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Two integrated
building designs
Integrated Design Process
(IDP)
Ecobatys (FR)
Building Information
Modeling (BIM)
The Green Build Hub (EN)
3
Integrated building design :
the french and english
experience
Integrated Design Process (IDP)
Ecobatys
Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Green Build Hub
This project was achieved with the financial
support of the European Commission (N°
4243 of the Interreg IVA Programme France
(Channel) - England)
4
Printed in France by
Média Graphic - Rennes
Février 2015
5
Contents
Introduction...............................................................................6
A french experience......................................................................7
Employment in the construction sector in FRANCE............................... 8
Current Building Legislation in France for sustainable construction
and renovation with low environmental impact ................................... 9
The gradual rise of environmental awareness................................................................................ 9
An increasingly demanding regulatory context...........................................................................10
Financial support to speed up the number of renovations.....................................................11
Increasingly complex construction and renovation projects..................................................11
What is the PCI method?......................................................................... 12
A global and collaborative approach...............................................................................................12
ECOBATYS Process from Design to Build.............................................. 14
The Ecobatys project, a project in relation to the territory......................................................14
How the project unfolded : the collaborative workshops........................................................16
How IDP has changed our way of working on the Ecobatys.............. 19
IDP, the view expressed by an architect : Sofia MELLAH..........................................................19
A British Experience...................................................................23
Employment in The Construction Sector............................................... 24
Current Building Legislation in the UK shaping sustainable
construction.............................................................................................. 25
UK Legislation & Standards.................................................................................................................25
Financing models & incentives...........................................................................................................27
What is BIM?............................................................................................. 28
BIM, a collaborative way of working................................................................................................29
Green Build Hub Process from Conception to Build ........................... 30
The original idea.......................................................................................................................................30
Finding the team......................................................................................................................................31
The team start work................................................................................................................................32
Signing the contract...............................................................................................................................33
How BIM has changed our way of working on the Green Build Hub....
35
BIM from a personal viewpoint as an Architect : Allison Tatterton......................................36
Le projet LIBNAM....................................................................39
Crédits......................................................................................40
Auteurs.....................................................................................41
6
As part of our work on the LIBNAM cross-Channel partnership, Pays
de Fougères (France) and the Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust
(CSBT) (England) shared their experiences of introducing a new design
methodology for a commercial building.
These new methods have been used to facilitate the development of the
teams’ skills to enable the design of a high-performance building with low
environmental impact, whilst also retaining maximum control over the cost
of construction.
ECOBATYS will be a useful building for eco-
building industry (design, construction and
training centre). Five areas in the building
will serve as an educational platform
dedicated to eco-renovation, research and
innovation, knowledge and expertise for
businesses, resources and educational resource trajectory dedicated to
biodiversity.
The GREEN BUILD HUB (GBH) will be
a ‘living laboratory’ where eco-building
products will be installed, tested and
monitored to produce objective and
comprehensive performance data in a
real building setting. The building will
serve as a distinctive training centre, and encourage inward investment
by companies such as specialist green suppliers by enabling them to
showcase and test innovative products within the building. This BREAAM
‘Outstanding’ building located at the Eden Project, Cornwall, England,
tangibly demonstrates what can and is being done in Cornwall. GBH will
act as a key resource of specialist green building knowledge, enhancing
the region’s expertise.  It will also become the office base for CSBT.
This booklet is made up of two main parts: the first part focuses on French
experience and the second part the English one. Each explains the reasons
that led to their choice and explores the two methods - the Integrated
Design Process (IDP) and Building Information Modelling (BIM).
Introduction
7
A french experience
Integrated Design
Process (IDP)
Ecobatys
8
In 2010, a total of 431,091
companies were actively engaged
in the construction sector in France.
As this graph shows, 58% have no
employees and only 6% have more
than 10 employees.
There are 599
companies operating
in the construction
industry, including both
the construction and
design sectors, in the
Pays de Fougères. 48%
have no employees
and only 8% have more
than 10 employees.
With a higher rate
than in Brittany or in
France as a whole,
44% of the companies
have between 1 and 9
employees.
The area’s construction
industry is made up of 25 different business sectors and has only one general
contracting business. In particular, this diversity stems from a culture of high
independence among company managers in the construction industry and
the fact that invitations to tender have historically been broken down into
small lots.
This historical reality complicates construction or renovation project
management due to the number of stakeholders and responsibilities.
Sources: 2010 Build-up skills France, Analysis
of the National Status Quo, Organising the
skills development of construction workers and
construction trades
There are more medium-sized enterprises in the Pays de Fougères
Employment in the construction sector in FRANCE
Construction in France is dominated by small companies
9
Current Building Legislation in France for sustai-
nable construction and renovation with low envi-
ronmental impact
The gradual rise of environmental awareness
The Haute Qualité Environnementale [High Environmental Quality] (HQE®)
approach started in the early 1990s to improve environmental quality
within projects. The certification standards were made public in November
2001.
When chosen by the client, this method allows solutions aimed at managing
the environmental impacts of buildings as early as possible during the
project.
There are three components to this approach :
• Introducing an environmental management system for the
project (EMS) to set the objectives and specify the roles of the various
stakeholders,
• Structuring the technical, architectural and financial response
based on 14 targets. 3 “highly efficient” targets, 4 “efficient” ones, 7
“regulatory or standard practice” ones),
• Setting performance indicators.
The 14 targets break down into 4 families :
• Eco-construction targets,
• Eco-management targets,
• Comfort targets,
• Health targets.
In October 2007, the Grenelle Environment Laws 1 and 2, France made an
undertaking to take environmental factors into account in a more effective
manner. The development of the «green growth industries” became a
priority and among them the use of «bio-sourced materials».
The general objectives :
• A fourfold reduction in greenhouse gases between 1990 and 2050,
• A 38% reduction in energy consumption of the existing housing stock
by 2020.
The accompanying Government measures:
• The renovation and energy retrofits of 400,000 private residences per
year between 2013 and 2020 and of the 800,000 social residences that
consume most energy, by 2020,
10
Source : Bâtiment et démarche HQE®, ADEME
• Thermal regulation (RT 2012): average primary energy consumption of
< 50 kWh/m2/year for new-build projects,
• Use of wood and biomass in construction (décret bois et Label
Bâtiment biosourcé [Wood and Bio-Sourced Building Standard] : Decree
No. 2012--‐518 of 19/04/2012 and the Order of 19/12/2012),
• Article 5 of the French Code on Public Procurement requires public
purchasers to comply with the environmental quality of the building
during construction stages.
Regulation Advances
Energy consumption in
kWhep/m²
RT 2020
Positive energy
buildings
BEPOS
RT 2012
Residential and
commercial building
Performance obligation,
Renewable energy for the
generation of clean hot
water
Air permeability of less
than 0.6 m3/h/m2 in
individual houses
RT 2005
Construction
and extension
Safeguards
Insulation, heating, hot
water, ventilation, lighting
RT 2000
Residential or
accessory building
Thermal characteristics of
the insulation, heating and
hot water requirements
Requirements relating to
comfort in summertime
RT 1988
Residential and
commercial building
EMinimum performance
requirements for the
building envelope and
systems
RT 1974
Residential building
Total level of heat loss (G)
50200250280470
An increasingly demanding regulatory context
Following the first oil crisis in 1973, France approved the first thermal
regulation (RT) to reduce household energy bills. It was reassessed four
times, gradually tightening restrictions on the energy consumption of new
buildings.
11
Financial support to speed up the number of renovations
For several years now, there has been some financial support available
in France aimed at meeting the energy commitments on a worldwide,
European and, of course, national level. The criteria change is very often
in thermal renovation work (insulation, equipment, etc.) ; there are six to
date :
• Tax credits,
• Reduced-rate VAT,
• Zero interest eco-loans,
• Grants from the ANAH [French National Housing Agency],
• The energy efficiency benefit,
• Energy saving certificates.
All this financial support is granted to the client, subject to compliance
with minimum performance requirements for equipment and materials.
There are currently two regulations in force governing the renovation of
existing residential and commercial buildings :
• The «overall thermal» regulation for buildings with a net floor area
exceeding 1000 m²,
• The «item by item thermal» regulation for buildings with a net floor
area inferior to 1000 m².
Increasingly complex construction and renovation projects
The Grenelle environment initiative quickly brought about developments
in energy requirements for both new builds and renovations, although
many other regulations were also developed at the same time.
The Law of 11 February 2005 provided for obligations in terms of access
to all types of disabilities. As for seismic regulations, they evolved with the
decrees and order of 22 October 2010.
These increasingly demanding regulations and dedicated standards, along
with the demand from customers for environmentally-friendly products
and technological innovations associated with research in these fields are
among the many factors that have had an influence on the complexity of
construction projects.
Numerous studies have been carried out in France in relation to these
developments and have had an impact on sectors of activity, in particular the
construction industry. One of these studies, entitled “Construction activity
12
What is the PCI method?
A global and collaborative approach
The Integrated Design Process is a design methodology for a building
project based on collaboration which was developed in Canada. The
linear method, which is usually used on public projects, breaks down and
separates the issues into successive stages. During these stages, the various
trades use their expertise, supervised by the architect. This type of project
management does not allow for technical choices to be re-examined
easily, or makes it much more costly to do so. As with this approach, the
IDP method aims to be global – it brings together the entire design team
at key points during the project.
The characteristics of the integrated design process are as follows :
• It is guided by clear objectives that have been defined with all project
stakeholders during the first workshop,
• It requires a facilitator who takes responsibility for the effective
functioning of the process : for the Ecobatys project the facilitator was
WIGWAM,
• The process is structured (reporting and monitoring),
• Decision making is clear and precise, supported by collective
analysis,
• Each stakeholder – the client, users, architect, the structural
engineers, etc. makes a key contribution to the design,
in Brittany faced with the challenges of the Grenelle environment issues
in terms of market, employment and training, Forecast of developments
by 2015”, conducted by the Cellule Economique de Bretagne [Breton
Economic Division] in July 2009, looked at this matter. The study pointed
two types of developments: behavioural developments (working together,
working in a network, self-monitoring, etc.) and technical developments
(processes, systems, materials and innovative and environmentally-friendly
techniques and technologies).
Likewise, as part of its « BBC pour tous experiment [Low-energy housing
for all] » experiment between 2008 and 2013, Rennes Métropole [Rennes
urban community] reached the same conclusion, focusing on difficulties
associated with working methods: «More than the technical solutions, the
working methods employed throughout the construction chain must be re-
examined in order to allow widespread low-energy housing at affordable
costs.». Source: Technical report no. 1 accompanying the «BBC pour tous» initiative led by Rennes
Métropole, November 2013, updated January 2014.
13
• It is a collective process,
• The project is thought out as a whole and across its various aspects –
it is a systemic process,
• The budget is managed for the project as a whole,
• The process is iterative, making it possible to go into further and
further detail,
• It allows the use of non-traditional skills : users, maintenance
operators, etc.
Source : Guide sur le processus de conception intégré [Guide to the integrated design process], by Alex
Zimmerman, T.S.Sc.A.
WIGWAM, Marika FRENETTE, managers of the IDP method
Originally from QUEBEC, Marika Frenette settled in France following her
architecture. She then sought to better understand the overall context
of green building and how it is changing architectural design. She did
her research on an international scale. Familiar with the French context,
she was also interested in the German approach as well as Scandinavian,
American and finally the Japanese approach. It was in her native country
that she discovered an adaptation to architecture with the Integrated
Design Process (IDP) previously used in the aviation industry.
She then distinguished two large categories of issues : one related to the
products and the other related to the process i.e. to the methods :
AMO
Programmiste
Architecte
Économiste
Structure
Thermique
Fluide
Paysagiste
BE contrôle
Maitre
d’ouvrage
Traditionnel
Architecte
Économiste
Structure
Thermique
BE fluide
Paysagiste
Contrôle et
SPS
Usagers AMO
Programmiste
Maitre
d’ouvrage
Usagers
PCI
projet
14
ECOBATYS Process from Design to Build
The Ecobatys project, a project in relation to the territory
This project is the result of a long territorial process combining technical
expertise (studies), effective ownership by the professional stakeholders
and political involment to support the economic development of the Pays
de Fougères and the evolving needs of building companies.
This regional project has held a quality label Pôle d’Excellence Rurale
[Centre of Rural Excellence] in 2012, the building will comprise five areas :
• An educational platform dedicated to eco-renovation to provide
training and adapt the skills of the sector’s stakeholders and, therefore,
increase their competitiveness and performance.
• A «Research and Innovation» area to encourage engineering and
local research through interaction between materials and health.
• A knowledge and expertise area for businesses to exchange
and showcase the knowledge and expertise of business groups
by developing business networks and public-private partnerships
to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among SMEs in the
construction industry, etc.
• A resources area to disseminate the knowledge gained through
exchanging of information, experiences, results and good practices.
• A learning path dedicated to biodiversity and the sustainable
management of green spaces in order to allow future designers to
apply the new environmentally-friendly design and management
• The first can be summarized as follows: an environmentally efficient
building is a set of products themselves performing together.
• The second, which is found in the High Environmental Quality (HQE ©)
and its Environmental Management System (SME ©) is interested in the
working method and design.
Her path then crossed with Alex Zimmerman and Bill Reed and these
meetings strengthened her conviction that an effective construction project
is primarily a social, cultural, environmental and eventually financial system,
new for each project. Indeed, the team (project owner, user, designer, and
builder) is never the same and therefore the design and construction
criteria are different. Since she created her company WIGWAM in 2007 she
has sought to relate/combine technical expertise and collaborative design
methods through IDP.
15
techniques. The aim is to conserve and enhance local biodiversity in
the areas concerned.
This new system offers several benefits :
• The companies will be able to use it as a showroom for their eco-
building products, It promotes businesses that engage in the process,
in a practical and physical manner.
• It welcomes both private and public clients, to guide them towards
highly efficient eco-construction projects.
• It reinforces and completes both initial and ongoing training of
employees, who require specific training throughout their careers.
• It is a unique learning environment (for the companies involved, and
schools, etc.).
Presentation of the team involved in the IDP
A territorial project which is led by Pays de Fougères. The client for
Ecobatys building is the municipality communities Coglais Marches de
Bretagne.
Preparation Design Building Use
Programme Concept Développement
Technical
matters
ACT ESQ APS APD PRO ACT EXE OPC VISA DET AOR Use
Works contract 12 lots
Contract on project management
Agent : Atelier Loyer Architectes
Quantity surveyor & Building engineers : Ingénierie Associés
Structural Engineering : ETSB
Fluid Engineering Department : Thalem
Ground Study Office : Sol explorer
Client – Coglais Communauté Marches de Bretagne
Agent : WIGWAM
Conseil : Environmental
design office
Thermal and Fluid
Engineering – Renewable
Energy : Airéo Energies
Programming team : AMOFI LOT N°1 Service infrastructure / Excavation works - CF
CONSTRUCTION
LOT N°2 Carpentry / Timber frame / Straw/ Cladding – DAR-
RAS SARL
LOT N°3 Sealing/Roofing - FOGERAISE ETANCHEITE
LOT N°4 Timber external joinery – LCQVC
LOT N°5 Locksmith company – METAL PERFORMANCE
LOT N°6 Partitions / Linings /ceilings - SAS VEILLE
LOT N°7 Internal joinery – BINOIS
LOT N°8 Floor covering – Faïence – LEBLOIS
LOT N°9 Wall painting – LE COUP DE MAIN PINTO
LOT N°10 Electricity
LOT N°11 Heating / Ventilation/ Sanitory plumbing – GUERIN
LOT N°12 PV panels – SARL CHRISTO ERNERGIE
Public contract on intellectual services:
MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE : PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO REFLECTION AND DESIGN
IDPOpen
forum
16
Collaborative Design Workshop 1: 19 and 20 February 2013
This first meeting brought together
the client, the assistants to the client
and, lastly, the project management
team. Companies could not be
integrated at that stage because of
public procurement.
The aim of this first meeting was to
generate a feeling of cooperation
and team spirit for the project.
Therefore, the first morning was spent going over the Ecobatys project
and the challenges it faced. This was followed by the statement of shared
objectives that were approved by all parties in the afternoon.
Initially working in small groups allowed everyone to work on a common
vision of green building. Sub-groups then worked on the nine families of
environmental and social criteria. Whenever possible, these objectives
should be broken down into measurable and verifiable quantitative criteria
(means of verification to be defined), not only throughout the design stage
but also during operating stages.
1 Energy management
2 Water management
3 Materials and resources
4 Dumping/emissions/waste
5 Sustainable mobility
6 Outdoor environmental quality
7 Indoor environmental quality
8 Quality of use
9 Culture and communal life
On the second day, the groups worked through collaborative methods
in well-coordinated teams (assistant to project manager, client, project
manager, MOE, users). The architects drawings and synthesis skills were
essential during this stage. 3 scenarios were developed based on the
advantages and constraints of the
site: microclimate, circulation, links
to neighbouring buildings, space
densification and finally biodiversity.
At the end of the second day, the
three scenarios were analysed by
various experts (quantity surveyor,
heating engineer, environmental
How the project unfolded : the collaborative workshops
17
Collaborative Design Workshop 2: 13 and 14 March 2013
After some short group work
sessions on materials, texture and
atmosphere, the different sub-
groups developed three scenarios,
both in terms of volume and space.
This time the analytical work of the
various experts deepened interest
and provided areas to review for
each scenario on the use, circulation, thermal and the overall. This time, the
analytical work of the various experts allowed an in-depth investigation
to be conducting into interesting issues and points to be re-examined for
each scenario concerning use, circulation, heat and the overall economics
of the project.
In-depth work in sub-groups made it possible to produce a detailed report
on the envelope of the building, the educational models and, lastly, on
biodiversity.
This second workshop ended with tasks and studies to be carried out for
the next meeting, in particular the scenario to be chosen by the client: the
Communal Council of Coglais.
The analysis of the different scenarios was resumed between workshop
2 and 3 by the project manager to allow the elected officials of Coglais
Municipalities Community Council to validate them according to the
following criteria: compliance with the tender and with the budget.
assistant to project manager). They used technical and economic criteria.
This first workshop ended with tasks and studies to be carried out for the
next meeting.
18
Collaborative Design Workshop 3: 2 April 2013
Theclientvalidatedthethirdscenario;
therefore, this third workshop
was focused on the analysis of the
building details with specialists in
the first group (architect, thermal
and structural engineers, quantity
surveyor, users).
A second group looked at
biodiversity while a third one refined
the educational tools, in particular to
define the aesthetics of the furniture
on which they would rest. At this
stage, the project management
team could prepare the next
phase: the project studies [PRO]
and the drafting of the Business
Consulting Records (DCE).
By late afternoon about ten users
of the future platform came «to
express their point of view.
Collaborative Design Workshop 4: 12 June 2013
On the agenda: In-depth exploration of the issue of structure and fluids
The whole project team (Elected officials ,assistants to project managers,
project managers) to make a decision on the heating system for the project :
• Despite the distribution of natural gas in the area, the other passive
spaces will be heated by means of a pellet boiler equipped with
radiant heaters. The double flow ventilation is coupled to the boiler
19
“The occupation of architect is difficult and dangerous for the architect
himself or herself, but mostly for the others. I would not make any project
without having in mind a strong and clear message of responsibility that
is not only aesthetic but also moral.” Renzo Piano, Disobedience of the
architect, Editions Arléa, 2007 p106
Renzo Piano’s words clearly find an echo in me. Architecture is a public
concern. The architect is certainly responsible by law and in practice but
he/she is not the only one. Sponsors, project managers must not shirk their
responsibilities as they sometimes tend to forget that architecture is a co-
production.
To build is a commitment but also to commission a construction.
Some project owners have understood this and among them Coglais
Communauté with which our firm is currently working on the ECOBATYS
project. It took Coglais Communauté more than three years to succeed
in convincing and finding funds for the ECOBATYS project, an eco-
construction performance centre.
Integrated Design Process is an emerging practice in the design stage of a
building project. The principle is to bring together all the key stakeholders
of the project to create a different context in which they become a team.
The idea is to reverse the current work habits where the architect first
designs the shape of the building in which various stakeholders come next
with their constraints to be “crammed”.
How IDP has changed our way of working on the
Ecobatys
IDP, the view expressed by an architect : Sofia MELLAH
through the hot water coil,
• The airlock space devoted to the «process/phenomena models» will
not be heated first, branch connections are provided for heating via
radiant heaters,
• The space devoted to the full scale model will be unheated and
uninsulated initially (except the floor) but designed to be heated and
insulated in the long term.
The final details for the air tightness are discussed, on the roof the vapour
barrier will be positioned on the steel deck and glued to the insulation
material.
This session ended with the vision of the building in 10 years.
20
For ECOBATYS, six days of workshops were organized to bring together all
stakeholders to connect all different skills so that every decision had the
largest positive impact on other areas of the project.
The philosophy of this method relies on the collaborative environment that
is put forward and on the goals the team has set and has to comply with in
designing the project. The whole process is conducted by an independent
professional named “facilitator”, who guides the work team and acts as
a catalyst to get the best from each stakeholder. Also it seems important
to point out that, in terms of sustainability, this practice can optimize a
large number of factors that are found in a sustainable building project.
For achieved projects, the benefits linked to this type of design process are
significant ; they make it possible to generate savings on the total cost of
the project, to make coordination of the project easier, to create synergies
and much more.
I think this working method broadens the stakeholders’ vision of the
project by directly confronting their ideas, knowledge and perspectives
that are all different approaches to the same building. This method also
allows transparency between the project owner and the project manager.
Some projects are praised for their architectural quality, others are
outstanding by their achievements or by the dialogue the two key
stakeholders - project owner and project manager - were able to establish.
Dialogue improves working conditions for everyone.
We have to bear in mind that what is built today has a lifespan of 50 to 100
years. As for our society, there is no planned obsolescence for architecture.
Time dedicated to design compared to other stages is paramount. Time
devoted to create is a valuable and important time in our practice. Such
temporality allows us to step back and take a long and overall view. This
time should be protected from daily emergencies in order to preserve the
quality of the project. The IDP method is probably the tool to find the
temporality that is too often ignored.
I must admit that I was somewhat reluctant, curious and full of apprehension
about the design process in the ECOBATYS project. But after six workshops,
I realized that a collective practice of architecture does not prevent the
expression of individual talent, as demonstrated by many disciplines and,
thatworksharingandexpertisenetworkingcreatewealthandinventiveness.
Through this process the client allowed us to take the time for creation,
which was crucial at the school of architecture but has become rarer and
more valuable in our professional practice.
21
Also this approach which was formalized in our contracts, further reinforced
ties with the project owner. It made them feel included in the design process
and they became aware of the ability of the architect to summarize all the
constraints and turn them into assets.
Users also felt they had a role to play. They are not often called upon and
too often left aside in the development of the programme. Their opinion
is too often neglected.
Finally, as stated by Philippe Madec1, I would just add, that we must “be
attentive to natural resources and to the environmental quality of materials,
integrate human and physical local resources, involve users in the design
process, design shapes favouring energy saving, think about the users’
health and quality of life. These are five of the terms in an environment
friendly project that change the architectural and planning project, as well
as our views on built heritage.”
Philippe Madec. The environment friendly ambition. Speech at the 2012 European Symposium
“Urban ambitions” organized by the National Society of Architects for French listed buildings,
Lyon, 8 Oct. 2012
22
Notes
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23
Building Information
Modeling (BIM)
A British Experience
The Green Build Hub
24
Employment in The Construction Sector
There were 2.12 million jobs in the construction industry in quarter four of
2013, 6.5% of the national total.
There are approximately 212,000 people employed in the construction and
real estate sectors in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; this equates to 8.6%
of those in employment.
The Government’s Construction 2025 strategy predicts that the global
construction sector will see 70% growth by 2025.
The European Union Structural & Investment Fund and Local Growth Fund
investments provide opportunities for the construction sector in Cornwall
and the Isles of Scilly.
Whilst performance of the construction sector will always be linked to
the performance of local and national economies. Every £1 invested in
construction activity generates at least £2 ‘spending power’ through wages
and profits, spending with suppliers and so forth. This figure rises to well
over £3 per £1 invested for housing activity specifically.
This can best be realised through the use of local companies, who, in
addition will invest in more local jobs and training, in turn leading to more
sustainable local growth.
A high level of self-employment presents its own set of challenges. The
industry is traditionally very fragmented and high levels of sub-contracting
mean that working relationships are dependent upon contract success and
reputation, however, this can represent a strength as well as a challenge.
Source : http://www.cornwallandislesofscillylep.com/assets/file/LEP%20construction%20strategy%20FINAL.
pdf
25
Current Building Legislation in the UK shaping sus-
tainable construction
UK Legislation & Standards
There are several drivers shaping sustainable construction in the UK today.
These are: the Climate Change Act 2008; the Energy Act 2011; UK Building
regulations; and discretionary standards including the Code for Sustainable
Homes; the Zero Carbon policy; and AECB (Association for Environmentally
Conscious Builders) Silver standard.
Climate Change Act 2008
The 2008 Climate Change Act introduces the world’s first long term legally
binding framework to tackle the dangers of climate change. The Act creates
a new approach to managing and responding to climate change. The key
targets of the Act are a 20% reduction in carbon by 2020 ; and an 80%
reduction by 2050.
Energy Act 2011
The 2011 Energy Act has three principal objectives: tackling barriers to
investment in energy efficiency; enhancing energy security; and enabling
investment in low carbon energy supplies.
The flagship policy in the bill is the ‘Green Deal’, a scheme through which
householders, private landlords and businesses are given finance upfront
to make energy efficiency improvements, which is then paid for by energy
bill savings. It also introduces a range of other provisions including the
roll-out of smart meters.
Building Regulations Part L : Conservation of Fuel & Power
Part L sets the energy efficiency standards required by Building Regulations.
It controls the insulation values of building elements, the allowable area of
windows, doors and other openings, air permeability of the structure, the
heating efficiency of boilers and the insulation and controls for heating
appliances and systems together with hot water storage and lighting
efficiency. It also sets out the requirements for SAP (Standard Assessment
Procedure) calculations and carbon emission targets for dwellings.
26
Fabric U values – comparison of UK Building Regulations with
Passivhaus
Element 2006 2010 2013 Passivhaus
Roof 0.25 0.2 0.2 0.15
Wall 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.15
Floor 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.15
Window 2.2 2 2 0.8
Air permeability 10 10 10 0.6
Standards : Code for Sustainable Homes
The Code for Sustainable Homes is the current national standard for the
sustainable design and construction of new homes. The Code is not a
mandatory standard, but aims to promote higher standards of sustainable
design above the current minimum set out by the building regulations.
So far 100,000 new homes have been rated under the Code. In 2015
housing design standards are under review and it is anticipated that the
Code will be replaced with a new standard in the near future.
Standards : Zero Carbon
In 2006, the UK Government set the target for all new housing to be Zero
Carbon by 2016. The implementation of this target has been subject to
debate, in particular the fact that some elements of energy consumption
can be off-set through a variety of on-site and off-site mitigation measures,
known as ‘allowable solutions’. There are three core requirements which
must all be met for a home to qualify as zero carbon :
•The fabric performance must, at a minimum, comply with the defined
standard known as the Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard (FEES),
• Any CO2 emissions that remain after consideration of heating,
cooling, fixed lighting and ventilation, must be less than or equal to
the Carbon Compliance limit established for zero carbon homes,
• Any remaining CO2 emissions, from regulated energy sources (after
requirements 1 and 2 have been met), must be reduced to zero.
Sources : Zero Carbon Policy : http://www.zerocarbonhub.org/zero-carbon-policy/zero-carbon-policy
27
Standards : AECB ‘Silver’ (Association of environmentally conscious
builders)
The AECB Silver Standard is aimed at those wishing to create high-
performance buildings using widely available technology at little or no
extra cost.
Financing models & incentives
Type Funding Covers
Income Feed In Tariff (FiT) Renewable electricity
Renewable Heat Incentive
(Rhi)
Renewable heat
Loans Green Deal
Energy efficiency /
renewables
Mortgages Energy efficiency
Grants
Energy Company Obliga-
tion (ECO)
Energy efficiency
Other Reduced rate VAT (5%) Energy efficiency
Energy Performance Certificate (EPC)
An EPC is required for any house sale or letting. It provides a list of things
the property owner can do to improve energy efficiency. It outlines the
typical savings per year and the potential performance ratings after the
improvements have been made.
The improvements are divided
into ‘lower cost measures’ of up to
£500 and ‘higher cost measures’
for larger amounts.
The EPC rates a building’s
performance in terms of: energy
use per square metre of floor area,
energy efficiency based on fuel
costs and environmental impact
based on carbon dioxide (CO2)
emissions. This provides an energy
efficiency and environmental
impact (CO2) rating from A (good)
Source : http://www.greendealenergysolution.co.uk/
about-energy-performance-certificates/
28
Hoare Lea managers of the BIM method
Building Information Modelling has rapidly come to the forefront of
building design over the past few years, and Hoare Lea have been actively
using, developing and supporting this process since 2009. We’ve previously
had a long history of using 3D Modelling, a key element of BIM, both for
3D coordination and within our specialist groups.
As of April 2013, we have fully collaborative BIM projects in all of our
UK offices either live or completed. Industry sectors include healthcare,
education, defence, sports and residential. We have the capability to deliver
What is BIM?
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a collaborative way of working,
underpinned by the digital technologies which unlock more efficient
methods of designing, creating and maintaining our assets. BIM embeds
key product and asset data and a three-dimensional computer model that
can be used for effective management of information throughout a project
lifecycle – from earliest concept through to operation.
BIM processes are mainstream to both new buildings/infrastructure
and have further potential in retrofit and refurbishment projects when
complementary workflows such as laser scanning and rapid energy
analysis are employed. BIM technology should be seen as a collaboration
between the construction sector and the software industries, and creates
an environment in which there are opportunities and synergies for both.
to G (poor). From 2018, energy efficiency standards in the private rented
sector will be increased and it will become illegal for a landlord to let a
property with an EPC rating of F or G.
29
BIM on projects of any size, sector or location.
Hoare Lea considers BIM to be more about process than about a particular
technology. We believe in adopting a flexible and pragmatic approach to
BIM implementation that considers the current BIM capabilities of the entire
design team and fully considers how each stakeholder expects to benefit
from employing a BIM process. We will bring our experience, knowledge
and passion for BIM to the table and are able to both advise and challenge
the wider team in respect to Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP)
requirements within a BIM process.
BIM, a collaborative way of working
Beginning with the Architect model, we work through by adding in all
mechanical and electrical (M&E) relevant information and the intelligent
calculations within the software which generates the schedule.
An advantage to the industry of using BIM is that if a change is made to a
parametric value, for example flow rate, within the model it will update the
model and all associated items and in turn changes the schedule.
This alters the changes in the plan and the sections or elevations as well,
which in CAD would be a lengthy task to produce the drawings. This is
more efficient and time saving as you do not need to reschedule and redo
calculations.
You can also export Revit model to Navisworks, which is another software
package, allowing better navigation around the model. This also allows
30
clash detection to aid co-ordination with all the different parametric
information from each party of the design team.
It will produce a schedule of clashes which when clicked will take you to
the location in the model where the clash has occurred and highlight it in
red for you.
BIM can export a file format to produce the information to populate rooms
in Relux, which is an application we use to calculate the levels of artificial
light required in a room.
BIM can produce many different visualisations for co-ordination purposes.
Traditionally, the design, procurement and construction stages have been
segregated and input into the process is fragmented throughout.
BIM is evolving the way
a building is designed,
creating a more
collaborative process. The
model enables the team to
manage information more
effectively at each stage and
to ensure smooth transition
between different stages
as the level of detail and
complexity develops.
Green Build Hub Process from Conception to Build
The original idea
Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust (CSBT) worked on the original
conceptual drawings with an architect from ID+EA, Gareth Jones. The
original idea was generated by the shape of the site offered to us by the
Eden Project. Paul Bright, Chief Executive Office (CEO) of CSBT and Gareth
Jones, sat down and talked about the shape of the building and the vision
for its future use. It was at this stage that the idea of having removable
panels to trial and monitor new and exciting products in sustainable
construction was first thought about.
31
CSBT has worked hard
to achieve the funding
necessary to build the
Green Build Hub. The
Hub is a building for
professionals to see
the latest in low impact
materials and techniques,
and act as a resource for
the existing construction
sector in Cornwall to
learn the skills necessary
to exploit the emerging
market for energy efficient retrofit on existing housing stock.
Finding the team
We then looked
for collaborators
to join us on this
adventure. The
first people to
show an interest in
the building were
Ward Williams
Associates and
Ocean Group
(a local social
housing provider
who have a
building company
as part of their
Group – Gilbert
and Goode). These companies gave their time to us to develop the
conceptual design to RIBA Stage C, and to obtain planning permission.
Most of this time was given freely, as they were interested in the concept
and wanted to see the building, and the opportunities it presented for the
construction sector in Cornwall, come to fruition.
32
The team start work
At this stage we then put out a tender, which is a request for specialists
to put forward a costed summary of how they could deliver our specific
proposal ; in this case it was for our specialist consultants to manage the
development. This would involve project management, of the whole design
and build process, to include health and safety (CDM), Building Research
Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) and quantity
surveyors (QS). The contract was awarded to Ward Williams Associates
(WWA). They then took the project to RIBA Stage D. The software used
at this stage was 2D CAD. At this time we were still awaiting a funding
decision from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and we
were trying to secure matched funding though our bank – Triodos Bank
plc. WWA started on the project uncertain of whether the money to pay
their fees would be forthcoming.
When funding was secured, WWA issued a tender for main contractor for
the design and build contract, which was awarded to Gilbert & Goode in
conjunction with the local architects PBWC, who would take the project
to detailed design. The tender began with a 12 week detailed design
phase, at this stage the design team agreed to use Buildings Information
Modelling (BIM) to take the project forward. The design team consisted of
WWA, the architects PBWC, the structural engineers CDEC and mechanical
and electrical engineers Hoare Lea Ltd, the main contractor and the client.
At the end of the detailed design phase, the main contractors then asked
sub- contractors to cost different work packages as sub contracts for each
part of the build.
33
Strategic
Definition
Preparation
and Brief
Concept
Design
Developed
Design
Technical
Design
Construction Handover
and Close
Out
In Use
0 1 3 4 5 6 7
A & B C D E & F G H J & K L
Design and Build tender1 Project manager and
Quantity surveyor
1 BREEAM Assessor
1 CDM Coordinator
1 Consultant engineers :
Hoare lea
Mechanical/electrical and
structural and thermal
engineers
Ward Williams Associates
Ocean Service
2 D drawing
1 plan designer
Program and grant file
Project management Design and build tender
Gilbert & Goode : Main contractor
Roof
Walls
Widows
Etc.,
Subcontractors
Architect : PBWC
3 D drawing and BIM conversion
The Architect ID+EA
The green line begins when you start working with the par-
tner and stop when they are no longer working
COLLABORATION PROPOSAL
Green writing is the name of the tender
Orange the name of the companie
On the Green Build Hub we have decided to use NEC3 (New Engineering
Contract) contracts throughout the project. NEC3 is a new contract which
focusses on collaboration, goodwill and trust. CSBT secured further
funding to seek expert advice and training on the NEC3 contract for the
collaborators on the Green Build Hub.
The NEC contract formalises the requirement for good practice project
management systems to help project teams understand the time and cost
status throughout the lifecycle of the project. It is intended to provide
mechanisms for contractors and project managers to work collaboratively,
and is designed to contribute to the effectiveness of the management of
the work and the understanding between the two parties. NEC contracts
are founded on a number of key principles, which include: 
1. Foresight applied collaboratively mitigates problems and shrinks risk
2. A regularly accepted programme allows the parties to understand
where they are and assess future progress and change. It also avoids the
inevitable arguments over disruption that would be brought about with
retrospective assessments
Signing the contract
34
3. Provides a prescriptive process
for assessing change, for example -
compensation events, of which there
is a strict series of processes to follow.
These result in a contractual conclusion,
with the event being “implemented”
and not liable for subsequent change
from either party
4. The processes within the contract
rely upon the fact that an up-to-date
and realistic programme maintained by
the contractor is used in joint decision-
making between the two parties.
Within the contract there are two key
players from the employer’s side of
the fence. The Project Manager is the
named person within Contract Data
part 1 who will administer the contract on behalf of the employer and is
the designated authority to issue all instructions, notifications and other
communications required under the contract. The sole responsibility of the
Supervisor is to check for compliance to the Works Information (basically
to check for defects, and is independent of the Project Manager). The
Supervisor on the Green Build Hub is a member of the CSBT staff.
35
How BIM has changed our way of working on the
Green Build Hub
“BIM is the first truly global digital construction technology in common
with all innovation this presents both risk and opportunity.
The UK programme based on the BIS (Department of Business, Innovation
and Skills).
BIM Strategy is currently the most ambitious and advanced centrally driven
programme in the world. In taking on the role it will greatly enhance the
global image of UK designers, contractors and product manufactures
which in turn will translate into winning new work, growth opportunities
and increased employment.
The comprehensive scope and integrated structure of the current UK
programme is also an ideal platform on which to take BIM to the next
logical level and aim for a fully integrated BIM - which will bring untold
benefits.
Patrick MacLeamy - Chief Executive Officer of HOK Y
Quoted in the HM Government’s “Industrial strategy : government and
industry in partnership- Building Information Modelling” 2012
One key competitive advantage of BIM is its ability to promote greater
transparency and collaboration between suppliers and thereby reduce
waste (procurement, process and material) through all levels of the supply
chain. A key driver of the rapid adoption of BIM by clients and industry is
that the benefits it creates are shared by the client and the entire supply
chain – with downstream benefits to customers who make use of built
assets and to society at large.
36
I see BIM as having two parts to it, the actual Building Information Modelling
and the sharing and integrated use of the information.
There is no doubt that computers and software have advanced so
significantly that they enable us to visualise and represent buildings quite
rapidly in three dimensions. This is very useful both as a tool to verify the
form and massing and to determine how a proposed building sits within its
context. This can then be used to communicate ideas to the client, planners
and other professionals involved in a project.
I have worked in a couple of practices in Cornwall that consider using BIM for
all sizes and complexity of project when a practice has made the significant
investment, both financially and in staff training into the computers and
3D software (primarily Revit and ArchiCAD). They then want to maximise
the use of these skills and capabilities. The benefits for a large, complex
project are clear, but even with individual houses there are still benefits.
The use of the 3D model allows a greater level of accuracy when producing
3D contextual views. Materials can be modelled and interchanged to give
option studies, that help with pricing (cost is usually very significant on
small scale projects). Clients, planners, consultants and builders can all get
a clearer understanding of the project involved, so even if the model is not
shared, or used beyond producing co-ordinated information for statutory
approvals, pricing and construction drawings, there is still a benefit. The
documents produced can of course be used to showcase the skills of the
practice and the images taken directly to be used for marketing purposes,
websites, seminars, etc.
The second part, the use of integrated information and sharing the model
across the design team, and then for use by the FM team post occupation,
has been used for many years in the profession. There is no doubt that it is
now much more powerful and has the ability to provide more information
about actual building materials and components, across all levels. When I
worked on Bluewater in Kent (at the time, it was the largest shopping centre
in Europe), we shared project documents and drawings across the entire
team (several hundred people involved) on a bespoke project database
that allowed the sharing of files to ensure we were using the most up to
date information for co-ordination. There were strict protocols in place
for commenting and giving each document a status. The process was so
lengthy that document control provided a full time job for two people
BIM from a personal viewpoint as an Architect : Allison
Tatterton
37
in just our one architecture practice. These processes have now been
simplified and are much faster and more readily accessible, although I do
feel there are some grey areas  with the sharing of information (copyright,
responsibility, ease of un-authorised change and potential sabotage) that
require a degree of trust that is unusual in this litigious world.
As an architect originally trained on a drawing board, I still think with a
pencil in my hand. I have been through a phase where CAD drawings were
the common representation of what was in the architect’s head, although
they were often prepared by other specialist CAD draftsmen. A small
change had to be followed up across a number of separate drawings, with
a high risk of anomalies. As team leader, I often felt detached from the
drawing process and spent large amounts of time checking the work of
others to ensure it was co-ordinated. Now, the move to modelling in 3D in
a sense takes away the middleman, and puts the architect back in control.
Yes there are still often various team members involved, with differing skills
and experience. But the days of drawing lines that don’t actually represent
anything (a common trait among trainee architects I have found) are gone.
The software prompts for quite a large degree of information from an early
stage, so even if you don’t know what the walls are made of at concept
stage, the prompt is there that discourages an un-achievable 200mm thick
external wall that causes setting out issues further down the line. The
freedom to come up with unusual or daring designs is still there, but for
the majority of buildings, the software available is of huge benefit to be
embraced.
38
Notes
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39
Le projet LIBNAM
What is the LIBNAM project about?
The LIBNAM project (Low Impact Building using NAtural Materials) is a
Franco-British project. Its ambition is to help the building sector to be
prepared for the future thermal regulations 2020 (in France) and 2016
(in the UK). It focuses on promoting the use of natural materials in an
energy efficient building (low-impact buildings, passive or positive energy
buildings).
Duration of the project
The period of achievement of the «LIBNAM tools» started on January 1,
2012 and ended on March 31, 2015.
Outputs
Theme 1 «Change management support» theme
Change practices towards more green building practices ;
• This booklet with the IDP and BIM methods,
• The booklet : “Experience feedback on eco-construction building
sites“,
• The “supporting methods for building professionals” booklet,
• Study visits in France and in Great-Britain,
• “Feedback on practices” workshops.
Theme 2 «innovate with natural materials»
Promote natural materials in construction
• Support the establishment of two paired resource centers specialized
in eco-construction, in Britain and France,
• Organise 20 technical demonstrations on natural materials with
drafting of technical and educational sheets,
• Conduct an inventory on local production sectors of non-industrial
materials such as earth, straw and hemp,
• Prepare an economic feasibility study for the establishment of an
innovation center on the earth material.
40
Warning :
The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the opinion or
position of the European Commission.
The information collected and presented in this booklet were provided by
interviewees who certified their accuracy. This information is therefore of
their responsibility and should in no way commit the authors of this study.
Copyright : Franco-British Collective LIBNAM project -French and English
experience on two design methods for a commercial building - 2014/2015.
Copyleft : This work may be used and disseminated under the terms of the
Art Libre License http://artlibre.org
Crédits
Couverture : Illustration © Servane Guihaire - études ET chantiers
Page 4 : Ecobatys - Image de synthèse © Atelier Loyer Architectes, Green
Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA
Page 5 : Ecobatys - Image de synthèse et plan © Atelier Loyer Architectes,
Bâtiment en cours de construction - Photo © Servane Guihaire - études ET
chantiers, Réunion - Photo © Pays de Fougères
Page 11 : Traditionnel / PCI - Schéma © Pays de Fougères
Page 13 : Organisation du projet - Schéma © Pays de Fougères
Page 14 et 15 : Photos © Pays de Fougères, Ecobatys - Image de synthèse
et plans © Atelier Loyer Architectes
Page 19 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA, photos © CSBT
Page 25 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA
Page 26 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA
Page 27 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA
Page 28 : Green Build Hub - Peinture © CSBT, Réunion - Photo © CSBT
Page 29 : Réunion - Photo © CSBT
Page 30 : Organisation du projet - Schéma © CSBT
Page 29 : Conseils d’expert à propos du contrat nec3 - Photo © CSBT
Page 32 : Green Buid Hub - Photo © CSBT
41
Auteurs
Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust | http://csbt.org.uk/
Network of professionals in eco-construction
PO Box 288 St Austell Cornwall PL25 9DY
Tel : +44 (0)1726 810 241
Paul Bright, Claire Maye and Celia Robbins : admin@csbt.org.uk
Pays de Fougères | www.pays-fougeres.org
Territory comprising 58 communes in Ille-et-Vilaine
36 rue de Nantes BP 50306 35303 Fougères Cedex (FR)
Tel : +33(0)2 99 17 08 82
Stéphanie Geslot : stephanie.geslot@pays-fougeres.org
This project was achieved with the financial support of
the European Commission (N° 4243 of the Interreg IVA
Programme France (Channel) - England)
To meet energy efficiency challenges, we need to improve
the design and build process. Changes in regulations and
technology prompt us to increase the number of experts and
work with more and more partners. Project management
becomes more complex and changes our working habits.
In this booklet, you will learn about two collaborative
methods of building design: the Integrated Design Process
and the Building Information Modelling - the first one
developed in France and the second one in Great Britain.
Both are implemented in the early stages of design and carry
on through the construction stage to final completion.
IDP is based on human relationships and strengthens the role
of users.
BIM is a «software tool» that drives partners to collaborate
and regulates the management of information throughout a
project.
This starts at design stage and is pursued during construction
to ensure optimum operational management.

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Booklet two integrated building designs

  • 1. Two integrated building designs Integrated Design Process (IDP) Ecobatys (FR) Building Information Modeling (BIM) The Green Build Hub (EN)
  • 2.
  • 3. 3 Integrated building design : the french and english experience Integrated Design Process (IDP) Ecobatys Building Information Modeling (BIM) Green Build Hub This project was achieved with the financial support of the European Commission (N° 4243 of the Interreg IVA Programme France (Channel) - England)
  • 4. 4 Printed in France by Média Graphic - Rennes Février 2015
  • 5. 5 Contents Introduction...............................................................................6 A french experience......................................................................7 Employment in the construction sector in FRANCE............................... 8 Current Building Legislation in France for sustainable construction and renovation with low environmental impact ................................... 9 The gradual rise of environmental awareness................................................................................ 9 An increasingly demanding regulatory context...........................................................................10 Financial support to speed up the number of renovations.....................................................11 Increasingly complex construction and renovation projects..................................................11 What is the PCI method?......................................................................... 12 A global and collaborative approach...............................................................................................12 ECOBATYS Process from Design to Build.............................................. 14 The Ecobatys project, a project in relation to the territory......................................................14 How the project unfolded : the collaborative workshops........................................................16 How IDP has changed our way of working on the Ecobatys.............. 19 IDP, the view expressed by an architect : Sofia MELLAH..........................................................19 A British Experience...................................................................23 Employment in The Construction Sector............................................... 24 Current Building Legislation in the UK shaping sustainable construction.............................................................................................. 25 UK Legislation & Standards.................................................................................................................25 Financing models & incentives...........................................................................................................27 What is BIM?............................................................................................. 28 BIM, a collaborative way of working................................................................................................29 Green Build Hub Process from Conception to Build ........................... 30 The original idea.......................................................................................................................................30 Finding the team......................................................................................................................................31 The team start work................................................................................................................................32 Signing the contract...............................................................................................................................33 How BIM has changed our way of working on the Green Build Hub.... 35 BIM from a personal viewpoint as an Architect : Allison Tatterton......................................36 Le projet LIBNAM....................................................................39 Crédits......................................................................................40 Auteurs.....................................................................................41
  • 6. 6 As part of our work on the LIBNAM cross-Channel partnership, Pays de Fougères (France) and the Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust (CSBT) (England) shared their experiences of introducing a new design methodology for a commercial building. These new methods have been used to facilitate the development of the teams’ skills to enable the design of a high-performance building with low environmental impact, whilst also retaining maximum control over the cost of construction. ECOBATYS will be a useful building for eco- building industry (design, construction and training centre). Five areas in the building will serve as an educational platform dedicated to eco-renovation, research and innovation, knowledge and expertise for businesses, resources and educational resource trajectory dedicated to biodiversity. The GREEN BUILD HUB (GBH) will be a ‘living laboratory’ where eco-building products will be installed, tested and monitored to produce objective and comprehensive performance data in a real building setting. The building will serve as a distinctive training centre, and encourage inward investment by companies such as specialist green suppliers by enabling them to showcase and test innovative products within the building. This BREAAM ‘Outstanding’ building located at the Eden Project, Cornwall, England, tangibly demonstrates what can and is being done in Cornwall. GBH will act as a key resource of specialist green building knowledge, enhancing the region’s expertise.  It will also become the office base for CSBT. This booklet is made up of two main parts: the first part focuses on French experience and the second part the English one. Each explains the reasons that led to their choice and explores the two methods - the Integrated Design Process (IDP) and Building Information Modelling (BIM). Introduction
  • 7. 7 A french experience Integrated Design Process (IDP) Ecobatys
  • 8. 8 In 2010, a total of 431,091 companies were actively engaged in the construction sector in France. As this graph shows, 58% have no employees and only 6% have more than 10 employees. There are 599 companies operating in the construction industry, including both the construction and design sectors, in the Pays de Fougères. 48% have no employees and only 8% have more than 10 employees. With a higher rate than in Brittany or in France as a whole, 44% of the companies have between 1 and 9 employees. The area’s construction industry is made up of 25 different business sectors and has only one general contracting business. In particular, this diversity stems from a culture of high independence among company managers in the construction industry and the fact that invitations to tender have historically been broken down into small lots. This historical reality complicates construction or renovation project management due to the number of stakeholders and responsibilities. Sources: 2010 Build-up skills France, Analysis of the National Status Quo, Organising the skills development of construction workers and construction trades There are more medium-sized enterprises in the Pays de Fougères Employment in the construction sector in FRANCE Construction in France is dominated by small companies
  • 9. 9 Current Building Legislation in France for sustai- nable construction and renovation with low envi- ronmental impact The gradual rise of environmental awareness The Haute Qualité Environnementale [High Environmental Quality] (HQE®) approach started in the early 1990s to improve environmental quality within projects. The certification standards were made public in November 2001. When chosen by the client, this method allows solutions aimed at managing the environmental impacts of buildings as early as possible during the project. There are three components to this approach : • Introducing an environmental management system for the project (EMS) to set the objectives and specify the roles of the various stakeholders, • Structuring the technical, architectural and financial response based on 14 targets. 3 “highly efficient” targets, 4 “efficient” ones, 7 “regulatory or standard practice” ones), • Setting performance indicators. The 14 targets break down into 4 families : • Eco-construction targets, • Eco-management targets, • Comfort targets, • Health targets. In October 2007, the Grenelle Environment Laws 1 and 2, France made an undertaking to take environmental factors into account in a more effective manner. The development of the «green growth industries” became a priority and among them the use of «bio-sourced materials». The general objectives : • A fourfold reduction in greenhouse gases between 1990 and 2050, • A 38% reduction in energy consumption of the existing housing stock by 2020. The accompanying Government measures: • The renovation and energy retrofits of 400,000 private residences per year between 2013 and 2020 and of the 800,000 social residences that consume most energy, by 2020,
  • 10. 10 Source : Bâtiment et démarche HQE®, ADEME • Thermal regulation (RT 2012): average primary energy consumption of < 50 kWh/m2/year for new-build projects, • Use of wood and biomass in construction (décret bois et Label Bâtiment biosourcé [Wood and Bio-Sourced Building Standard] : Decree No. 2012--‐518 of 19/04/2012 and the Order of 19/12/2012), • Article 5 of the French Code on Public Procurement requires public purchasers to comply with the environmental quality of the building during construction stages. Regulation Advances Energy consumption in kWhep/m² RT 2020 Positive energy buildings BEPOS RT 2012 Residential and commercial building Performance obligation, Renewable energy for the generation of clean hot water Air permeability of less than 0.6 m3/h/m2 in individual houses RT 2005 Construction and extension Safeguards Insulation, heating, hot water, ventilation, lighting RT 2000 Residential or accessory building Thermal characteristics of the insulation, heating and hot water requirements Requirements relating to comfort in summertime RT 1988 Residential and commercial building EMinimum performance requirements for the building envelope and systems RT 1974 Residential building Total level of heat loss (G) 50200250280470 An increasingly demanding regulatory context Following the first oil crisis in 1973, France approved the first thermal regulation (RT) to reduce household energy bills. It was reassessed four times, gradually tightening restrictions on the energy consumption of new buildings.
  • 11. 11 Financial support to speed up the number of renovations For several years now, there has been some financial support available in France aimed at meeting the energy commitments on a worldwide, European and, of course, national level. The criteria change is very often in thermal renovation work (insulation, equipment, etc.) ; there are six to date : • Tax credits, • Reduced-rate VAT, • Zero interest eco-loans, • Grants from the ANAH [French National Housing Agency], • The energy efficiency benefit, • Energy saving certificates. All this financial support is granted to the client, subject to compliance with minimum performance requirements for equipment and materials. There are currently two regulations in force governing the renovation of existing residential and commercial buildings : • The «overall thermal» regulation for buildings with a net floor area exceeding 1000 m², • The «item by item thermal» regulation for buildings with a net floor area inferior to 1000 m². Increasingly complex construction and renovation projects The Grenelle environment initiative quickly brought about developments in energy requirements for both new builds and renovations, although many other regulations were also developed at the same time. The Law of 11 February 2005 provided for obligations in terms of access to all types of disabilities. As for seismic regulations, they evolved with the decrees and order of 22 October 2010. These increasingly demanding regulations and dedicated standards, along with the demand from customers for environmentally-friendly products and technological innovations associated with research in these fields are among the many factors that have had an influence on the complexity of construction projects. Numerous studies have been carried out in France in relation to these developments and have had an impact on sectors of activity, in particular the construction industry. One of these studies, entitled “Construction activity
  • 12. 12 What is the PCI method? A global and collaborative approach The Integrated Design Process is a design methodology for a building project based on collaboration which was developed in Canada. The linear method, which is usually used on public projects, breaks down and separates the issues into successive stages. During these stages, the various trades use their expertise, supervised by the architect. This type of project management does not allow for technical choices to be re-examined easily, or makes it much more costly to do so. As with this approach, the IDP method aims to be global – it brings together the entire design team at key points during the project. The characteristics of the integrated design process are as follows : • It is guided by clear objectives that have been defined with all project stakeholders during the first workshop, • It requires a facilitator who takes responsibility for the effective functioning of the process : for the Ecobatys project the facilitator was WIGWAM, • The process is structured (reporting and monitoring), • Decision making is clear and precise, supported by collective analysis, • Each stakeholder – the client, users, architect, the structural engineers, etc. makes a key contribution to the design, in Brittany faced with the challenges of the Grenelle environment issues in terms of market, employment and training, Forecast of developments by 2015”, conducted by the Cellule Economique de Bretagne [Breton Economic Division] in July 2009, looked at this matter. The study pointed two types of developments: behavioural developments (working together, working in a network, self-monitoring, etc.) and technical developments (processes, systems, materials and innovative and environmentally-friendly techniques and technologies). Likewise, as part of its « BBC pour tous experiment [Low-energy housing for all] » experiment between 2008 and 2013, Rennes Métropole [Rennes urban community] reached the same conclusion, focusing on difficulties associated with working methods: «More than the technical solutions, the working methods employed throughout the construction chain must be re- examined in order to allow widespread low-energy housing at affordable costs.». Source: Technical report no. 1 accompanying the «BBC pour tous» initiative led by Rennes Métropole, November 2013, updated January 2014.
  • 13. 13 • It is a collective process, • The project is thought out as a whole and across its various aspects – it is a systemic process, • The budget is managed for the project as a whole, • The process is iterative, making it possible to go into further and further detail, • It allows the use of non-traditional skills : users, maintenance operators, etc. Source : Guide sur le processus de conception intégré [Guide to the integrated design process], by Alex Zimmerman, T.S.Sc.A. WIGWAM, Marika FRENETTE, managers of the IDP method Originally from QUEBEC, Marika Frenette settled in France following her architecture. She then sought to better understand the overall context of green building and how it is changing architectural design. She did her research on an international scale. Familiar with the French context, she was also interested in the German approach as well as Scandinavian, American and finally the Japanese approach. It was in her native country that she discovered an adaptation to architecture with the Integrated Design Process (IDP) previously used in the aviation industry. She then distinguished two large categories of issues : one related to the products and the other related to the process i.e. to the methods : AMO Programmiste Architecte Économiste Structure Thermique Fluide Paysagiste BE contrôle Maitre d’ouvrage Traditionnel Architecte Économiste Structure Thermique BE fluide Paysagiste Contrôle et SPS Usagers AMO Programmiste Maitre d’ouvrage Usagers PCI projet
  • 14. 14 ECOBATYS Process from Design to Build The Ecobatys project, a project in relation to the territory This project is the result of a long territorial process combining technical expertise (studies), effective ownership by the professional stakeholders and political involment to support the economic development of the Pays de Fougères and the evolving needs of building companies. This regional project has held a quality label Pôle d’Excellence Rurale [Centre of Rural Excellence] in 2012, the building will comprise five areas : • An educational platform dedicated to eco-renovation to provide training and adapt the skills of the sector’s stakeholders and, therefore, increase their competitiveness and performance. • A «Research and Innovation» area to encourage engineering and local research through interaction between materials and health. • A knowledge and expertise area for businesses to exchange and showcase the knowledge and expertise of business groups by developing business networks and public-private partnerships to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among SMEs in the construction industry, etc. • A resources area to disseminate the knowledge gained through exchanging of information, experiences, results and good practices. • A learning path dedicated to biodiversity and the sustainable management of green spaces in order to allow future designers to apply the new environmentally-friendly design and management • The first can be summarized as follows: an environmentally efficient building is a set of products themselves performing together. • The second, which is found in the High Environmental Quality (HQE ©) and its Environmental Management System (SME ©) is interested in the working method and design. Her path then crossed with Alex Zimmerman and Bill Reed and these meetings strengthened her conviction that an effective construction project is primarily a social, cultural, environmental and eventually financial system, new for each project. Indeed, the team (project owner, user, designer, and builder) is never the same and therefore the design and construction criteria are different. Since she created her company WIGWAM in 2007 she has sought to relate/combine technical expertise and collaborative design methods through IDP.
  • 15. 15 techniques. The aim is to conserve and enhance local biodiversity in the areas concerned. This new system offers several benefits : • The companies will be able to use it as a showroom for their eco- building products, It promotes businesses that engage in the process, in a practical and physical manner. • It welcomes both private and public clients, to guide them towards highly efficient eco-construction projects. • It reinforces and completes both initial and ongoing training of employees, who require specific training throughout their careers. • It is a unique learning environment (for the companies involved, and schools, etc.). Presentation of the team involved in the IDP A territorial project which is led by Pays de Fougères. The client for Ecobatys building is the municipality communities Coglais Marches de Bretagne. Preparation Design Building Use Programme Concept Développement Technical matters ACT ESQ APS APD PRO ACT EXE OPC VISA DET AOR Use Works contract 12 lots Contract on project management Agent : Atelier Loyer Architectes Quantity surveyor & Building engineers : Ingénierie Associés Structural Engineering : ETSB Fluid Engineering Department : Thalem Ground Study Office : Sol explorer Client – Coglais Communauté Marches de Bretagne Agent : WIGWAM Conseil : Environmental design office Thermal and Fluid Engineering – Renewable Energy : Airéo Energies Programming team : AMOFI LOT N°1 Service infrastructure / Excavation works - CF CONSTRUCTION LOT N°2 Carpentry / Timber frame / Straw/ Cladding – DAR- RAS SARL LOT N°3 Sealing/Roofing - FOGERAISE ETANCHEITE LOT N°4 Timber external joinery – LCQVC LOT N°5 Locksmith company – METAL PERFORMANCE LOT N°6 Partitions / Linings /ceilings - SAS VEILLE LOT N°7 Internal joinery – BINOIS LOT N°8 Floor covering – Faïence – LEBLOIS LOT N°9 Wall painting – LE COUP DE MAIN PINTO LOT N°10 Electricity LOT N°11 Heating / Ventilation/ Sanitory plumbing – GUERIN LOT N°12 PV panels – SARL CHRISTO ERNERGIE Public contract on intellectual services: MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE : PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO REFLECTION AND DESIGN IDPOpen forum
  • 16. 16 Collaborative Design Workshop 1: 19 and 20 February 2013 This first meeting brought together the client, the assistants to the client and, lastly, the project management team. Companies could not be integrated at that stage because of public procurement. The aim of this first meeting was to generate a feeling of cooperation and team spirit for the project. Therefore, the first morning was spent going over the Ecobatys project and the challenges it faced. This was followed by the statement of shared objectives that were approved by all parties in the afternoon. Initially working in small groups allowed everyone to work on a common vision of green building. Sub-groups then worked on the nine families of environmental and social criteria. Whenever possible, these objectives should be broken down into measurable and verifiable quantitative criteria (means of verification to be defined), not only throughout the design stage but also during operating stages. 1 Energy management 2 Water management 3 Materials and resources 4 Dumping/emissions/waste 5 Sustainable mobility 6 Outdoor environmental quality 7 Indoor environmental quality 8 Quality of use 9 Culture and communal life On the second day, the groups worked through collaborative methods in well-coordinated teams (assistant to project manager, client, project manager, MOE, users). The architects drawings and synthesis skills were essential during this stage. 3 scenarios were developed based on the advantages and constraints of the site: microclimate, circulation, links to neighbouring buildings, space densification and finally biodiversity. At the end of the second day, the three scenarios were analysed by various experts (quantity surveyor, heating engineer, environmental How the project unfolded : the collaborative workshops
  • 17. 17 Collaborative Design Workshop 2: 13 and 14 March 2013 After some short group work sessions on materials, texture and atmosphere, the different sub- groups developed three scenarios, both in terms of volume and space. This time the analytical work of the various experts deepened interest and provided areas to review for each scenario on the use, circulation, thermal and the overall. This time, the analytical work of the various experts allowed an in-depth investigation to be conducting into interesting issues and points to be re-examined for each scenario concerning use, circulation, heat and the overall economics of the project. In-depth work in sub-groups made it possible to produce a detailed report on the envelope of the building, the educational models and, lastly, on biodiversity. This second workshop ended with tasks and studies to be carried out for the next meeting, in particular the scenario to be chosen by the client: the Communal Council of Coglais. The analysis of the different scenarios was resumed between workshop 2 and 3 by the project manager to allow the elected officials of Coglais Municipalities Community Council to validate them according to the following criteria: compliance with the tender and with the budget. assistant to project manager). They used technical and economic criteria. This first workshop ended with tasks and studies to be carried out for the next meeting.
  • 18. 18 Collaborative Design Workshop 3: 2 April 2013 Theclientvalidatedthethirdscenario; therefore, this third workshop was focused on the analysis of the building details with specialists in the first group (architect, thermal and structural engineers, quantity surveyor, users). A second group looked at biodiversity while a third one refined the educational tools, in particular to define the aesthetics of the furniture on which they would rest. At this stage, the project management team could prepare the next phase: the project studies [PRO] and the drafting of the Business Consulting Records (DCE). By late afternoon about ten users of the future platform came «to express their point of view. Collaborative Design Workshop 4: 12 June 2013 On the agenda: In-depth exploration of the issue of structure and fluids The whole project team (Elected officials ,assistants to project managers, project managers) to make a decision on the heating system for the project : • Despite the distribution of natural gas in the area, the other passive spaces will be heated by means of a pellet boiler equipped with radiant heaters. The double flow ventilation is coupled to the boiler
  • 19. 19 “The occupation of architect is difficult and dangerous for the architect himself or herself, but mostly for the others. I would not make any project without having in mind a strong and clear message of responsibility that is not only aesthetic but also moral.” Renzo Piano, Disobedience of the architect, Editions Arléa, 2007 p106 Renzo Piano’s words clearly find an echo in me. Architecture is a public concern. The architect is certainly responsible by law and in practice but he/she is not the only one. Sponsors, project managers must not shirk their responsibilities as they sometimes tend to forget that architecture is a co- production. To build is a commitment but also to commission a construction. Some project owners have understood this and among them Coglais Communauté with which our firm is currently working on the ECOBATYS project. It took Coglais Communauté more than three years to succeed in convincing and finding funds for the ECOBATYS project, an eco- construction performance centre. Integrated Design Process is an emerging practice in the design stage of a building project. The principle is to bring together all the key stakeholders of the project to create a different context in which they become a team. The idea is to reverse the current work habits where the architect first designs the shape of the building in which various stakeholders come next with their constraints to be “crammed”. How IDP has changed our way of working on the Ecobatys IDP, the view expressed by an architect : Sofia MELLAH through the hot water coil, • The airlock space devoted to the «process/phenomena models» will not be heated first, branch connections are provided for heating via radiant heaters, • The space devoted to the full scale model will be unheated and uninsulated initially (except the floor) but designed to be heated and insulated in the long term. The final details for the air tightness are discussed, on the roof the vapour barrier will be positioned on the steel deck and glued to the insulation material. This session ended with the vision of the building in 10 years.
  • 20. 20 For ECOBATYS, six days of workshops were organized to bring together all stakeholders to connect all different skills so that every decision had the largest positive impact on other areas of the project. The philosophy of this method relies on the collaborative environment that is put forward and on the goals the team has set and has to comply with in designing the project. The whole process is conducted by an independent professional named “facilitator”, who guides the work team and acts as a catalyst to get the best from each stakeholder. Also it seems important to point out that, in terms of sustainability, this practice can optimize a large number of factors that are found in a sustainable building project. For achieved projects, the benefits linked to this type of design process are significant ; they make it possible to generate savings on the total cost of the project, to make coordination of the project easier, to create synergies and much more. I think this working method broadens the stakeholders’ vision of the project by directly confronting their ideas, knowledge and perspectives that are all different approaches to the same building. This method also allows transparency between the project owner and the project manager. Some projects are praised for their architectural quality, others are outstanding by their achievements or by the dialogue the two key stakeholders - project owner and project manager - were able to establish. Dialogue improves working conditions for everyone. We have to bear in mind that what is built today has a lifespan of 50 to 100 years. As for our society, there is no planned obsolescence for architecture. Time dedicated to design compared to other stages is paramount. Time devoted to create is a valuable and important time in our practice. Such temporality allows us to step back and take a long and overall view. This time should be protected from daily emergencies in order to preserve the quality of the project. The IDP method is probably the tool to find the temporality that is too often ignored. I must admit that I was somewhat reluctant, curious and full of apprehension about the design process in the ECOBATYS project. But after six workshops, I realized that a collective practice of architecture does not prevent the expression of individual talent, as demonstrated by many disciplines and, thatworksharingandexpertisenetworkingcreatewealthandinventiveness. Through this process the client allowed us to take the time for creation, which was crucial at the school of architecture but has become rarer and more valuable in our professional practice.
  • 21. 21 Also this approach which was formalized in our contracts, further reinforced ties with the project owner. It made them feel included in the design process and they became aware of the ability of the architect to summarize all the constraints and turn them into assets. Users also felt they had a role to play. They are not often called upon and too often left aside in the development of the programme. Their opinion is too often neglected. Finally, as stated by Philippe Madec1, I would just add, that we must “be attentive to natural resources and to the environmental quality of materials, integrate human and physical local resources, involve users in the design process, design shapes favouring energy saving, think about the users’ health and quality of life. These are five of the terms in an environment friendly project that change the architectural and planning project, as well as our views on built heritage.” Philippe Madec. The environment friendly ambition. Speech at the 2012 European Symposium “Urban ambitions” organized by the National Society of Architects for French listed buildings, Lyon, 8 Oct. 2012
  • 22. 22 Notes ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ......................................................
  • 23. 23 Building Information Modeling (BIM) A British Experience The Green Build Hub
  • 24. 24 Employment in The Construction Sector There were 2.12 million jobs in the construction industry in quarter four of 2013, 6.5% of the national total. There are approximately 212,000 people employed in the construction and real estate sectors in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; this equates to 8.6% of those in employment. The Government’s Construction 2025 strategy predicts that the global construction sector will see 70% growth by 2025. The European Union Structural & Investment Fund and Local Growth Fund investments provide opportunities for the construction sector in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Whilst performance of the construction sector will always be linked to the performance of local and national economies. Every £1 invested in construction activity generates at least £2 ‘spending power’ through wages and profits, spending with suppliers and so forth. This figure rises to well over £3 per £1 invested for housing activity specifically. This can best be realised through the use of local companies, who, in addition will invest in more local jobs and training, in turn leading to more sustainable local growth. A high level of self-employment presents its own set of challenges. The industry is traditionally very fragmented and high levels of sub-contracting mean that working relationships are dependent upon contract success and reputation, however, this can represent a strength as well as a challenge. Source : http://www.cornwallandislesofscillylep.com/assets/file/LEP%20construction%20strategy%20FINAL. pdf
  • 25. 25 Current Building Legislation in the UK shaping sus- tainable construction UK Legislation & Standards There are several drivers shaping sustainable construction in the UK today. These are: the Climate Change Act 2008; the Energy Act 2011; UK Building regulations; and discretionary standards including the Code for Sustainable Homes; the Zero Carbon policy; and AECB (Association for Environmentally Conscious Builders) Silver standard. Climate Change Act 2008 The 2008 Climate Change Act introduces the world’s first long term legally binding framework to tackle the dangers of climate change. The Act creates a new approach to managing and responding to climate change. The key targets of the Act are a 20% reduction in carbon by 2020 ; and an 80% reduction by 2050. Energy Act 2011 The 2011 Energy Act has three principal objectives: tackling barriers to investment in energy efficiency; enhancing energy security; and enabling investment in low carbon energy supplies. The flagship policy in the bill is the ‘Green Deal’, a scheme through which householders, private landlords and businesses are given finance upfront to make energy efficiency improvements, which is then paid for by energy bill savings. It also introduces a range of other provisions including the roll-out of smart meters. Building Regulations Part L : Conservation of Fuel & Power Part L sets the energy efficiency standards required by Building Regulations. It controls the insulation values of building elements, the allowable area of windows, doors and other openings, air permeability of the structure, the heating efficiency of boilers and the insulation and controls for heating appliances and systems together with hot water storage and lighting efficiency. It also sets out the requirements for SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure) calculations and carbon emission targets for dwellings.
  • 26. 26 Fabric U values – comparison of UK Building Regulations with Passivhaus Element 2006 2010 2013 Passivhaus Roof 0.25 0.2 0.2 0.15 Wall 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.15 Floor 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.15 Window 2.2 2 2 0.8 Air permeability 10 10 10 0.6 Standards : Code for Sustainable Homes The Code for Sustainable Homes is the current national standard for the sustainable design and construction of new homes. The Code is not a mandatory standard, but aims to promote higher standards of sustainable design above the current minimum set out by the building regulations. So far 100,000 new homes have been rated under the Code. In 2015 housing design standards are under review and it is anticipated that the Code will be replaced with a new standard in the near future. Standards : Zero Carbon In 2006, the UK Government set the target for all new housing to be Zero Carbon by 2016. The implementation of this target has been subject to debate, in particular the fact that some elements of energy consumption can be off-set through a variety of on-site and off-site mitigation measures, known as ‘allowable solutions’. There are three core requirements which must all be met for a home to qualify as zero carbon : •The fabric performance must, at a minimum, comply with the defined standard known as the Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard (FEES), • Any CO2 emissions that remain after consideration of heating, cooling, fixed lighting and ventilation, must be less than or equal to the Carbon Compliance limit established for zero carbon homes, • Any remaining CO2 emissions, from regulated energy sources (after requirements 1 and 2 have been met), must be reduced to zero. Sources : Zero Carbon Policy : http://www.zerocarbonhub.org/zero-carbon-policy/zero-carbon-policy
  • 27. 27 Standards : AECB ‘Silver’ (Association of environmentally conscious builders) The AECB Silver Standard is aimed at those wishing to create high- performance buildings using widely available technology at little or no extra cost. Financing models & incentives Type Funding Covers Income Feed In Tariff (FiT) Renewable electricity Renewable Heat Incentive (Rhi) Renewable heat Loans Green Deal Energy efficiency / renewables Mortgages Energy efficiency Grants Energy Company Obliga- tion (ECO) Energy efficiency Other Reduced rate VAT (5%) Energy efficiency Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) An EPC is required for any house sale or letting. It provides a list of things the property owner can do to improve energy efficiency. It outlines the typical savings per year and the potential performance ratings after the improvements have been made. The improvements are divided into ‘lower cost measures’ of up to £500 and ‘higher cost measures’ for larger amounts. The EPC rates a building’s performance in terms of: energy use per square metre of floor area, energy efficiency based on fuel costs and environmental impact based on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This provides an energy efficiency and environmental impact (CO2) rating from A (good) Source : http://www.greendealenergysolution.co.uk/ about-energy-performance-certificates/
  • 28. 28 Hoare Lea managers of the BIM method Building Information Modelling has rapidly come to the forefront of building design over the past few years, and Hoare Lea have been actively using, developing and supporting this process since 2009. We’ve previously had a long history of using 3D Modelling, a key element of BIM, both for 3D coordination and within our specialist groups. As of April 2013, we have fully collaborative BIM projects in all of our UK offices either live or completed. Industry sectors include healthcare, education, defence, sports and residential. We have the capability to deliver What is BIM? Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a collaborative way of working, underpinned by the digital technologies which unlock more efficient methods of designing, creating and maintaining our assets. BIM embeds key product and asset data and a three-dimensional computer model that can be used for effective management of information throughout a project lifecycle – from earliest concept through to operation. BIM processes are mainstream to both new buildings/infrastructure and have further potential in retrofit and refurbishment projects when complementary workflows such as laser scanning and rapid energy analysis are employed. BIM technology should be seen as a collaboration between the construction sector and the software industries, and creates an environment in which there are opportunities and synergies for both. to G (poor). From 2018, energy efficiency standards in the private rented sector will be increased and it will become illegal for a landlord to let a property with an EPC rating of F or G.
  • 29. 29 BIM on projects of any size, sector or location. Hoare Lea considers BIM to be more about process than about a particular technology. We believe in adopting a flexible and pragmatic approach to BIM implementation that considers the current BIM capabilities of the entire design team and fully considers how each stakeholder expects to benefit from employing a BIM process. We will bring our experience, knowledge and passion for BIM to the table and are able to both advise and challenge the wider team in respect to Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) requirements within a BIM process. BIM, a collaborative way of working Beginning with the Architect model, we work through by adding in all mechanical and electrical (M&E) relevant information and the intelligent calculations within the software which generates the schedule. An advantage to the industry of using BIM is that if a change is made to a parametric value, for example flow rate, within the model it will update the model and all associated items and in turn changes the schedule. This alters the changes in the plan and the sections or elevations as well, which in CAD would be a lengthy task to produce the drawings. This is more efficient and time saving as you do not need to reschedule and redo calculations. You can also export Revit model to Navisworks, which is another software package, allowing better navigation around the model. This also allows
  • 30. 30 clash detection to aid co-ordination with all the different parametric information from each party of the design team. It will produce a schedule of clashes which when clicked will take you to the location in the model where the clash has occurred and highlight it in red for you. BIM can export a file format to produce the information to populate rooms in Relux, which is an application we use to calculate the levels of artificial light required in a room. BIM can produce many different visualisations for co-ordination purposes. Traditionally, the design, procurement and construction stages have been segregated and input into the process is fragmented throughout. BIM is evolving the way a building is designed, creating a more collaborative process. The model enables the team to manage information more effectively at each stage and to ensure smooth transition between different stages as the level of detail and complexity develops. Green Build Hub Process from Conception to Build The original idea Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust (CSBT) worked on the original conceptual drawings with an architect from ID+EA, Gareth Jones. The original idea was generated by the shape of the site offered to us by the Eden Project. Paul Bright, Chief Executive Office (CEO) of CSBT and Gareth Jones, sat down and talked about the shape of the building and the vision for its future use. It was at this stage that the idea of having removable panels to trial and monitor new and exciting products in sustainable construction was first thought about.
  • 31. 31 CSBT has worked hard to achieve the funding necessary to build the Green Build Hub. The Hub is a building for professionals to see the latest in low impact materials and techniques, and act as a resource for the existing construction sector in Cornwall to learn the skills necessary to exploit the emerging market for energy efficient retrofit on existing housing stock. Finding the team We then looked for collaborators to join us on this adventure. The first people to show an interest in the building were Ward Williams Associates and Ocean Group (a local social housing provider who have a building company as part of their Group – Gilbert and Goode). These companies gave their time to us to develop the conceptual design to RIBA Stage C, and to obtain planning permission. Most of this time was given freely, as they were interested in the concept and wanted to see the building, and the opportunities it presented for the construction sector in Cornwall, come to fruition.
  • 32. 32 The team start work At this stage we then put out a tender, which is a request for specialists to put forward a costed summary of how they could deliver our specific proposal ; in this case it was for our specialist consultants to manage the development. This would involve project management, of the whole design and build process, to include health and safety (CDM), Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) and quantity surveyors (QS). The contract was awarded to Ward Williams Associates (WWA). They then took the project to RIBA Stage D. The software used at this stage was 2D CAD. At this time we were still awaiting a funding decision from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and we were trying to secure matched funding though our bank – Triodos Bank plc. WWA started on the project uncertain of whether the money to pay their fees would be forthcoming. When funding was secured, WWA issued a tender for main contractor for the design and build contract, which was awarded to Gilbert & Goode in conjunction with the local architects PBWC, who would take the project to detailed design. The tender began with a 12 week detailed design phase, at this stage the design team agreed to use Buildings Information Modelling (BIM) to take the project forward. The design team consisted of WWA, the architects PBWC, the structural engineers CDEC and mechanical and electrical engineers Hoare Lea Ltd, the main contractor and the client. At the end of the detailed design phase, the main contractors then asked sub- contractors to cost different work packages as sub contracts for each part of the build.
  • 33. 33 Strategic Definition Preparation and Brief Concept Design Developed Design Technical Design Construction Handover and Close Out In Use 0 1 3 4 5 6 7 A & B C D E & F G H J & K L Design and Build tender1 Project manager and Quantity surveyor 1 BREEAM Assessor 1 CDM Coordinator 1 Consultant engineers : Hoare lea Mechanical/electrical and structural and thermal engineers Ward Williams Associates Ocean Service 2 D drawing 1 plan designer Program and grant file Project management Design and build tender Gilbert & Goode : Main contractor Roof Walls Widows Etc., Subcontractors Architect : PBWC 3 D drawing and BIM conversion The Architect ID+EA The green line begins when you start working with the par- tner and stop when they are no longer working COLLABORATION PROPOSAL Green writing is the name of the tender Orange the name of the companie On the Green Build Hub we have decided to use NEC3 (New Engineering Contract) contracts throughout the project. NEC3 is a new contract which focusses on collaboration, goodwill and trust. CSBT secured further funding to seek expert advice and training on the NEC3 contract for the collaborators on the Green Build Hub. The NEC contract formalises the requirement for good practice project management systems to help project teams understand the time and cost status throughout the lifecycle of the project. It is intended to provide mechanisms for contractors and project managers to work collaboratively, and is designed to contribute to the effectiveness of the management of the work and the understanding between the two parties. NEC contracts are founded on a number of key principles, which include:  1. Foresight applied collaboratively mitigates problems and shrinks risk 2. A regularly accepted programme allows the parties to understand where they are and assess future progress and change. It also avoids the inevitable arguments over disruption that would be brought about with retrospective assessments Signing the contract
  • 34. 34 3. Provides a prescriptive process for assessing change, for example - compensation events, of which there is a strict series of processes to follow. These result in a contractual conclusion, with the event being “implemented” and not liable for subsequent change from either party 4. The processes within the contract rely upon the fact that an up-to-date and realistic programme maintained by the contractor is used in joint decision- making between the two parties. Within the contract there are two key players from the employer’s side of the fence. The Project Manager is the named person within Contract Data part 1 who will administer the contract on behalf of the employer and is the designated authority to issue all instructions, notifications and other communications required under the contract. The sole responsibility of the Supervisor is to check for compliance to the Works Information (basically to check for defects, and is independent of the Project Manager). The Supervisor on the Green Build Hub is a member of the CSBT staff.
  • 35. 35 How BIM has changed our way of working on the Green Build Hub “BIM is the first truly global digital construction technology in common with all innovation this presents both risk and opportunity. The UK programme based on the BIS (Department of Business, Innovation and Skills). BIM Strategy is currently the most ambitious and advanced centrally driven programme in the world. In taking on the role it will greatly enhance the global image of UK designers, contractors and product manufactures which in turn will translate into winning new work, growth opportunities and increased employment. The comprehensive scope and integrated structure of the current UK programme is also an ideal platform on which to take BIM to the next logical level and aim for a fully integrated BIM - which will bring untold benefits. Patrick MacLeamy - Chief Executive Officer of HOK Y Quoted in the HM Government’s “Industrial strategy : government and industry in partnership- Building Information Modelling” 2012 One key competitive advantage of BIM is its ability to promote greater transparency and collaboration between suppliers and thereby reduce waste (procurement, process and material) through all levels of the supply chain. A key driver of the rapid adoption of BIM by clients and industry is that the benefits it creates are shared by the client and the entire supply chain – with downstream benefits to customers who make use of built assets and to society at large.
  • 36. 36 I see BIM as having two parts to it, the actual Building Information Modelling and the sharing and integrated use of the information. There is no doubt that computers and software have advanced so significantly that they enable us to visualise and represent buildings quite rapidly in three dimensions. This is very useful both as a tool to verify the form and massing and to determine how a proposed building sits within its context. This can then be used to communicate ideas to the client, planners and other professionals involved in a project. I have worked in a couple of practices in Cornwall that consider using BIM for all sizes and complexity of project when a practice has made the significant investment, both financially and in staff training into the computers and 3D software (primarily Revit and ArchiCAD). They then want to maximise the use of these skills and capabilities. The benefits for a large, complex project are clear, but even with individual houses there are still benefits. The use of the 3D model allows a greater level of accuracy when producing 3D contextual views. Materials can be modelled and interchanged to give option studies, that help with pricing (cost is usually very significant on small scale projects). Clients, planners, consultants and builders can all get a clearer understanding of the project involved, so even if the model is not shared, or used beyond producing co-ordinated information for statutory approvals, pricing and construction drawings, there is still a benefit. The documents produced can of course be used to showcase the skills of the practice and the images taken directly to be used for marketing purposes, websites, seminars, etc. The second part, the use of integrated information and sharing the model across the design team, and then for use by the FM team post occupation, has been used for many years in the profession. There is no doubt that it is now much more powerful and has the ability to provide more information about actual building materials and components, across all levels. When I worked on Bluewater in Kent (at the time, it was the largest shopping centre in Europe), we shared project documents and drawings across the entire team (several hundred people involved) on a bespoke project database that allowed the sharing of files to ensure we were using the most up to date information for co-ordination. There were strict protocols in place for commenting and giving each document a status. The process was so lengthy that document control provided a full time job for two people BIM from a personal viewpoint as an Architect : Allison Tatterton
  • 37. 37 in just our one architecture practice. These processes have now been simplified and are much faster and more readily accessible, although I do feel there are some grey areas  with the sharing of information (copyright, responsibility, ease of un-authorised change and potential sabotage) that require a degree of trust that is unusual in this litigious world. As an architect originally trained on a drawing board, I still think with a pencil in my hand. I have been through a phase where CAD drawings were the common representation of what was in the architect’s head, although they were often prepared by other specialist CAD draftsmen. A small change had to be followed up across a number of separate drawings, with a high risk of anomalies. As team leader, I often felt detached from the drawing process and spent large amounts of time checking the work of others to ensure it was co-ordinated. Now, the move to modelling in 3D in a sense takes away the middleman, and puts the architect back in control. Yes there are still often various team members involved, with differing skills and experience. But the days of drawing lines that don’t actually represent anything (a common trait among trainee architects I have found) are gone. The software prompts for quite a large degree of information from an early stage, so even if you don’t know what the walls are made of at concept stage, the prompt is there that discourages an un-achievable 200mm thick external wall that causes setting out issues further down the line. The freedom to come up with unusual or daring designs is still there, but for the majority of buildings, the software available is of huge benefit to be embraced.
  • 38. 38 Notes ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................... ......................................................
  • 39. 39 Le projet LIBNAM What is the LIBNAM project about? The LIBNAM project (Low Impact Building using NAtural Materials) is a Franco-British project. Its ambition is to help the building sector to be prepared for the future thermal regulations 2020 (in France) and 2016 (in the UK). It focuses on promoting the use of natural materials in an energy efficient building (low-impact buildings, passive or positive energy buildings). Duration of the project The period of achievement of the «LIBNAM tools» started on January 1, 2012 and ended on March 31, 2015. Outputs Theme 1 «Change management support» theme Change practices towards more green building practices ; • This booklet with the IDP and BIM methods, • The booklet : “Experience feedback on eco-construction building sites“, • The “supporting methods for building professionals” booklet, • Study visits in France and in Great-Britain, • “Feedback on practices” workshops. Theme 2 «innovate with natural materials» Promote natural materials in construction • Support the establishment of two paired resource centers specialized in eco-construction, in Britain and France, • Organise 20 technical demonstrations on natural materials with drafting of technical and educational sheets, • Conduct an inventory on local production sectors of non-industrial materials such as earth, straw and hemp, • Prepare an economic feasibility study for the establishment of an innovation center on the earth material.
  • 40. 40 Warning : The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the opinion or position of the European Commission. The information collected and presented in this booklet were provided by interviewees who certified their accuracy. This information is therefore of their responsibility and should in no way commit the authors of this study. Copyright : Franco-British Collective LIBNAM project -French and English experience on two design methods for a commercial building - 2014/2015. Copyleft : This work may be used and disseminated under the terms of the Art Libre License http://artlibre.org Crédits Couverture : Illustration © Servane Guihaire - études ET chantiers Page 4 : Ecobatys - Image de synthèse © Atelier Loyer Architectes, Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA Page 5 : Ecobatys - Image de synthèse et plan © Atelier Loyer Architectes, Bâtiment en cours de construction - Photo © Servane Guihaire - études ET chantiers, Réunion - Photo © Pays de Fougères Page 11 : Traditionnel / PCI - Schéma © Pays de Fougères Page 13 : Organisation du projet - Schéma © Pays de Fougères Page 14 et 15 : Photos © Pays de Fougères, Ecobatys - Image de synthèse et plans © Atelier Loyer Architectes Page 19 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA, photos © CSBT Page 25 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA Page 26 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA Page 27 : Green Build Hub - Image de synthèse © ID+EA Page 28 : Green Build Hub - Peinture © CSBT, Réunion - Photo © CSBT Page 29 : Réunion - Photo © CSBT Page 30 : Organisation du projet - Schéma © CSBT Page 29 : Conseils d’expert à propos du contrat nec3 - Photo © CSBT Page 32 : Green Buid Hub - Photo © CSBT
  • 41. 41 Auteurs Cornwall Sustainable Building Trust | http://csbt.org.uk/ Network of professionals in eco-construction PO Box 288 St Austell Cornwall PL25 9DY Tel : +44 (0)1726 810 241 Paul Bright, Claire Maye and Celia Robbins : admin@csbt.org.uk Pays de Fougères | www.pays-fougeres.org Territory comprising 58 communes in Ille-et-Vilaine 36 rue de Nantes BP 50306 35303 Fougères Cedex (FR) Tel : +33(0)2 99 17 08 82 Stéphanie Geslot : stephanie.geslot@pays-fougeres.org This project was achieved with the financial support of the European Commission (N° 4243 of the Interreg IVA Programme France (Channel) - England)
  • 42. To meet energy efficiency challenges, we need to improve the design and build process. Changes in regulations and technology prompt us to increase the number of experts and work with more and more partners. Project management becomes more complex and changes our working habits. In this booklet, you will learn about two collaborative methods of building design: the Integrated Design Process and the Building Information Modelling - the first one developed in France and the second one in Great Britain. Both are implemented in the early stages of design and carry on through the construction stage to final completion. IDP is based on human relationships and strengthens the role of users. BIM is a «software tool» that drives partners to collaborate and regulates the management of information throughout a project. This starts at design stage and is pursued during construction to ensure optimum operational management.