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Blueprint+ : Developing a Tool for
Service Design

A Work In Progress



Andy Polaine
Lecturer/Research Fellow - Service Design

T direkt +41 41 249 92 25
andrew.polaine [at] hslu.ch
Twitter: apolaine
SDN Conference - October 27th, 2009
(Project authors: Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler)
Build


      Standardise


      Communicate


      Plan


      Share



The role of traditional blueprints
Build a house – standards of technical drawing

                                        Image:http://alttext.com/
Communication the details of a Mercedes

                                Image:http://www.majhost.com/gallery/
                                legomech/CarBlueprints/MBZ-Blueprints/
Share the plans for a Batmobile

                             Image:http://www.chickslovethecar.com
Communicate how to paint a 727

                                 Image: telstar on Flickr
Blueprinting actions and processes

                            Source: Shostack, G. L. (1984). Designing services that deliver.
                                               Harvard business review, 62(1), 133-139.
and multiple options.“

!

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                    @?,#7&,-&$>*/&,                                                                                                                                 8($,"&3,:-&$-
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                    @?,#7&,:-&$




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                                                                                                                                                                !9&"#*#?,%"9,4(+-,C(7",*"
                                                                     0"#$%"/&1$&/&.#*("                                              '($)*"+,-.%/&


    6(7",0"#&$-                                                       2&/&.#*("*-#,        6(7",*-,+:*9&9,#(,
                          2&/&.#*("*-#,          2&/&.#*("*-#,                                                                  6(7",3($)-,(",
                                                                  *"#$(9:/&-,6(7",#(,       #7&,3($)-#%#*("      6(7",;(+-,*"
                         3&4/(5&-,6(7"           *"8($5-,6(7"                                                                      7*-,<=
                                                                    $((5,%--*-#%"#




                                                                  A7&,@*44*"+,.&$-(",
    6(7",4&%>&-          6(7"B-,5&5@&$,          6(7",.%?-,#7&,                         6(7",+(&-,#(,.%?,                       6(7",-%>&-,7*-,                     A7&,-?-#&5,D%>&-,6B-,
                                                                  .$(/&--&-,6(7"B-,                             6(7",4(+-,(:#
                         /%$9,*-,:.9%#&9              @*44                                   #7&,@*44                                3($)                            3($),*",7*-,9*$&/#($?
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                                            G//(:"#*"+,                                                     D.%/&,%"9,                                     @%/)I:.                   :.,#7&,-?-#&5
                                          -?-#&5,$&+*-#&$-,         F*44*"+,-?-#&5                           8%/*4*#*&-,
                                              .%?5&"#                                                       5%*"#&"%"/&
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                                                                                                                                                                                                          !


           Blueprinting actions and processes
!"#$%&'(')&*%&+&,-.-"/,'/0'.'$+&'1.+&'0/%'-2&'3&4&5&,-%.'*%/6&1-'



=>()6!5)>(+*'!?6+?+')*!@+6!>()!:69?(&A!6)?6)'),>9>&+,!+@!"44!96)!")>6&!1)>'-!#')*!>+!

5+*)%!A+5?%)B!'C'>)5'!&,A%#*&,:!>()!*)D)%+?5),>!+@!9!')6&)'!+@!>69,'9A>&+,'!&,!>&5)! product/ service systems.
                                                               Source: Morelli, N. (2002). Designing
                                                                  A methodological exploration. Design Issues 18(3): 3 - 17.
t
processes e ciently.“ Journal of Business Research 57: 392 - 404.
Fliess, S. and M. Kleinaltenkamp (2004). „Blueprinting the service company. Managing service




                                                                                               Blueprints in Service Design

                                                                                                                  Fliess, S. and M. Kleinaltenkamp (2004). „Blueprinting the service company.
                                                                                                                  Managing service processes efficiently.“ Journal of Business Research 57: 392 - 404.
Service Blueprint of Presby Neuro Clinic
    PHYSICAL                   Front      Waiting     Front     Waiting        Front     Hallway       Exam        MRI &       Exam          MRI &     Door Tag    Waiting     Check-out
    EVIDENCE                   Desk       Room        Desk      Room           Desk                    Room        Chart       Room          Chart                 Room          Room

                                                                                                                                                                               Check-out,
    PATIENT                    Sign In     Wait      Check-in     Wait      Responds
                                                                                         Follow to     Wait in     Answer
                                                                                                                               Wait
                                                                                                                                           Ask          Return
                                                                                                                                                                     Wait        Pay, &
    ACTIONS                                                                              Exam Rm      Exam Rm     Questions              Questions     Door Tag                  Leave


Line of Interaction


    ONSTAGE                                                                     Call     Escort to
                                                                                                                    Check                   Meet Dr.                           Process &
    CONTACT                Welcome                   Process                   Patient   Exam Rm
                                                                                                                   Vitals &
                                                                                                                                            Kassam                             Check-out
                                                                                                                  Ask Quest
    PERSON

Line of Visibility


  BACKSTAGE                      Get                            See Other    Grab                                  Check      Place in                  Take       See Other
                                         See Other                                                    See Other
   CONTACT                     Patient
                                          Patients               Patients   Door Tag                   Patients
                                                                                                                   Patient    Kassam                    Away        Patients
   PERSON                       Chart                                                                             Location      Bin                     Chart


                                                                 Brings                  Chart in             Grab              Kassam
                                                                Door Tag                  To Be               Chart            Gets Quick
                                                                  Back                   Seen Bin           from Bin            Review


                                                                      Chart              Write Rm                                            Check
                                                                    Taken by               # on                                              Patient   Dictation
                                                                      Staff              Schedule                                           Location


Line of Internal Interaction


   SUPPORT                                           Records/                                            Bin                                            Chart                  Records/
                          Debbie’s                                          Door Tag                              Schedule                             Storage                 Database
                                                     Database                                          System
  PROCESSES               Chart Cart
                                                      System
                                                                            System                                 System                              System                   System




          Understanding the Big Picture
                Blueprints in Service Design
          We mapped the entire clinic experience for patients                                        What we found
          and all of the supporting roles staff and Dr. Kassam play                                      The backstage processes are quite chaotic.
          throughout.
                                                                                                         The system depends solely on Dr. Kassam.                     Source: Kipum Lee http://kipworks.com
          Mapping the service blueprint allowed us to see the                                            No one actively engages with patients while they wait.
          breakdowns in the clinic experience.
But actions have motivations & emotions

                                   Source: Polaine, A, (1996), Time Smear
Dialing IBM-HELP to get assistance with Lotus Notes
                                        Carrie Chan | IBM T.J Watson Research Center, Hawthorne NY | 6.15.07
                                        Blueprinting ideas v.4
               service evidence




                                                   problem with Lotus                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Lotus Notes           Ticket number
                                                   Notes Mail and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mail and
                                                   Calendar syncing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Calendar syncing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              works
               customer steps




                                                            DIAL                                                NAVIGATE PRE-RECORDED MENU                                                         TALK TO AGENT                                                            WAIT                                                                                     FOLLOW AGENT’S STEPS TO SOLVE PROBLEM                      PROBLEM                                  HANG UP?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SOLVED




                                    hazard line




                                                     Dislike calling call centers                                                                                                                                                                                       how long am i being
   onstage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        put on hold for?
                                                                                                                                                     i’m pressing ‘3’ and
                                                                                                                                                     nothing is happening...




                                                                                                                    6D1511 is before
                                                                                                                    6A1511 in the menu
                                                                                                                    choices... did I hear                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is he even listening to
                                                                                                                    6D1511 correctly?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        me? he seems to be                                                                    what is a ticket number?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              he’s assuming i know all the                   typing a lot. and not
               customer’s journey




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IBM language even though I’ve                  paying attention.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              repeatedly told him I was new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  finally, the agent is back   he’s talking really fast
                                                                                                                                                                                    he’s apologizing for soft-
                                                                                                                                                                                    ware malfunction - is this
                                                                                                                                                                                    the same problem i was
                                                                                                                                                                                    just having? or should i be
                                                                                                                                                                                    worrying about something
                                                                                                                                                                                    else?




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 he solved the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 problem!




line of of visibility
  area visibility
           representative
           service




                                                                                    Give introductory speech.    Ask for employee serial    Present customer with menu options to   Introduce yourself.           Ask customer what         Look up information regarding                       Ask what error message        Proceed to follow steps outlined in documentation.                                              Confirm that the       Ask customer to write down the ticket number.
                                                                                                                 number.                    redirect call.                          Apologize for software        problem they’re having.   Lotus Notes Mail and Calendar                       the customer is getting.                                                                                                      customer’s problem    Email this ticket number to the customer.
               script




                                                                                                                                                                                    malfunction.                                            syncing on database.                                                                                                                                                              is solved.
                                                                                                                                            Redirect call after customer inputs a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Thank customer for calling IBM HELP.
                                                                                                                                            choice.                                 Ask if they are on or                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ask if the customer
                                                                                                                                                                                    off site.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 has any other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              problems.
               provider’s steps
   backstage




                                                   WAIT FOR CALL                                                DIRECT CALL TO PROPER DEPT.                                         INTRODUCTION                  GET PROBLEM                              FIND SOLUTION TO PROBLEM                                                                                         WALK CUSTOMER THROUGH PROBLEM SOLUTION            CONCLUDE                          GIVE TICKET NUMBER
            application
            backstage
            processes




                                                                                            P                               P                                  P                             P                             P                                            P           P                      P                                P                                         P                               P   P          P                                      P
            support




                                    implementation                                                                                          account executives                                                                                                       product executives (BTO)                                                                                           operational executives (SO)




                                                                                                                                            Bringing emotions into blueprints

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Source: Spraragen, S. L. and C. Chan (2008). Service Blueprinting: When Customer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Satisfaction Numbers are not enough. International DMI Education Conference.
is he even listening to
                                              me? he seems to be                                                                   what is a ticket number?
he’s assuming i know all the                  typing a lot. and not
 BM language even though I’ve                 paying attention.
repeatedly told him I was new

he’s talking really fast




                                                                                                 he solved the
                                                                                                 problem!




roceed to follow steps outlined in documentation.                                             Confirm that the       Ask customer to write down the ticket number.
                                                                                              customer’s problem    Email this ticket number to the customer.
                                                                                              is solved.
                                                                                                                    Thank customer for calling IBM HELP.
                                                                                              Ask if the customer
                                                                                              has any other
                                                                                              problems.


                                             WALK CUSTOMER THROUGH PROBLEM SOLUTION           CONCLUDE                          GIVE TICKET NUMBER




                                                           Bringing emotions into blueprints

                                                                                          Source: Spraragen, S. L. and C. Chan (2008). Service Blueprinting: When Customer
              P                                        P                  P           P    Satisfaction Numbers are not enough. International DMI Education Conference.
                                                                                                    P                              P
Expectations versus...
...reality
Time perception is about situations and emotions

                                          Source: thetruthabout on Flickr
If you go here

                 Source: thomas-merton on Flickr
You expect this

                  Source: kevinomara on Flickr
You expect to eat fast – waiting is a service failure

                                                Source: amanky on Flickr
If you expect this

                     Source: http://www.gigipadovani.it
Then too fast is a service failure

                                     Source: stlbites on Flickr
To: Andrew Polaine <apolaine@gmail.com>




Dear Andrew Polaine,


Welcome to Opodo your online travel service. We offer you access to over 500 airlines, more than 65,000
hotels, 7,000 car rental locations, plus holidays and travel insurance, all on an easy to use, customer-friendly
site. Visit www.opodo.co.uk regularly to keep up to date on our latest offers.


Your user name is apolaine


In keeping with our Privacy and Security policies, we will not email you your password. If at any stage you
forget your password, use this link .



MAKING THE MOST OF OPODO
Now that you've registered, you can use My Opodo to:

       Speed up the booking process
       Organise your personal travel, save all your flight, hotel and car bookings
       Receive Fare Alert emails - just select your favourite destinations and we'll let you know when
       the price changes

There's also the rest of the site for:
                                            Fast mail
       Opodo Offers: regularly updated low air fares picked for our customers from some of the
       world's best airlines
       Our simple search process for flights, hotels, car rental and package holidays, which ensures
       you get what you want, when you want it
       Destination guides, including climate, maps, recommended places to visit, and lots of local
Slow mail

            Source: Andy Polaine
Time information allows for options & decisions

                                             Source: Andy Polaine
Time information helps change perception

                                       Source: jmpznz on Flickr
As does the situation

                        Source: lfcastro on Flickr
Rushing for a train – do I really want an hourglass?

                                               Source: Andy Polaine
Or too many instructions?

                            Source: suburbanslice on Flickr
Or non-standard gobbledegook?

                                Source: suburbanslice on Flickr
Time versus energy consumption?

                                  Source: te on on Flickr
Blueprint+ v4.3




                                                                                                                                                                   Media-
                                                                                                                                                                                          Media-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Media-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Media-




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Cook




                                                                                                                            Costs
                                                                                                                                                                                Manager




                                                                                                                                                       Fail Line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Waitress




                                                                                                                                        Emotions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Customer




                                                                                                           Variable 1
                                                                                                                                                                   Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                          Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Time Indicator




                                                                                                                 +
                                                                                                                               +
                                                                                                                                             +
                                                                                                                                                             +




                                                                                            –
                                                                                                                        –
                                                                                                                                    –
                                                                                                                                                   –
                                                                                                                                                                                Role 4                 Role 3                                     Role 2                                      Role 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table Reservation Online



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Confirmation by SMS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               15:00



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Waitress greets guest and                   Enter restaurant, short wait
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  leads them to table                         at reception
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               02:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Order Aperetiv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Given menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               03:30



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               07:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Waitress takes the food                     Aperetiv comes with extras
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  order                                       Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               08:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Food order sent through to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               09:00



                                                                                                                                                                                                       Meal Prepared



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                       Communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                       failure in kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               35:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Food is served


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               35:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wrong side dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Guest complains


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               37:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Message and dish sent back
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chef agitated and other                   to kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               38:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                       meals pushed late in order
                                                                                                                                                                                                       to re-do side-dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               41:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Correct side-dish prepared




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               50:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Correct dish served

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               50:30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01:15:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kellner streicht einen Teil                Guest is satisfied again
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   der Rechnung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01:17:00
                                                                Blueprint + project – a work in progress

Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
Blueprint+ v4.3




        Media-
                                                                                                                         Media-
                                                                                                                                                                   Media-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Media-




                                                                                                                                      Cook




                                                                    Manager
                                                                                                                                                                                Waitress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Customer




        Touchpoint
                                                                                                                         Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                   Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Time Indicator




+
                                                                    Role 4                                                            Role 3                                     Role 2                                      Role 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Table Reservation Online



                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Confirmation by SMS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15:00



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                 Waitress greets guest and                   Enter restaurant, short wait
                                                                                                                                                                                 leads them to table                         at reception
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              02:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Order Aperetiv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Given menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              03:30



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              07:00
                                                                                                                                                                                 Waitress takes the food                     Aperetiv comes with extras
                                                                                                                                                                                 order                                       Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              08:00
                                                                                                                                                                                 Food order sent through to
                                                                                                                                                                                 kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              09:00



                                                                                                                                      Meal Prepared



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15:00


                                                                                                                                      Communication
                                                                                                                                      failure in kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              35:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Food is served


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              35:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Wrong side dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Guest complains


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              37:00
                                                                                                                                                                                Message and dish sent back
                                                                                                                                      Chef agitated and other                   to kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              38:30
                                                                                                                                      meals pushed late in order
                                                                                                                                      to re-do side-dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41:00
                                                                                                                                      Correct side-dish prepared




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50:00
                                                                              No more front, back, line of visibility?




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Correct dish served

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50:30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01:15:00
                                                                                                                                                                                  Kellner streicht einen Teil                Guest is satisfied again
                                                                                                                                                                                  der Rechnung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01:17:00
    Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
Blueprint+ v4.3




        Media-
                                                                                                                               Media-
                                                                                                                                                                         Media-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Media-




                                                                                                                                            Cook




                                                                    Manager
                                                                                                                                                                                      Waitress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Customer




        Touchpoint
                                                                                                                               Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                         Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Time Indicator




+
                                                                    Role 4                                                                  Role 3                                     Role 2                                      Role 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table Reservation Online



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Confirmation by SMS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15:00



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    00:00
                                                                                                                                                                                       Waitress greets guest and                   Enter restaurant, short wait
                                                                                                                                                                                       leads them to table                         at reception
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    02:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Order Aperetiv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Given menu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    03:30



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    07:00
                                                                                                                                                                                       Waitress takes the food                     Aperetiv comes with extras
                                                                                                                                                                                       order                                       Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    08:00
                                                                                                                                                                                       Food order sent through to
                                                                                                                                                                                       kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09:00



                                                                                                                                            Meal Prepared



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15:00


                                                                                                                                            Communication
                                                                                                                                            failure in kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Food is served


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wrong side dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Guest complains


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37:00
                                                                                                                                                                                      Message and dish sent back
                                                                                                                                            Chef agitated and other                   to kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    38:30
                                                                                                                                            meals pushed late in order
                                                                                                                                            to re-do side-dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41:00
                                                                                                                                            Correct side-dish prepared




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Correct dish served

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50:30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01:15:00
                                                                                                                                                                                        Kellner streicht einen Teil                Guest is satisfied again
                                                                                                                                                                                        der Rechnung
                                                                              Connected media/touchpoint line for every role




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01:17:00
    Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
00:00
                                                     Table Reservation Online



                                                     Confirmation by SMS

                                                                                    15:00



                                                                                    00:00
 aitress greets guest and                            Enter restaurant, short wait
eads them to table                                   at reception
                                                                                    02:30
                                                     Order Aperetiv
                                                     Given menu
                                                                                    03:30



                                                                                    07:00
 aitress takes the food                              Aperetiv comes with extras
rder                                                 Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                    08:00
ood order sent through to
itchen
                                                                                    09:00




                                                                                    15:00




                                                                                    35:00
             Sqash and stretch flexible time scale




                                                     Food is served


                                                                                    35:30
                                                     Wrong side dish.
                                                     Guest complains
0
                                                                         Waitress greets guest and    Enter restaurant, short wait
                                                                         leads them to table          at reception
                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                      Order Aperetiv
                                                                                                      Given menu
                                                                                                                                     0



                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                         Waitress takes the food      Aperetiv comes with extras
                                                                         order                        Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                         Food order sent through to
                                                                         kitchen
                                                                                                                                     0



d



                                                                                                                                     1


on
hen
                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                      Food is served


                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                      Wrong side dish.
                                                                                                      Guest complains


                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                        Message and dish sent back
 and other                                                              to kitchen
                                                                                                                                     3
 late in order
-dish.
                                                                                                                                     4
dish prepared




                                                                                                                                     5
                 Color coded emotional states linked to fail tracking




                                                                                                      Correct dish served

                                                                                                                                     5
Media-
                                                                                                     Media-
                                                                                                                  Cook




                                       Costs
                                                                                           Manager




                                                                  Fail Line



                                                   Emotions




            Variable 1
                                                                              Touchpoint
                                                                                                     Touchpoint




                      +
                                          +
                                                        +
                                                                        +




–
                                   –
                                               –
                                                              –
                                                                                           Role 4                 Role 3




                                                                                                                  Meal Prepared




                                                                                                                  Communication
                                                                                                                  failure in kitchen




                                                                                                                  Chef agitated and other
                                                                                                                  meals pushed late in ord
                                                                                                                  to re-do side-dish.

                                                                                                                  Correct side-dish prepar
Analysis/tracking variable lines
Media-
                                                      Media-
                                                                                                Media-
                                                                                                                                             Media-




                                                                   Cook




                                            Manager




                   Fail Line
                                                                                                             Waitress




    Emotions
                                                                                                                                                          Customer




                               Touchpoint
                                                      Touchpoint
                                                                                                Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                             Touchpoint
                                                                                                                                                                                         Time Indicator




         +
                         +




–
               –
                                            Role 4                 Role 3                                     Role 2                                      Role 1
                                                                                                                                                                                           00:00
                                                                                                                                                          Table Reservation Online



                                                                                                                                                          Confirmation by SMS

                                                                                                                                                                                           15:00



                                                                                                                                                                                           00:00
                                                                                                              Waitress greets guest and                   Enter restaurant, short wait
                                                                                                              leads them to table                         at reception
                                                                                                                                                                                           02:30
                                                                                                                                                          Order Aperetiv
                                                                                                                                                          Given menu
                                                                                                                                                                                           03:30



                                                                                                                                                                                           07:00
                                                                                                              Waitress takes the food                     Aperetiv comes with extras
                                                                                                              order                                       Guest is surprised/deligted
                                                                                                                                                                                           08:00
                                                                                                              Food order sent through to
                                                                                                              kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                           09:00



                                                                   Meal Prepared



                                                                                                                                                                                           15:00


                                                                   Communication
                                                                   failure in kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                           35:00
                                                                                                                                                          Food is served


                                                                                                                                                                                           35:30
                                                                                                                                                          Wrong side dish.
                                                                                                                                                          Guest complains


                                                                                                                                                                                           37:00
                                                                                                             Message and dish sent back
                                                                   Chef agitated and other                   to kitchen
                                                                                                                                                                                           38:30
                                                                   meals pushed late in order
                                                                   to re-do side-dish.
                                                                                                                                                                                           41:00
                                                                   Correct side-dish prepared




                                                                                                                                                                                           50:00
                                                                                                                                                          Correct dish served

                                                                                                                                                                                           50:30




                                                                                                                                                                                           01:15:00
                                                                                                               Kellner streicht einen Teil                Guest is satisfied again
                                                                                                               der Rechnung
                                                                                                                                                                                           01:17:00
-   Are blueprints still a valid tool? Do we need to further them?

-   How much information should go into them? (Analysis vs. design
    development)

-   What is missing in our approach?

-   Should it be wrapped into a software tool or better a toolkit?

-    Please share your blueprints, methods and case studies! It’s good for the
    industry to open up its processes and its essential for service design
    education.




                Some questions and a request
Thank You



Andy Polaine
Lecturer/Research Fellow - Service Design

T direkt +41 41 249 92 25
andrew.polaine@hslu.ch
Twitter: apolaine

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Blueprint+: Developing a Tool for Service Design

  • 1. Blueprint+ : Developing a Tool for Service Design A Work In Progress Andy Polaine Lecturer/Research Fellow - Service Design T direkt +41 41 249 92 25 andrew.polaine [at] hslu.ch Twitter: apolaine SDN Conference - October 27th, 2009 (Project authors: Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler)
  • 2. Build Standardise Communicate Plan Share The role of traditional blueprints
  • 3. Build a house – standards of technical drawing Image:http://alttext.com/
  • 4. Communication the details of a Mercedes Image:http://www.majhost.com/gallery/ legomech/CarBlueprints/MBZ-Blueprints/
  • 5. Share the plans for a Batmobile Image:http://www.chickslovethecar.com
  • 6. Communicate how to paint a 727 Image: telstar on Flickr
  • 7. Blueprinting actions and processes Source: Shostack, G. L. (1984). Designing services that deliver. Harvard business review, 62(1), 133-139.
  • 8. and multiple options.“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lueprinting actions and processes !"#$%&'(')&*%&+&,-.-"/,'/0'.'$+&'1.+&'0/%'-2&'3&4&5&,-%.'*%/6&1-' =>()6!5)>(+*'!?6+?+')*!@+6!>()!:69?(&A!6)?6)'),>9>&+,!+@!"44!96)!")>6&!1)>'-!#')*!>+! 5+*)%!A+5?%)B!'C'>)5'!&,A%#*&,:!>()!*)D)%+?5),>!+@!9!')6&)'!+@!>69,'9A>&+,'!&,!>&5)! product/ service systems. Source: Morelli, N. (2002). Designing A methodological exploration. Design Issues 18(3): 3 - 17.
  • 9. t processes e ciently.“ Journal of Business Research 57: 392 - 404. Fliess, S. and M. Kleinaltenkamp (2004). „Blueprinting the service company. Managing service Blueprints in Service Design Fliess, S. and M. Kleinaltenkamp (2004). „Blueprinting the service company. Managing service processes efficiently.“ Journal of Business Research 57: 392 - 404.
  • 10. Service Blueprint of Presby Neuro Clinic PHYSICAL Front Waiting Front Waiting Front Hallway Exam MRI & Exam MRI & Door Tag Waiting Check-out EVIDENCE Desk Room Desk Room Desk Room Chart Room Chart Room Room Check-out, PATIENT Sign In Wait Check-in Wait Responds Follow to Wait in Answer Wait Ask Return Wait Pay, & ACTIONS Exam Rm Exam Rm Questions Questions Door Tag Leave Line of Interaction ONSTAGE Call Escort to Check Meet Dr. Process & CONTACT Welcome Process Patient Exam Rm Vitals & Kassam Check-out Ask Quest PERSON Line of Visibility BACKSTAGE Get See Other Grab Check Place in Take See Other See Other See Other CONTACT Patient Patients Patients Door Tag Patients Patient Kassam Away Patients PERSON Chart Location Bin Chart Brings Chart in Grab Kassam Door Tag To Be Chart Gets Quick Back Seen Bin from Bin Review Chart Write Rm Check Taken by # on Patient Dictation Staff Schedule Location Line of Internal Interaction SUPPORT Records/ Bin Chart Records/ Debbie’s Door Tag Schedule Storage Database Database System PROCESSES Chart Cart System System System System System Understanding the Big Picture Blueprints in Service Design We mapped the entire clinic experience for patients What we found and all of the supporting roles staff and Dr. Kassam play The backstage processes are quite chaotic. throughout. The system depends solely on Dr. Kassam. Source: Kipum Lee http://kipworks.com Mapping the service blueprint allowed us to see the No one actively engages with patients while they wait. breakdowns in the clinic experience.
  • 11. But actions have motivations & emotions Source: Polaine, A, (1996), Time Smear
  • 12. Dialing IBM-HELP to get assistance with Lotus Notes Carrie Chan | IBM T.J Watson Research Center, Hawthorne NY | 6.15.07 Blueprinting ideas v.4 service evidence problem with Lotus Lotus Notes Ticket number Notes Mail and Mail and Calendar syncing Calendar syncing works customer steps DIAL NAVIGATE PRE-RECORDED MENU TALK TO AGENT WAIT FOLLOW AGENT’S STEPS TO SOLVE PROBLEM PROBLEM HANG UP? SOLVED hazard line Dislike calling call centers how long am i being onstage put on hold for? i’m pressing ‘3’ and nothing is happening... 6D1511 is before 6A1511 in the menu choices... did I hear is he even listening to 6D1511 correctly? me? he seems to be what is a ticket number? he’s assuming i know all the typing a lot. and not customer’s journey IBM language even though I’ve paying attention. repeatedly told him I was new finally, the agent is back he’s talking really fast he’s apologizing for soft- ware malfunction - is this the same problem i was just having? or should i be worrying about something else? he solved the problem! line of of visibility area visibility representative service Give introductory speech. Ask for employee serial Present customer with menu options to Introduce yourself. Ask customer what Look up information regarding Ask what error message Proceed to follow steps outlined in documentation. Confirm that the Ask customer to write down the ticket number. number. redirect call. Apologize for software problem they’re having. Lotus Notes Mail and Calendar the customer is getting. customer’s problem Email this ticket number to the customer. script malfunction. syncing on database. is solved. Redirect call after customer inputs a Thank customer for calling IBM HELP. choice. Ask if they are on or Ask if the customer off site. has any other problems. provider’s steps backstage WAIT FOR CALL DIRECT CALL TO PROPER DEPT. INTRODUCTION GET PROBLEM FIND SOLUTION TO PROBLEM WALK CUSTOMER THROUGH PROBLEM SOLUTION CONCLUDE GIVE TICKET NUMBER application backstage processes P P P P P P P P P P P P P P support implementation account executives product executives (BTO) operational executives (SO) Bringing emotions into blueprints Source: Spraragen, S. L. and C. Chan (2008). Service Blueprinting: When Customer Satisfaction Numbers are not enough. International DMI Education Conference.
  • 13. is he even listening to me? he seems to be what is a ticket number? he’s assuming i know all the typing a lot. and not BM language even though I’ve paying attention. repeatedly told him I was new he’s talking really fast he solved the problem! roceed to follow steps outlined in documentation. Confirm that the Ask customer to write down the ticket number. customer’s problem Email this ticket number to the customer. is solved. Thank customer for calling IBM HELP. Ask if the customer has any other problems. WALK CUSTOMER THROUGH PROBLEM SOLUTION CONCLUDE GIVE TICKET NUMBER Bringing emotions into blueprints Source: Spraragen, S. L. and C. Chan (2008). Service Blueprinting: When Customer P P P P Satisfaction Numbers are not enough. International DMI Education Conference. P P
  • 16. Time perception is about situations and emotions Source: thetruthabout on Flickr
  • 17. If you go here Source: thomas-merton on Flickr
  • 18. You expect this Source: kevinomara on Flickr
  • 19. You expect to eat fast – waiting is a service failure Source: amanky on Flickr
  • 20. If you expect this Source: http://www.gigipadovani.it
  • 21. Then too fast is a service failure Source: stlbites on Flickr
  • 22. To: Andrew Polaine <apolaine@gmail.com> Dear Andrew Polaine, Welcome to Opodo your online travel service. We offer you access to over 500 airlines, more than 65,000 hotels, 7,000 car rental locations, plus holidays and travel insurance, all on an easy to use, customer-friendly site. Visit www.opodo.co.uk regularly to keep up to date on our latest offers. Your user name is apolaine In keeping with our Privacy and Security policies, we will not email you your password. If at any stage you forget your password, use this link . MAKING THE MOST OF OPODO Now that you've registered, you can use My Opodo to: Speed up the booking process Organise your personal travel, save all your flight, hotel and car bookings Receive Fare Alert emails - just select your favourite destinations and we'll let you know when the price changes There's also the rest of the site for: Fast mail Opodo Offers: regularly updated low air fares picked for our customers from some of the world's best airlines Our simple search process for flights, hotels, car rental and package holidays, which ensures you get what you want, when you want it Destination guides, including climate, maps, recommended places to visit, and lots of local
  • 23. Slow mail Source: Andy Polaine
  • 24. Time information allows for options & decisions Source: Andy Polaine
  • 25. Time information helps change perception Source: jmpznz on Flickr
  • 26. As does the situation Source: lfcastro on Flickr
  • 27. Rushing for a train – do I really want an hourglass? Source: Andy Polaine
  • 28. Or too many instructions? Source: suburbanslice on Flickr
  • 29. Or non-standard gobbledegook? Source: suburbanslice on Flickr
  • 30. Time versus energy consumption? Source: te on on Flickr
  • 31. Blueprint+ v4.3 Media- Media- Media- Media- Cook Costs Manager Fail Line Waitress Emotions Customer Variable 1 Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Time Indicator + + + + – – – – Role 4 Role 3 Role 2 Role 1 00:00 Table Reservation Online Confirmation by SMS 15:00 00:00 Waitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait leads them to table at reception 02:30 Order Aperetiv Given menu 03:30 07:00 Waitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras order Guest is surprised/deligted 08:00 Food order sent through to kitchen 09:00 Meal Prepared 15:00 Communication failure in kitchen 35:00 Food is served 35:30 Wrong side dish. Guest complains 37:00 Message and dish sent back Chef agitated and other to kitchen 38:30 meals pushed late in order to re-do side-dish. 41:00 Correct side-dish prepared 50:00 Correct dish served 50:30 01:15:00 Kellner streicht einen Teil Guest is satisfied again der Rechnung 01:17:00 Blueprint + project – a work in progress Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
  • 32. Blueprint+ v4.3 Media- Media- Media- Media- Cook Manager Waitress Customer Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Time Indicator + Role 4 Role 3 Role 2 Role 1 00:00 Table Reservation Online Confirmation by SMS 15:00 00:00 Waitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait leads them to table at reception 02:30 Order Aperetiv Given menu 03:30 07:00 Waitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras order Guest is surprised/deligted 08:00 Food order sent through to kitchen 09:00 Meal Prepared 15:00 Communication failure in kitchen 35:00 Food is served 35:30 Wrong side dish. Guest complains 37:00 Message and dish sent back Chef agitated and other to kitchen 38:30 meals pushed late in order to re-do side-dish. 41:00 Correct side-dish prepared 50:00 No more front, back, line of visibility? Correct dish served 50:30 01:15:00 Kellner streicht einen Teil Guest is satisfied again der Rechnung 01:17:00 Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
  • 33. Blueprint+ v4.3 Media- Media- Media- Media- Cook Manager Waitress Customer Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Time Indicator + Role 4 Role 3 Role 2 Role 1 00:00 Table Reservation Online Confirmation by SMS 15:00 00:00 Waitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait leads them to table at reception 02:30 Order Aperetiv Given menu 03:30 07:00 Waitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras order Guest is surprised/deligted 08:00 Food order sent through to kitchen 09:00 Meal Prepared 15:00 Communication failure in kitchen 35:00 Food is served 35:30 Wrong side dish. Guest complains 37:00 Message and dish sent back Chef agitated and other to kitchen 38:30 meals pushed late in order to re-do side-dish. 41:00 Correct side-dish prepared 50:00 Correct dish served 50:30 01:15:00 Kellner streicht einen Teil Guest is satisfied again der Rechnung Connected media/touchpoint line for every role 01:17:00 Roman Aebersold, Robert Bossart, Andy Polaine, Andrea Mettler
  • 34. 00:00 Table Reservation Online Confirmation by SMS 15:00 00:00 aitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait eads them to table at reception 02:30 Order Aperetiv Given menu 03:30 07:00 aitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras rder Guest is surprised/deligted 08:00 ood order sent through to itchen 09:00 15:00 35:00 Sqash and stretch flexible time scale Food is served 35:30 Wrong side dish. Guest complains
  • 35. 0 Waitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait leads them to table at reception 0 Order Aperetiv Given menu 0 0 Waitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras order Guest is surprised/deligted 0 Food order sent through to kitchen 0 d 1 on hen 3 Food is served 3 Wrong side dish. Guest complains 3 Message and dish sent back and other to kitchen 3 late in order -dish. 4 dish prepared 5 Color coded emotional states linked to fail tracking Correct dish served 5
  • 36. Media- Media- Cook Costs Manager Fail Line Emotions Variable 1 Touchpoint Touchpoint + + + + – – – – Role 4 Role 3 Meal Prepared Communication failure in kitchen Chef agitated and other meals pushed late in ord to re-do side-dish. Correct side-dish prepar Analysis/tracking variable lines
  • 37. Media- Media- Media- Media- Cook Manager Fail Line Waitress Emotions Customer Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Touchpoint Time Indicator + + – – Role 4 Role 3 Role 2 Role 1 00:00 Table Reservation Online Confirmation by SMS 15:00 00:00 Waitress greets guest and Enter restaurant, short wait leads them to table at reception 02:30 Order Aperetiv Given menu 03:30 07:00 Waitress takes the food Aperetiv comes with extras order Guest is surprised/deligted 08:00 Food order sent through to kitchen 09:00 Meal Prepared 15:00 Communication failure in kitchen 35:00 Food is served 35:30 Wrong side dish. Guest complains 37:00 Message and dish sent back Chef agitated and other to kitchen 38:30 meals pushed late in order to re-do side-dish. 41:00 Correct side-dish prepared 50:00 Correct dish served 50:30 01:15:00 Kellner streicht einen Teil Guest is satisfied again der Rechnung 01:17:00
  • 38. - Are blueprints still a valid tool? Do we need to further them? - How much information should go into them? (Analysis vs. design development) - What is missing in our approach? - Should it be wrapped into a software tool or better a toolkit? - Please share your blueprints, methods and case studies! It’s good for the industry to open up its processes and its essential for service design education. Some questions and a request
  • 39. Thank You Andy Polaine Lecturer/Research Fellow - Service Design T direkt +41 41 249 92 25 andrew.polaine@hslu.ch Twitter: apolaine