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BONE STRUCTURE &
BLOOD SUPPLY
By. DR SANA YASEEN
ANATOMY DEPARTMENT
KIMS
PARTS OF A YOUNG BONE
 COMPONENTS
 EPIPHYSIS
 DIAPHYSIS
 METAPHYSIS
 EPIPHYSIAL PLATE OF
CARTILAGE
EPIPHYSIS:
 the ends and tips of a bone which
ossify from secondary centres are called
epiphysis
TYPES OF EPIPHYSIS
PRESSURE EPIPHYSIS:
 articular ,transmits weight e.g head of femur ,lower end of radius .
TRACTION EPIPHYSIS :
 nonarticular , does not take part in transmission of the weight
provides attachment to the tendons
e.g trochanters of femur and tubercles of humerus
ATAVISTIC EPIPHYSIS
 Independent bone which in man becomes fused to another bone
e.g coracoid process of scapula and os trigonum
ABERRANT EPIPHYSIS
 Epiphysis at the head of first metacarpal and at the base of other
metacarpal bones
TYPES OF EPIPHYSIS
DIAPHYSIS : it is the elongated shaft of a long
bone which ossifies from a primary center.
METAPHYSIS: it is the epiphsial ends of a
diaphysis.
 It is the zone of active growth
 Before epiphysial fusion the metaphysis is richly
supplied with blood through end arteries
 After epiphysial fusion vascular communication
are established between metaphysial and
epiphysial arteries.
EPIPHYSIAL PLATE OF CARTILAGE
 Separates epiphysis from metaphysis
 Proliferation of cells in this cartilaginous plate is
responsible for length wise growth of a long
bone
 After the epiphysial fusion the bone can no longer
grow in length
 The growth cartilage is nourished by both the
epiphysial and metaphysial arteries.
PARTS OF LONG BONE
 SHAFT
(DIAPHYSIS)
 2 ENDS
(EPIPHYSIS)
PARTS OF
A BONE
Is composed of
 periosteum ,
 cortex ,
 medullary cavity
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF SHAFT
PERIOSTEUM :
 thick fibrous membrane covering the surface of the
bone .made up of an outer fibrous layer and inner
cellular layer which is osteogenic in nature
 Periosteum is united to the under lying bone in
sharpey’s fibers.
 It has rich nerve supply which makes it the most
sensitive part of the bone.
CORTEX :
 made up of compact bone which gives it the desired
strength
MEDULLARY CAVITY:
 its the central cavity of bone filled with bone marrow.
Bone structure & blood supply
Bone structure & blood supply
STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE
 EPIPHYSIS:
The two ends of a
long bone are
made up of
cancellous bone
covered with
hyaline cartilage
BLOOD SUPPLY OF BONES
NUTRIENT ARTERY
 it enters the shaft through the cortex and
divides into ascending and descending branches
in the medullary cavity
 Each branch sub divides into no. of small parallel
vessels which enter the metaphysis and forms hair
pin loops.
 Anastomose with epiphysial , metaphysial and
periosteal arteries
 Supply inner 2/3rd of cortex and metaphysis
 Nutrient foramen is directed away from the growing
end of the bone
Bone structure & blood supply
Bone structure & blood supply
PERIOSTEAL ARTERIES:
 Found in periosteum
 Enters the bone through volkmann`s canal
 Supply the outer 1/3rd of cortex
EPIPHYSIAL ARTERIES:
 supply the ends of the bone and growth plates .
Any disturbance to the blood flow in them affects
the bone growth.
 Derived from periarticular vascular arcades
METAPHYSIAL ARTERIES:
 derived from the neighbouring systemic vessels
 Mainly those supplying the associated joints
Bone structure & blood supply
ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF SHORT BONES
 Nutrient artery: enters the centre of cavity and
divides forming the plexus
 Periosteal artery: supply major part of adult bone
and replaces the nutrient vessels
Bone structure & blood supply

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Bone structure & blood supply

  • 1. BONE STRUCTURE & BLOOD SUPPLY By. DR SANA YASEEN ANATOMY DEPARTMENT KIMS
  • 2. PARTS OF A YOUNG BONE  COMPONENTS  EPIPHYSIS  DIAPHYSIS  METAPHYSIS  EPIPHYSIAL PLATE OF CARTILAGE
  • 3. EPIPHYSIS:  the ends and tips of a bone which ossify from secondary centres are called epiphysis
  • 4. TYPES OF EPIPHYSIS PRESSURE EPIPHYSIS:  articular ,transmits weight e.g head of femur ,lower end of radius . TRACTION EPIPHYSIS :  nonarticular , does not take part in transmission of the weight provides attachment to the tendons e.g trochanters of femur and tubercles of humerus ATAVISTIC EPIPHYSIS  Independent bone which in man becomes fused to another bone e.g coracoid process of scapula and os trigonum ABERRANT EPIPHYSIS  Epiphysis at the head of first metacarpal and at the base of other metacarpal bones
  • 6. DIAPHYSIS : it is the elongated shaft of a long bone which ossifies from a primary center. METAPHYSIS: it is the epiphsial ends of a diaphysis.  It is the zone of active growth  Before epiphysial fusion the metaphysis is richly supplied with blood through end arteries  After epiphysial fusion vascular communication are established between metaphysial and epiphysial arteries.
  • 7. EPIPHYSIAL PLATE OF CARTILAGE  Separates epiphysis from metaphysis  Proliferation of cells in this cartilaginous plate is responsible for length wise growth of a long bone  After the epiphysial fusion the bone can no longer grow in length  The growth cartilage is nourished by both the epiphysial and metaphysial arteries.
  • 8. PARTS OF LONG BONE  SHAFT (DIAPHYSIS)  2 ENDS (EPIPHYSIS)
  • 10. Is composed of  periosteum ,  cortex ,  medullary cavity INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF SHAFT
  • 11. PERIOSTEUM :  thick fibrous membrane covering the surface of the bone .made up of an outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer which is osteogenic in nature  Periosteum is united to the under lying bone in sharpey’s fibers.  It has rich nerve supply which makes it the most sensitive part of the bone. CORTEX :  made up of compact bone which gives it the desired strength MEDULLARY CAVITY:  its the central cavity of bone filled with bone marrow.
  • 15.  EPIPHYSIS: The two ends of a long bone are made up of cancellous bone covered with hyaline cartilage
  • 17. NUTRIENT ARTERY  it enters the shaft through the cortex and divides into ascending and descending branches in the medullary cavity  Each branch sub divides into no. of small parallel vessels which enter the metaphysis and forms hair pin loops.  Anastomose with epiphysial , metaphysial and periosteal arteries  Supply inner 2/3rd of cortex and metaphysis  Nutrient foramen is directed away from the growing end of the bone
  • 20. PERIOSTEAL ARTERIES:  Found in periosteum  Enters the bone through volkmann`s canal  Supply the outer 1/3rd of cortex EPIPHYSIAL ARTERIES:  supply the ends of the bone and growth plates . Any disturbance to the blood flow in them affects the bone growth.  Derived from periarticular vascular arcades METAPHYSIAL ARTERIES:  derived from the neighbouring systemic vessels  Mainly those supplying the associated joints
  • 22. ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF SHORT BONES  Nutrient artery: enters the centre of cavity and divides forming the plexus  Periosteal artery: supply major part of adult bone and replaces the nutrient vessels