanda : 30 – 37cm long stem cuttings  Arachnis : 45 – 60 cm long stem cuttings  Cut end should be treated with fungicide
  • 21. Aerial suckers  Some old pseudo bulbs produced aerial suckers in sympodial plants  They can be separated and planted
  • 22. Tissue culture  Highly successful in cloning of orchids and to get virus free plants  The ex-plant isolate from the shoots and cultured in desired medium
  • 23. Potting of orchids  Potting media ◦ Broken brick/ tile pieces - 1 part ◦ Charcoal pieces - 1 part  Coconut husk in seedling stage
  • 24. pots  Porous clay pots  Plastic pots  Wooden craft
  • 25. Potting of orchids  Treat seedling in a diluted fungicidal solution for 4-5 minutes  Fill 2/3 of the pot with potting mixture  Place the seedling on the media  Then additional media is packed tightly around the plant to hold it in place  A support can be given by fixing a bamboo strip  Sympodial orchid, plants are kept near to the edge of the pot as it has horizontal growth
  • 26.
  • 27. Repotting of orchids  To provide fresh media  Repot orchids when, ◦ Orchid roots are overflowing the pot ◦ The plant itself is gong to over the edge of the pot ◦ Potting material is getting soggy and drains poorly
  • 28.  Ideal time to repot most orchids is when the plant starts new growth – usually right after it finishes flowering
  • 29. Important genera of orchids  Cattleya