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BMC :TILES
INTRODUCTION
A TILE IS A THIN OBJECT USUALLY SQUARE OR RCTANGULAR IN SHAPE .
TILE IS A MANUFACTERED PIECE OF HARD-WEARING MATERIAL SUCH AS CERAMIC, STONE,
METAL,BAKED CLAY,OR EVEN GLASS , GENERALLY USED FOR COVERING ROOFS, FLOORS, WALLS,
OR OTHER OBJECTS SUCH AS TABLETOPS
MANUFACTERING RAW MATERIELS :
 SAND
 WHITE CLAY
 TALC
 FELDSPAR
 CALCITE
 DOLOMITE
MANUFACTERING
1. MIXING
◦ ALL THE RAW MATERIELS ARE CRUSHED IN AN UNIFORM SIZES
◦ SOMETIMES , WATER IS ADDED AND THE INGREDIENTS ARE WET MILLED OR IN A BALL MILL
◦ EXCESS WATER IS REMOVED USING FITER PRESSING FOLLOWED BY SPRAY DRYING
2. EXTRUSION
◦ THE DRY POWDER IS MECHANICALL PLACED INTO MOULD OF REQUIRED SIZE
◦ THE BODY OF THE TILE IS PRESSED TO THAT SIZE IN A HYDRAULIC PRESS
◦ THE PRESSURE APPLEID RANGES FROM 3500 TO 7200 TONS
1. RACKING AND DERACKING
◦ TEMPORARY STORAGE PROCESS
◦ HELPS IN REMOVING EXCESS MOISTURE , IF PRESENT
◦ ALSO HELPS IN THE PRODUCTS TO GET STABLE
2. GLAZING
◦ UNGLAZED , EXTRUDEDE TILES ARE FIRED AFTER THE DRYING STAGE
◦ CERAMIC TILES HAVE A SINLE OR MULTIPE COATS OF GLAZE APPLEID
◦ THE GLAZE ADDS PROTECTION TEXTURE AND ENHANCES CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
◦ SILICA IS THE PRIME COMPONENT OF GLAZE
3. FIRING
◦ MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE PROCESS BECAUSE IT WILL DETERMINATE
1. MECHANICAL STRENGTH
2. DIMENSIONAL
3. STABILITY
4. CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
5. EASE OF MAINTENANCE
6. FIRE RESISTANCE
◦ FIRED AT TEMP OF AROUND 1200 C IN APPROXIMATELY 40 MIN PROCESS
RACKING AND DERACKING
GLAZING
FIRING
ORIGIN
• HISTORICALLY, MAN HAS DESIRED TO CREATE LIVING SPACES WHICH WERE BEAUTIFUL, DURABLE, AND USER FRIENDLY.
• WITH THAT IN MIND, CERAMIC TILE HAS BEEN MADE BY MAN FOR 4000 YEARS.
•BEAUTIFUL TILED SURFACES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THE OLDEST PYRAMIDS, THE RUINS OF BABYLON, AND ANCIENT
RUINS OF GREEK CITIES. DECORATIVE TILE WORK WAS INVENTED IN THE NEAR EAST.
• WHERE IT HAS ENJOYED A LONGER POPULARITY AND ASSUMED A GREATER VARIETY OF DESIGN THAN ANYWHERE IN
THE WORLD.
• DURING THE ISLAMIC PERIOD, ALL METHODS OF TILE DECORATION WERE BROUGHT TO PERFECTION IN PERSIA
• IN EUROPE DECORATED TILES DLD NOT COME INTO GENERAL USE OUTSIDE MOORISH SPAIN UNTIL THE SECOND HALF
OF THE 1 2TH CENTURY.
•THE TILE MOSAICS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, THE MAIOLICA FLOOR TILES OF RENAISSANCE ITALY, THE FAIENCES OF
ANTWERP, THE DEVELOPMENT OF TILE ICONOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND AND IN THE NETHERLANDS, AND THE CERAMIC
TILES OF GERMANY ARE ALL PROMINENT LANDMARKS IN THE HISTORY OF CERAMIC TILE.
Painted and glazed
tile of around 880
B.C, Nimrud.
Glazed bricks relief
tile wall, from the
palace of Persepolis
around 518 B.C. Iran
Iran Glazed bricks relief tile
wall, the Ishtar gate at
Babylon, around 575 B.C. ,Iraq
Relief tile of the
early 13th century,
Afghanistan
ADVANTAGES
•DURABILITY
1. TILE IS EXTREMELY RESILIENT WHEN IT COMES TO STAINING AND WEAR.
2. TILE IS PERFECT FOR PLACEMENT IN HIGH TRAFFIC AREAS.
3. IT DOESN’T HAVE STRONG IMPACT RESISTANCE, THOUGH: IF YOU DROP A HEAVY OBJECT ON TILE, IT’S AS LIKELY TO
CRACK AS ANYTHING ELSE.
•LOW MAINTENANCE
1. BECAUSE IT IS SO DURABLE, TILE DOESN’T NEED MUCH IN THE WAY OF UPKEEP.
2. THEY’LL NEED TO BE CLEANED, JUST LIKE ANY OTHER SURFACE IN YOUR HOME THAT GETS DIRTY.
3. YOU’LL WANT TO APPLY A SEALANT ON YOUR TILE ABOUT ONCE EVERY 4-5 YEARS.
4. ASIDE FROM THAT, YOU DON’T HAVE MUCH TO WORRY ABOUT WHEN IT COMES TO KEEPING YOUR TILES IN GOOD
SHAPE.
•COST EFFECTIVE
1. TILES ARE VERY COST EFFECTIVE: THEY’RE ONE OF THE CHEAPEST FLOORING SURFACES AVAILABLE.
2. WHEN YOU FACTOR THE INITIAL COST OF PURCHASING THE TILE AND INSTALLING THEM WITH THEIR LONGEVITY AND
LACK OF COSTLY MAINTENANCE, IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT TILES ARE WORTH EVERY PENNY.
3. OF COURSE THIS ALSO DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF TILE YOU USE: THERE ARE MORE EXPENSIVE AND HIGH-END TILES ON
THE MARKET.
•WATER RESISTANT
1. TILES HAVE A GLAZED PROTECTIVE LAYER ON THEIR SURFACE THAT MAKES THEM IMPERVIOUS TO WATER DAMAGE AND STAIN
PENETRATION.
2. THIS IS WHY TILE IS SO OFTEN USED TO FLOOR BATHROOMS.
3. THEY’RE ALSO NATURALLY RESISTANT TO HUMIDITY, MAKING THEM IDEAL FOR FLOORING AN AREA THAT IS VERY HOT OR MOIST
•. ECO-FRIENDLY
1. TILE IS USUALLY MADE OUT OF RAW MATERIALS LIKE GLASS, SAND AND CLAY.
2. THESE MATERIALS OFTEN GET COMBINED WITH OTHER RECYCLED MATERIALS TO FORM CERAMIC TILES.
3. THEY ALSO CAN LITERALLY AFFECT YOUR PERSONAL ENVIRONMENT: THEY CAN REDUCE YOUR HEATING BILLS BY KEEPING YOUR HOUSE
COOL IN THE SUMMER AND WARM IN THE WINTER BY SERVING AS A FORM OF INSULATION
•RESALE VALUE
1. INSTALLING TILE IN YOUR HOME CAN ALSO PROVE TO BE PROFITABLE IN THE LONG RUN IF YOU’RE GOING TO PUT YOUR HOUSE ON THE
MARKET.
2. THERE HAVE BEEN MANY CASES WHERE ADDING A TILE FLOOR TO A HOUSE TREMENDOUSLY INCREASED ITS RESALE VALUE.
3. AN ATTRACTIVE TILE FLOOR COULD POSSIBLY ADD THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS TO YOUR HOME’S VALUE
•AIR QUALITY
1. TILES ARE FIRED IN KILNS AT EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURES, MAKING IT SO THEY CONTAIN NO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
2. THIS IS IMPORTANT AS VOCS CONTRIBUTE TO A WIDE RANGE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS.
3. SOME OTHER FORMS OF FLOORING (LIKE VINYL AND CARPET) HAVE LOW VOC OUTPUT, BUT NONE CAN STAND TOE TO TOE WITH TILES.
ROOF TILES
•ROOF TILES
1. ROOF TILES ARE DESIGNED MAINLY TO KEEP OUT RAIN, AND ARE TRADITIONALLY MADE FROM LOCALLY
AVAILABLE MATERIALS SUCH AS TERRACOTTA OR SLATE.
2. MODERN MATERIALS SUCH AS CONCRETE AND PLASTIC ARE ALSO USED AND SOME CLAY TILES HAVE A
WATERPROOF GLAZE
•FLAT TILES
1. THE SIMPLEST TYPE, WHICH ARE LAID IN REGULAR OVERLAPPING ROWS.
2. AN EXAMPLE OF THIS IS THE CLAY-MADE "BEAVER-TAIL" TILE (GERMAN BIBERSCHWANZ), COMMON IN
SOUTHERN GERMANY.
3. FLAT ROOF TILES ARE USUALLY MADE OF CLAY BUT ALSO MAY BE MADE OF STONE, WOOD, PLASTIC,
CONCRETE, OR SOLAR CELLS.
•IMBREX AND TEGULA
1. AN ANCIENT ROMAN PATTERN OF CURVED AND FLAT TILES THAT MAKE RAIN CHANNELS ON A ROOF
•ROMAN TILES
1. FLAT IN THE MIDDLE, WITH A CONCAVE CURVE AT ONE END AND A CONVEX-CURVE AT THE OTHER, TO
ALLOW INTERLOCKING
•PAN TILES
1. WITH AN S-SHAPED PROFILE, ALLOWING ADJACENT TILES TO INTERLOCK.
2. THESE RESULT IN A RIDGED PATTERN RESEMBLING A PLOUGHED FIELD.
3. AN EXAMPLE OF THIS IS THE "DOUBLE ROMAN" TILE, DATING FROM THE LATE 19TH CENTURY IN
ENGLAND AND US
•MISSION OR BARREL TILES
1. TILES SEMI-CYLINDRICALTILES LAID IN ALTERNATING COLUMNS OF CONVEX AND CONCAVE TILES.
2. ORIGINALLY THEY WERE MADE BY FORMING CLAY AROUND A CURVED SURFACE, OFTEN A LOG OR THE
MAKER'S THIGH.
3. TODAY BARREL TILES ARE MASS-PRODUCED FROM CLAY, METAL, CONCRETE OR PLASTIC
•INTERLOCKING ROOF TILES
1. SIMILAR TO PANTILES WITH SIDE AND TOP LOCKING TO IMPROVE PROTECTION FROM WATER AND WIND
•ANTEFIXES
1. VERTICAL BLOCKS WHICH TERMINATE THE COVERING TILES OF A TILED ROOF
FLAT ROOF TILES IMBREX AND TEGULA ROMAN TILES PAN TILES
MISSION/BARREL ROOF TILES INTER-LOCKING TILES ANTEFIXES
•BENEFITS
1. DURABLE- THESE TILES ARE SAID TO LAST 100 YEARS IF MAINTAINED.
2. QUITE HARDY- THEY CAN WITHSTAND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AND CAN TAKE HEAVY
RAIMA AND GUSTY WINDS.
3. NON-COMBUSTIBLE- PROTECTION FROM FIRE
4. CONTROLS INTERNAL TEMPERATURE- THESE TILES REFLECT EXTREME HEAT AND LOWER THE
INTERNAL TEMPERATURE
5. LOOKS BEAUTIFUL- THESE ARE AVAILABLE IN MANY COLORS, SHAPES, SIZES
WALL TILES
•WALL TILES
1. THE WALL TILES ARE EMPLOYED IN THE INTERIOR AS WELL AS THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING.
2. THIS IS MAINLY EMPLOYED BASED ON THE REQUIREMENT OF DECORATION OR AESTHETICS.
3. THESE BELONG TO THE CLASS OF CERAMICS AND ARE CALLED AS WHITE WARES.
4. TILES THAT ARE USED ON WALLS ARE AVAILABLE IN BOTH GLAZED AND IN THE UNGLAZED FORMS.
5. MOSTLY THE WALL TILES ARE GLAZED BY A THIN LAYER OF GLAZING WHEN IT IS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET
•VINYL TILES
1. THESE ARE MADE FROM SYNTHETIC MATERIALS.
2. YOU’LL REALIZE THEM IN DIFFERENT COLORS, STYLES, AND SHAPES.
3. VINYL WALL TILES ARE EASIER TO WORK WITH AND CHEAPER COMPARED TO DIFFERENT TILES.
4. FOR THOSE WHO ARE ON A RESTRICTED BUDGET WILL MAKE USE OF THOSE FOR THEIR WALLS.
5. THEY NEED TO BE INSTALLED PROPERLY FOR MAKING A PERFECT LOOKING WALL WHICH MAY LAST LONGER
•MOSAIC TILES
1. THEY ARE MADE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLAY AND COLORED PIGMENTS, THE TILE STYLE IS VERY COLORFUL AND COME WITH DISTINCTIVE PATTERNS.
2. ONLY THE SURFACE PORTION OF THESE IS GLAZED
•GLASS TILES
1. TILES THE GLASS TILES ARE AVAILABLE IN VARIOUS COLORS AND SHAPES.
2. YOU’LL FIND CLEAR GLASS TILES, FROSTED AND BUBBLE GLASS TILES.
3. USE OF GLASS TILE THAT IS OBVIOUS WILL REVEAL THE TILE BACKING USED WHILE THE FROSTED KIND IS PERFECT IF YOU WISH TO FORM A FLAT AND
OPAQUE SURFACE.
4. THE BUBBLE VARIETIES ARE VERY ATTRACTIVE BECAUSE THEY HAVE TINY BUBBLES IN BETWEEN THAT INCREASE THE PATTERN OF THE TILES
•MARBLE TILES
1. THESE TILES ARE MANUFACTURED FROM MARBLE AND ARE TYPICALLY VERY EXPENSIVE.
2. HOWEVER, USE OF THESE TILES WILL BRING ABOUT A GREAT TRANSFORMATION TO THE DESIGN AND FEEL OF THE ROOMS.
3. THEY ARE DURABLE AND KEEP OFF ALLERGY MANUFACTURING IRRITANTS. YOU’LL CHOOSE FROM A LARGE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS
•GLAZED CERAMIC TILES
1. THEY HAVE A GLOSSY LOOK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN VARIOUS COLORS AND STYLES.
2. COMPLETELY WATERPROOF TILES ARE USUALLY MADE OF CLAY.
3. THESE ARE GOOD FOR USING AS SHOWER TILES, IN POOLS AND PLACES WHEREVER WATER IS PRESENT.
4. YOU’LL FIND DIFFERENT VARIETIES LIKE HIGH GLOSS, MATTE END, AND SLIP RESISTANT
•BENEFITS
1. HYGIENIC AND EASY TO CLEAN IT IS MUCH EASIER TO MAINTAIN THAN PAINT, WALL PAPER, OR
OTHER MATERIALS. YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM A RANGE OF FINISHES SUCH AS MATT, GLOSSY, OR
SEMI-GLOSSY. TO KEEP THE TILES CLEAN, ALL YOU NEED TO DO IS WIPE THEM FROM TIME TO
TIME
2. MOISTURE RESISTANT BECAUSE WALL TILE IS RESISTANT TO MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY, IT IS
IDEAL FOR DAMP ENVIRONMENTS SUCH AS BATHROOMS AND KITCHENS. IT DOES NOT SWELL
OR DEFORM WHEN EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF MOISTURE.
3. MOLD AND FUNGUS RESISTANT WALL TILE IS IMPERVIOUS TO MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY. THIS
TRAIT IMPROVES ITS RESISTANCE TO MOLD, BACTERIA AND FUNGI. AS A RESULT, YOU HAVE AN
EASIER TIME KEEPING TOXINS AND BACTERIA FROM DEVELOPING ON YOUR WALLS.
4. LONG LASTING WALL TILES ARE DURABLE AND LONG LASTING. THEY DO NOT CRACK, FADE, OR
BREAK UNDER PRESSURE.
5. ODOR RESISTANT UNLIKE OTHER MATERIALS THAT MAY ABSORB AND HOLD ODORS, CERAMIC
WALL TILE DOES NOT ABSORB SMELLS. IT IS IDEAL FOR USE IN KITCHENS.
VINYL TILES
MOSAIC TILES GLASS TILES
MARBLE TILES GLAZED CERAMIC TILES
FLOOR TILES
• SOME STONE TILES SUCH AS POLISHED GRANITE, MARBLE, AND TRAVERTINE ARE VERY SLIPPERY WHEN WET. STONE
TILES WITH A RIVEN (SPLIT) SURFACE SUCH AS SLATE OR WITH A SAWN AND THEN SANDBLASTED OR HONED SURFACE
WILL BE MORE SLIP-RESISTANT. CERAMIC TILES FOR USE IN WET AREAS CAN BE MADE MORE SLIP-RESISTANT EITHER BY
USING VERY SMALL TILES SO THAT THE GROUT LINES ACTS AS GROOVES OR BY IMPRINTING A CONTOUR PATTERN ONTO
THE FACE OF THE TILE.
•THE HARDNESS OF NATURAL STONE TILES VARIES SUCH THAT SOME OF THE SOFTER STONE (E.G. LIMESTONE) TILES ARE
NOT SUITABLE FOR VERY HEAVY-TRAFFIC FLOOR AREAS. ON THE OTHER HAND, CERAMIC TILES TYPICALLY HAVE A
GLAZED UPPER SURFACE AND WHEN THAT BECOMES SCRATCHED OR PITTED THE FLOOR LOOKS WORN, WHEREAS THE
SAME AMOUNT OF WEAR ON NATURAL STONE TILES WILL NOT SHOW, OR WILL BE LESS NOTICEABLE.
• THE TENDENCY OF FLOOR TILES TO STAIN DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON A SEALANT BEING APPLIED, AND PERIODICALLY REAPPLIED, BUT ALSO
ON THEIR POROSITY OR HOW POROUS THE STONE IS. SLATE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A LESS POROUS STONE WHILE LIMESTONE IS AN EXAMPLE
OF A MORE POROUS STONE. DIFFERENT GRANITES AND MARBLES HAVE DIFFERENT POROSITIES WITH THE LESS POROUS ONES BEING
MORE VALUED AND MORE EXPENSIVE
• MOST VENDORS OF STONE TILES EMPHASIZE THAT THERE WILL BE VARIATION IN COLOR AND PATTERN FROM ONE BATCH OF TILES TO
ANOTHER OF THE SAME DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION WITHIN THE SAME BATCH. STONE FLOOR TILES TEND TO BE HEAVIER THAN
CERAMIC TILES AND SOMEWHAT MORE PRONE TO BREAKAGE DURING SHIPMENT.
•RUBBER FLOOR TILES HAVE A VARIETY OF USES, BOTH IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SETTINGS. THEY ARE ESPECIALLY USEFUL IN
SITUATIONS WHERE IT IS DESIRED TO HAVE HIGH-TRACTION FLOORS OR PROTECTION FOR AN EASILY BREAKABLE FLOOR. SOME COMMON
USES INCLUDE FLOORING OF GARAGE, WORKSHOPS, PATIOS, SWIMMING POOL DECKS, SPORT COURTS, GYMS, AND DANCE FLOORS.
•PLASTIC FLOOR TILES INCLUDING INTERLOCKING FLOOR TILES THAT CAN BE INSTALLED WITHOUT ADHESIVE OR GLUE ARE A RECENT
INNOVATION AND ARE SUITABLE FOR AREAS SUBJECT TO HEAVY TRAFFIC, WET AREAS AND FLOORS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO MOVEMENT,
DAMP OR CONTAMINATION FROM OIL, GREASE OR OTHER SUBSTANCES THAT MAY PREVENT ADHESION TO THE SUBSTRATE. COMMON
USES INCLUDE OLD FACTORY FLOORS, GARAGES, GYMS AND SPORTS COMPLEXES, SCHOOLS AND SHOPS.
RUBBER FLOOR TILE
SLATE TILE
NATURAL STONE TILE
GROUT TILE
CERAMIC TILE PLASTIC FLOOR TILE
THANK YOU

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Bmc(tile)

  • 2. INTRODUCTION A TILE IS A THIN OBJECT USUALLY SQUARE OR RCTANGULAR IN SHAPE . TILE IS A MANUFACTERED PIECE OF HARD-WEARING MATERIAL SUCH AS CERAMIC, STONE, METAL,BAKED CLAY,OR EVEN GLASS , GENERALLY USED FOR COVERING ROOFS, FLOORS, WALLS, OR OTHER OBJECTS SUCH AS TABLETOPS MANUFACTERING RAW MATERIELS :  SAND  WHITE CLAY  TALC  FELDSPAR  CALCITE  DOLOMITE
  • 3. MANUFACTERING 1. MIXING ◦ ALL THE RAW MATERIELS ARE CRUSHED IN AN UNIFORM SIZES ◦ SOMETIMES , WATER IS ADDED AND THE INGREDIENTS ARE WET MILLED OR IN A BALL MILL ◦ EXCESS WATER IS REMOVED USING FITER PRESSING FOLLOWED BY SPRAY DRYING 2. EXTRUSION ◦ THE DRY POWDER IS MECHANICALL PLACED INTO MOULD OF REQUIRED SIZE ◦ THE BODY OF THE TILE IS PRESSED TO THAT SIZE IN A HYDRAULIC PRESS ◦ THE PRESSURE APPLEID RANGES FROM 3500 TO 7200 TONS
  • 4. 1. RACKING AND DERACKING ◦ TEMPORARY STORAGE PROCESS ◦ HELPS IN REMOVING EXCESS MOISTURE , IF PRESENT ◦ ALSO HELPS IN THE PRODUCTS TO GET STABLE 2. GLAZING ◦ UNGLAZED , EXTRUDEDE TILES ARE FIRED AFTER THE DRYING STAGE ◦ CERAMIC TILES HAVE A SINLE OR MULTIPE COATS OF GLAZE APPLEID ◦ THE GLAZE ADDS PROTECTION TEXTURE AND ENHANCES CHEMICAL RESISTANCE ◦ SILICA IS THE PRIME COMPONENT OF GLAZE 3. FIRING ◦ MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE PROCESS BECAUSE IT WILL DETERMINATE 1. MECHANICAL STRENGTH 2. DIMENSIONAL 3. STABILITY 4. CHEMICAL RESISTANCE 5. EASE OF MAINTENANCE 6. FIRE RESISTANCE ◦ FIRED AT TEMP OF AROUND 1200 C IN APPROXIMATELY 40 MIN PROCESS RACKING AND DERACKING GLAZING FIRING
  • 5. ORIGIN • HISTORICALLY, MAN HAS DESIRED TO CREATE LIVING SPACES WHICH WERE BEAUTIFUL, DURABLE, AND USER FRIENDLY. • WITH THAT IN MIND, CERAMIC TILE HAS BEEN MADE BY MAN FOR 4000 YEARS. •BEAUTIFUL TILED SURFACES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THE OLDEST PYRAMIDS, THE RUINS OF BABYLON, AND ANCIENT RUINS OF GREEK CITIES. DECORATIVE TILE WORK WAS INVENTED IN THE NEAR EAST. • WHERE IT HAS ENJOYED A LONGER POPULARITY AND ASSUMED A GREATER VARIETY OF DESIGN THAN ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD. • DURING THE ISLAMIC PERIOD, ALL METHODS OF TILE DECORATION WERE BROUGHT TO PERFECTION IN PERSIA • IN EUROPE DECORATED TILES DLD NOT COME INTO GENERAL USE OUTSIDE MOORISH SPAIN UNTIL THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1 2TH CENTURY. •THE TILE MOSAICS OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, THE MAIOLICA FLOOR TILES OF RENAISSANCE ITALY, THE FAIENCES OF ANTWERP, THE DEVELOPMENT OF TILE ICONOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND AND IN THE NETHERLANDS, AND THE CERAMIC TILES OF GERMANY ARE ALL PROMINENT LANDMARKS IN THE HISTORY OF CERAMIC TILE.
  • 6. Painted and glazed tile of around 880 B.C, Nimrud. Glazed bricks relief tile wall, from the palace of Persepolis around 518 B.C. Iran Iran Glazed bricks relief tile wall, the Ishtar gate at Babylon, around 575 B.C. ,Iraq Relief tile of the early 13th century, Afghanistan
  • 7. ADVANTAGES •DURABILITY 1. TILE IS EXTREMELY RESILIENT WHEN IT COMES TO STAINING AND WEAR. 2. TILE IS PERFECT FOR PLACEMENT IN HIGH TRAFFIC AREAS. 3. IT DOESN’T HAVE STRONG IMPACT RESISTANCE, THOUGH: IF YOU DROP A HEAVY OBJECT ON TILE, IT’S AS LIKELY TO CRACK AS ANYTHING ELSE. •LOW MAINTENANCE 1. BECAUSE IT IS SO DURABLE, TILE DOESN’T NEED MUCH IN THE WAY OF UPKEEP. 2. THEY’LL NEED TO BE CLEANED, JUST LIKE ANY OTHER SURFACE IN YOUR HOME THAT GETS DIRTY. 3. YOU’LL WANT TO APPLY A SEALANT ON YOUR TILE ABOUT ONCE EVERY 4-5 YEARS. 4. ASIDE FROM THAT, YOU DON’T HAVE MUCH TO WORRY ABOUT WHEN IT COMES TO KEEPING YOUR TILES IN GOOD SHAPE. •COST EFFECTIVE 1. TILES ARE VERY COST EFFECTIVE: THEY’RE ONE OF THE CHEAPEST FLOORING SURFACES AVAILABLE. 2. WHEN YOU FACTOR THE INITIAL COST OF PURCHASING THE TILE AND INSTALLING THEM WITH THEIR LONGEVITY AND LACK OF COSTLY MAINTENANCE, IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT TILES ARE WORTH EVERY PENNY. 3. OF COURSE THIS ALSO DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF TILE YOU USE: THERE ARE MORE EXPENSIVE AND HIGH-END TILES ON THE MARKET.
  • 8. •WATER RESISTANT 1. TILES HAVE A GLAZED PROTECTIVE LAYER ON THEIR SURFACE THAT MAKES THEM IMPERVIOUS TO WATER DAMAGE AND STAIN PENETRATION. 2. THIS IS WHY TILE IS SO OFTEN USED TO FLOOR BATHROOMS. 3. THEY’RE ALSO NATURALLY RESISTANT TO HUMIDITY, MAKING THEM IDEAL FOR FLOORING AN AREA THAT IS VERY HOT OR MOIST •. ECO-FRIENDLY 1. TILE IS USUALLY MADE OUT OF RAW MATERIALS LIKE GLASS, SAND AND CLAY. 2. THESE MATERIALS OFTEN GET COMBINED WITH OTHER RECYCLED MATERIALS TO FORM CERAMIC TILES. 3. THEY ALSO CAN LITERALLY AFFECT YOUR PERSONAL ENVIRONMENT: THEY CAN REDUCE YOUR HEATING BILLS BY KEEPING YOUR HOUSE COOL IN THE SUMMER AND WARM IN THE WINTER BY SERVING AS A FORM OF INSULATION •RESALE VALUE 1. INSTALLING TILE IN YOUR HOME CAN ALSO PROVE TO BE PROFITABLE IN THE LONG RUN IF YOU’RE GOING TO PUT YOUR HOUSE ON THE MARKET. 2. THERE HAVE BEEN MANY CASES WHERE ADDING A TILE FLOOR TO A HOUSE TREMENDOUSLY INCREASED ITS RESALE VALUE. 3. AN ATTRACTIVE TILE FLOOR COULD POSSIBLY ADD THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS TO YOUR HOME’S VALUE •AIR QUALITY 1. TILES ARE FIRED IN KILNS AT EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURES, MAKING IT SO THEY CONTAIN NO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 2. THIS IS IMPORTANT AS VOCS CONTRIBUTE TO A WIDE RANGE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS. 3. SOME OTHER FORMS OF FLOORING (LIKE VINYL AND CARPET) HAVE LOW VOC OUTPUT, BUT NONE CAN STAND TOE TO TOE WITH TILES.
  • 9. ROOF TILES •ROOF TILES 1. ROOF TILES ARE DESIGNED MAINLY TO KEEP OUT RAIN, AND ARE TRADITIONALLY MADE FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS SUCH AS TERRACOTTA OR SLATE. 2. MODERN MATERIALS SUCH AS CONCRETE AND PLASTIC ARE ALSO USED AND SOME CLAY TILES HAVE A WATERPROOF GLAZE •FLAT TILES 1. THE SIMPLEST TYPE, WHICH ARE LAID IN REGULAR OVERLAPPING ROWS. 2. AN EXAMPLE OF THIS IS THE CLAY-MADE "BEAVER-TAIL" TILE (GERMAN BIBERSCHWANZ), COMMON IN SOUTHERN GERMANY. 3. FLAT ROOF TILES ARE USUALLY MADE OF CLAY BUT ALSO MAY BE MADE OF STONE, WOOD, PLASTIC, CONCRETE, OR SOLAR CELLS. •IMBREX AND TEGULA 1. AN ANCIENT ROMAN PATTERN OF CURVED AND FLAT TILES THAT MAKE RAIN CHANNELS ON A ROOF
  • 10. •ROMAN TILES 1. FLAT IN THE MIDDLE, WITH A CONCAVE CURVE AT ONE END AND A CONVEX-CURVE AT THE OTHER, TO ALLOW INTERLOCKING •PAN TILES 1. WITH AN S-SHAPED PROFILE, ALLOWING ADJACENT TILES TO INTERLOCK. 2. THESE RESULT IN A RIDGED PATTERN RESEMBLING A PLOUGHED FIELD. 3. AN EXAMPLE OF THIS IS THE "DOUBLE ROMAN" TILE, DATING FROM THE LATE 19TH CENTURY IN ENGLAND AND US •MISSION OR BARREL TILES 1. TILES SEMI-CYLINDRICALTILES LAID IN ALTERNATING COLUMNS OF CONVEX AND CONCAVE TILES. 2. ORIGINALLY THEY WERE MADE BY FORMING CLAY AROUND A CURVED SURFACE, OFTEN A LOG OR THE MAKER'S THIGH. 3. TODAY BARREL TILES ARE MASS-PRODUCED FROM CLAY, METAL, CONCRETE OR PLASTIC •INTERLOCKING ROOF TILES 1. SIMILAR TO PANTILES WITH SIDE AND TOP LOCKING TO IMPROVE PROTECTION FROM WATER AND WIND •ANTEFIXES 1. VERTICAL BLOCKS WHICH TERMINATE THE COVERING TILES OF A TILED ROOF
  • 11. FLAT ROOF TILES IMBREX AND TEGULA ROMAN TILES PAN TILES MISSION/BARREL ROOF TILES INTER-LOCKING TILES ANTEFIXES
  • 12. •BENEFITS 1. DURABLE- THESE TILES ARE SAID TO LAST 100 YEARS IF MAINTAINED. 2. QUITE HARDY- THEY CAN WITHSTAND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AND CAN TAKE HEAVY RAIMA AND GUSTY WINDS. 3. NON-COMBUSTIBLE- PROTECTION FROM FIRE 4. CONTROLS INTERNAL TEMPERATURE- THESE TILES REFLECT EXTREME HEAT AND LOWER THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE 5. LOOKS BEAUTIFUL- THESE ARE AVAILABLE IN MANY COLORS, SHAPES, SIZES
  • 13. WALL TILES •WALL TILES 1. THE WALL TILES ARE EMPLOYED IN THE INTERIOR AS WELL AS THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING. 2. THIS IS MAINLY EMPLOYED BASED ON THE REQUIREMENT OF DECORATION OR AESTHETICS. 3. THESE BELONG TO THE CLASS OF CERAMICS AND ARE CALLED AS WHITE WARES. 4. TILES THAT ARE USED ON WALLS ARE AVAILABLE IN BOTH GLAZED AND IN THE UNGLAZED FORMS. 5. MOSTLY THE WALL TILES ARE GLAZED BY A THIN LAYER OF GLAZING WHEN IT IS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET •VINYL TILES 1. THESE ARE MADE FROM SYNTHETIC MATERIALS. 2. YOU’LL REALIZE THEM IN DIFFERENT COLORS, STYLES, AND SHAPES. 3. VINYL WALL TILES ARE EASIER TO WORK WITH AND CHEAPER COMPARED TO DIFFERENT TILES. 4. FOR THOSE WHO ARE ON A RESTRICTED BUDGET WILL MAKE USE OF THOSE FOR THEIR WALLS. 5. THEY NEED TO BE INSTALLED PROPERLY FOR MAKING A PERFECT LOOKING WALL WHICH MAY LAST LONGER
  • 14. •MOSAIC TILES 1. THEY ARE MADE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLAY AND COLORED PIGMENTS, THE TILE STYLE IS VERY COLORFUL AND COME WITH DISTINCTIVE PATTERNS. 2. ONLY THE SURFACE PORTION OF THESE IS GLAZED •GLASS TILES 1. TILES THE GLASS TILES ARE AVAILABLE IN VARIOUS COLORS AND SHAPES. 2. YOU’LL FIND CLEAR GLASS TILES, FROSTED AND BUBBLE GLASS TILES. 3. USE OF GLASS TILE THAT IS OBVIOUS WILL REVEAL THE TILE BACKING USED WHILE THE FROSTED KIND IS PERFECT IF YOU WISH TO FORM A FLAT AND OPAQUE SURFACE. 4. THE BUBBLE VARIETIES ARE VERY ATTRACTIVE BECAUSE THEY HAVE TINY BUBBLES IN BETWEEN THAT INCREASE THE PATTERN OF THE TILES •MARBLE TILES 1. THESE TILES ARE MANUFACTURED FROM MARBLE AND ARE TYPICALLY VERY EXPENSIVE. 2. HOWEVER, USE OF THESE TILES WILL BRING ABOUT A GREAT TRANSFORMATION TO THE DESIGN AND FEEL OF THE ROOMS. 3. THEY ARE DURABLE AND KEEP OFF ALLERGY MANUFACTURING IRRITANTS. YOU’LL CHOOSE FROM A LARGE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS •GLAZED CERAMIC TILES 1. THEY HAVE A GLOSSY LOOK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN VARIOUS COLORS AND STYLES. 2. COMPLETELY WATERPROOF TILES ARE USUALLY MADE OF CLAY. 3. THESE ARE GOOD FOR USING AS SHOWER TILES, IN POOLS AND PLACES WHEREVER WATER IS PRESENT. 4. YOU’LL FIND DIFFERENT VARIETIES LIKE HIGH GLOSS, MATTE END, AND SLIP RESISTANT
  • 15. •BENEFITS 1. HYGIENIC AND EASY TO CLEAN IT IS MUCH EASIER TO MAINTAIN THAN PAINT, WALL PAPER, OR OTHER MATERIALS. YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM A RANGE OF FINISHES SUCH AS MATT, GLOSSY, OR SEMI-GLOSSY. TO KEEP THE TILES CLEAN, ALL YOU NEED TO DO IS WIPE THEM FROM TIME TO TIME 2. MOISTURE RESISTANT BECAUSE WALL TILE IS RESISTANT TO MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY, IT IS IDEAL FOR DAMP ENVIRONMENTS SUCH AS BATHROOMS AND KITCHENS. IT DOES NOT SWELL OR DEFORM WHEN EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF MOISTURE. 3. MOLD AND FUNGUS RESISTANT WALL TILE IS IMPERVIOUS TO MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY. THIS TRAIT IMPROVES ITS RESISTANCE TO MOLD, BACTERIA AND FUNGI. AS A RESULT, YOU HAVE AN EASIER TIME KEEPING TOXINS AND BACTERIA FROM DEVELOPING ON YOUR WALLS. 4. LONG LASTING WALL TILES ARE DURABLE AND LONG LASTING. THEY DO NOT CRACK, FADE, OR BREAK UNDER PRESSURE. 5. ODOR RESISTANT UNLIKE OTHER MATERIALS THAT MAY ABSORB AND HOLD ODORS, CERAMIC WALL TILE DOES NOT ABSORB SMELLS. IT IS IDEAL FOR USE IN KITCHENS.
  • 16. VINYL TILES MOSAIC TILES GLASS TILES MARBLE TILES GLAZED CERAMIC TILES
  • 17. FLOOR TILES • SOME STONE TILES SUCH AS POLISHED GRANITE, MARBLE, AND TRAVERTINE ARE VERY SLIPPERY WHEN WET. STONE TILES WITH A RIVEN (SPLIT) SURFACE SUCH AS SLATE OR WITH A SAWN AND THEN SANDBLASTED OR HONED SURFACE WILL BE MORE SLIP-RESISTANT. CERAMIC TILES FOR USE IN WET AREAS CAN BE MADE MORE SLIP-RESISTANT EITHER BY USING VERY SMALL TILES SO THAT THE GROUT LINES ACTS AS GROOVES OR BY IMPRINTING A CONTOUR PATTERN ONTO THE FACE OF THE TILE. •THE HARDNESS OF NATURAL STONE TILES VARIES SUCH THAT SOME OF THE SOFTER STONE (E.G. LIMESTONE) TILES ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR VERY HEAVY-TRAFFIC FLOOR AREAS. ON THE OTHER HAND, CERAMIC TILES TYPICALLY HAVE A GLAZED UPPER SURFACE AND WHEN THAT BECOMES SCRATCHED OR PITTED THE FLOOR LOOKS WORN, WHEREAS THE SAME AMOUNT OF WEAR ON NATURAL STONE TILES WILL NOT SHOW, OR WILL BE LESS NOTICEABLE.
  • 18. • THE TENDENCY OF FLOOR TILES TO STAIN DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON A SEALANT BEING APPLIED, AND PERIODICALLY REAPPLIED, BUT ALSO ON THEIR POROSITY OR HOW POROUS THE STONE IS. SLATE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A LESS POROUS STONE WHILE LIMESTONE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MORE POROUS STONE. DIFFERENT GRANITES AND MARBLES HAVE DIFFERENT POROSITIES WITH THE LESS POROUS ONES BEING MORE VALUED AND MORE EXPENSIVE • MOST VENDORS OF STONE TILES EMPHASIZE THAT THERE WILL BE VARIATION IN COLOR AND PATTERN FROM ONE BATCH OF TILES TO ANOTHER OF THE SAME DESCRIPTION AND VARIATION WITHIN THE SAME BATCH. STONE FLOOR TILES TEND TO BE HEAVIER THAN CERAMIC TILES AND SOMEWHAT MORE PRONE TO BREAKAGE DURING SHIPMENT. •RUBBER FLOOR TILES HAVE A VARIETY OF USES, BOTH IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SETTINGS. THEY ARE ESPECIALLY USEFUL IN SITUATIONS WHERE IT IS DESIRED TO HAVE HIGH-TRACTION FLOORS OR PROTECTION FOR AN EASILY BREAKABLE FLOOR. SOME COMMON USES INCLUDE FLOORING OF GARAGE, WORKSHOPS, PATIOS, SWIMMING POOL DECKS, SPORT COURTS, GYMS, AND DANCE FLOORS. •PLASTIC FLOOR TILES INCLUDING INTERLOCKING FLOOR TILES THAT CAN BE INSTALLED WITHOUT ADHESIVE OR GLUE ARE A RECENT INNOVATION AND ARE SUITABLE FOR AREAS SUBJECT TO HEAVY TRAFFIC, WET AREAS AND FLOORS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO MOVEMENT, DAMP OR CONTAMINATION FROM OIL, GREASE OR OTHER SUBSTANCES THAT MAY PREVENT ADHESION TO THE SUBSTRATE. COMMON USES INCLUDE OLD FACTORY FLOORS, GARAGES, GYMS AND SPORTS COMPLEXES, SCHOOLS AND SHOPS.
  • 19. RUBBER FLOOR TILE SLATE TILE NATURAL STONE TILE GROUT TILE CERAMIC TILE PLASTIC FLOOR TILE