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Sunnyvale CA, April 2, 2016
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Blockchain Cloudminds
Human-Machine Pooled-Mind DACs
Melanie Swan
Blockchain Theorist
Philosophy & Economic Theory
New School for Social Research, NY NY
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds 1
Melanie Swan
 Blockchain Theorist, Philosophy and Economic
Theory, New School for Social Research, NY
 Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies
 Instructor, Singularity University; Affiliate Scholar,
Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology (IEET);
Contributor, EDGE
Traditional Markets Background Economic Theory Leadership
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
Book: Blockchain:
Blueprint for a New
Economy
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
‘Fermi’s Crypto Paradox’
First contact attempted via blockchain confirmation but…
 Earth using hierarchical not decentralized power models
 Backward crypto (SHA 3 vs SHA 78)
 Object-oriented not state-change programming models;
immature category theory, no general typing or Haskell
 Smart contract DAC oracle found no lookup on Earth
 No consensus-based algorithmic trust to validate the
incoming message, lack of digital smartnetworks
 Periphery node could not join the decentralized
computing network; no asynchronous BFT1 truth-state
updating in distributed computing network
 Human (physical) time not integrated with compute time
paradigms and so missed the blocktime confirm
2
1BFT: Byzantine Fault Tolerance
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Contemporary Challenge
3
http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/
How to develop
empowering human-
machine collaborations?
San Francisco CA law firm
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Thesis Statement
Crypto Abundance Theory of Flourishing
4
Blockchains might be an important singularity-class
technology (e.g.; one that is globally robust with checks
and balances) for producing an empowering relation
with technology, for example through the safe adoption
of BCI cloudminds
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda
 Introduction
 BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)
 Cloudminds
 Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation
 Adoption Risks
 Expected: privacy, security, etc.
 Credit-assignation via blockchain administration
 Fear of personal identity loss
 Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing
5
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Modern Relations with Technology
6
The Prosthetic Relation The Drone Relation
L’Intrus (The Intruder) – Jean-Luc Nancy Théorie du drone (Drone Theory)
– Gregoire Chamayou
Impoverished relation:
roving invisible Panopticon, never
safe from unseen eyes
Intimate relation: Accepting the
foreign into our own body
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
The Data Relation
 Cloud, background, crunching away,
silent tracking, continuous uploading
 Algorithms predicting and defining our
preferences
 What is our relation? Impoverished:
neither side has full mental model of
the other (the very basis for
conducive interaction with another)
 Data models humans as a sketch:
purchasing agent not aspirational being
 Humans have no way see, grasp or act
on big data, it acts on us (drone relation)
7
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds 8
Think through the problem of human-machine
collaboration in one of the most vulnerable cases:
opening our brains up to big data in BCI Cloudminds
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)?
 A brain-computer interface (BCI), brain-
machine interface (BMI), or neural
prosthesis is any technology linking the
human brain to a computer
 A computational system implanted in the brain
that allows a person to control a computer
using only brainwaves; for example reading the
electrical signals from the brain as a person
focuses on a computer screen
 Used to repair human cognitive and
sensory-motor function
 Over 219,000 worldwide cochlear implants
9
Source: http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Cochlear-Implant-Frequently-Asked-Questions/
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Future Applications of BCIs
24-7 connectivity to the Internet and other minds
 Pathology resolution; cognitive enhancement;
platform for human-machine collaboration
 The BCI functionality of typing on a keyboard
with the mind suggests the possibility of having
an always-on brain-Internet connection
 Cell phones connected every individual, BCIs connect
every brain? (cloudmind, telepathic noosphere)
 Ubiquitous BCIs, on-board smartphones (‘better
horse’); new possibilities like cloudminds (‘car’)
 Key functionality: 24-7 connectivity
 Human cognitive processing continuously linked to the
Internet and other minds in cloudminds via BCI, VR
headset, QS wearables, smart contact lenses, etc.
10
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda
 Introduction
 BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)
 Cloudminds
 Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation
 Adoption Risks
 Expected: privacy, security, etc.
 Credit-assignation via blockchain administration
 Fear of personal identity loss
 Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing
11
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds 12
A Cloudmind is a cloud-based thinker, a mind
based in the Internet cloud; some sort of virtual
processing or thinking capability (‘a mind’), located
in Internet databanks without physical incorporeality
‘Mind’ is generally denoting an entity with some
capacity for processing, not the volitionary action and
free will of a consciousness agent
What is a Cloudmind?
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Different types of Cloudminds
 Machine minds
 Deep-learners, big data analytics, algorithms
crunching in the background, IoT ecosystems
 Human minds
 Backups, sims, digital selves
 Human-human minds
 Human-machine minds
 A person plus a cloud-based personal assistant
‘thinker helper’ such as Siri or Her
 Mind-pools
 Multi-agent minds operating together, multiple
entities pooled together, human minds, human-
machine minds, or machine minds
13
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Prototypical Cloudminds
 Functionality already exists: automated cloud-
based coordination of processing activity by
multiple agents
 Mechanical Turk
 Orchestrated tasks requiring human intelligence
 Crowdsourced eLabor marketplaces
 Topcoder, Elance, Upwork (formerly Odesk), etc.
 Humans as a community computing network
 Each person a computing node operating on data
 Big data algorithms
 Classifiers, recommendation parsers, sentiment
engines, neural nets
14
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Cloudmind Starter App: SETI@home for the brain
 Sell permissioned braincycles to the
cloud (like selling generated electricity
back into the power grid)
 Sharing unused computing resource
 Community computing projects such as
SETI@home or protein Folding@home
 Timesharing cognitive processing
power during sleep cycles or other
down time
 Securely and unobtrusively share
one’s own unused resources,
downtime braincycles
15
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
3 Classes of BCI Cloudmind Applications
1. Health and biology
 Survival, pathology resolution, cure and
enhancement, health-tracking, daily health
check, neural data-logging to EMRs, virtual
patient modeling
2. Information and entertainment
 In-mind 24-7 information query (antiquated
device lookup), permissioned experience-
sharing, crowdfile event memories
3. Actualization, self-creating
 Realization of individual cognitive and artistic
potential, individual and collaborative sense
16
Source: EMR: Electronic Medical Record. http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Cloudmind App:
Crowdminding an IoT Archipelago
 Commanding IoT-connected objects in
the environment
 Sense of feeling as one entity: commander
and ship, remote telepresencing robot
 Control physical objects in a local or
remote environment
 A security guard could command a whole
smart building
 Link with your smarthome IoT security system
 Concept: One cloudmind entity that is a
human plus IoT objects, functioning
together
17
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda
 Introduction
 BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)
 Cloudminds
 Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation
 Adoption Risks
 Expected: privacy, security, etc.
 Credit-assignation via blockchain administration
 Fear of personal identity loss
 Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing
18
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Adoption Risks
1. Expected: privacy, security, etc.
2. Credit-assignation
 Blockchain-tracking
3. Personal identity protection
 Identity multiplicity
 Brain: enormous sensitivity for a
trustworthy and responsible adoption
path could be one that is gradual and
identifies specific limited use cases
19
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
1. Expected Adoption Risks
 Accommodate wide spectrum of adoption and
non-adoption
 Clear pathways to increased engagement
 Uncoerced and reversible adoption
 Responsible technology design principles
 Monitoring ecosystem with external referees
 Industry standards bodies (BCIs: IEEE 802.15 Wireless
Personal Area Networks (WPANs) working group)
 Security, anti-virus protection, mind-hacking
safeguards
 Privacy: transparency, opt-out, and monetization
selections regarding data collection and use
20
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Fear of being absorbed into the vortex
 Cloudminds so
entrancing as to
become extremely
addictive, possibly to
the detriment of
otherwise being able
to ‘participate in a
meaningful life’
21
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Video Games: mixed research results
 Negative
 Susceptibility to addiction, player fatigue, etc.
 Positive
 Social interaction remains a priority
 Ultimately novelty preferred to pleasure, turn away from
pleasure-center stimulation out of boredom
 Gamers have more grey matter and better brain connectivity
 Conclusion
 Video games are not only for fun, entertainment, community,
and status-garnering, but also for brain development and
intelligence amplification: “brainjack our potential”
 BCI cloudmind design challenge: produce applications that
safely extend our being as humans while balancing risks
22
Source: References cited in Swan, M. The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining your way into a Cloudmind. Journal
of Evolution and Technology. In review.
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
The Future:
Cloudmind Fulfillment or Couch Potato?
 What is ‘healthy’ or ‘addictive’ in
mentally-stimulating virtual reality?
 Cloudminds might be exactly the
venue for meaningful engagement
opportunities, remuneration, and
fulfillment, especially in a post-
scarcity automation economy where
labor-work is no longer compulsory
 Unclear why ‘couch-potatoing’ into
virtually-fulfilling states might be
categorially ‘bad’
23
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda
 Introduction
 BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)
 Cloudminds
 Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation
 Adoption Risks
 Expected: privacy, security, etc.
 Credit-assignation via blockchain administration
 Fear of personal identity loss
 Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing
24
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
What is blockchain technology?
25
Blockchains are the secure distributed ledger software
that underlies cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin –
a giant tracking ledger or database, a means of
updating truth states in distributed computing network
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
What is blockchain technology?
26
More broadly, blockchains are a new form of singularity-class
technology, core next-gen infrastructure for Kardashev-level
advance; planetary-scale projects; hierarchical models break;
cannot get to million-member genome banks with centralized
models, need secure distributed smartnetworks; modernizing IT
System of checks-and-balances; trust-manufacturing system;
enrichens the impoverished big data relationship we have with
the cloud, now data quietly crunches in the background with
accountability; in a way that is tracked and can be inspected on-
demand, including with remuneration
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudmind Administration
 Blockchains (giant online
cryptographic ledgers), might be used
to administer all of the coordination
aspects of cloudminds
 Privacy
 Security
 Credit-tracking
27
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Line-item Tracking and Credit-Assignation
 Like Github, or SVN or CVS for brainstorming,
tracking line-items
 Deep-learning algorithms could automatically
transcribe BCI thoughts, like creating a written
transcript from Skype calls now
 Ideas logged to blockchains with time date-stamped
hashes
 Line-item contributions thus tracked in
cloudminds, acknowledging and rewarding
new ideas in a trustable annuity stream, in an
open but inconspicuous ledger that does not
detract from the idea generation itself
28
Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
3. Fear of Personal Identity loss
 Fear of being irreversibly
incorporated into a
groupmind
 Personal identity (Webster):
 The persistent and continuous
unity of the individual person
29
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Personal Identity: Multidisciplinary Question
30
Philosophy of Mind Psychology
Evolutionary Biology
Evolutionary Psychology
Philosophy of Biology
Theoretical Biology
Social Theory
Sociology
Sociobiology
Biology
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Philosophical Views of Personal Identity
 Traditional ‘philosophy of mind’ view
 Assumes already-existing subject
 Personal identity needed for continuity
and persistence
 Personal identity is not required for
the survival of the person, relational
experience between past/future
selves and experience is (Parfit)
 fMRI studies: We procrastinate because
we think of our future selves as strangers
 Third persons no different than politicians
or celebrities
31
Sources: http://nautil.us/issue/9/time/why-we-procrastinate citing van Gelder JL, Hershfield HE, Nordgren LF. (2013).
Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency. Psychol Sci. 24(6):974-80, and Pronin, Emily. (2008). How we see
ourselves and how we see others. Science. 320(5880):1177-80.
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Biology: Individuals are not a Privileged Unit
 What are the appropriate units in
biology?
 Organisms do not play a privileged role
 Genes, genomes, mechanisms,
phenotypes, gene pools, organisms,
populations, ecologies
 Individual is merely convenient
terminology
 Individuals are spatiotemporally localized
entities that have reasonably sharp
beginnings and endings in time
32
Hull, David (1980), "Individuality and Selection," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 311-332.
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Multidisciplinary Conclusion: Personal
Identity is Ephemeral and Constructive
 Hypothesis is supported by multiple fields
 If the evolutionary biological drivers that caused personal
identity to develop as a fitness adaptation were to change, the
need for personal identity too would change/disappear
 Biology
 Individuality is not personal identity
 Psychology/Sociology
 Malleability of self
 Philosophy
 Relationality and subjectivation
 Evolutionary Biology
 Fitness adaptation
33
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Personal Identity: custom and familiarity
 Preferencing of personal identity and
humans as an organizational unit is
custom and familiarity - so far there been
no other alternative
 Having known only one mode of existence we
may have developed a natural attachment
 Assumption (bias?) that memory,
emotion, and ‘meaning’ can only be
instantiated in humans, but it is possible
that in the future, any pattern associated
with the human brain might be stored as
information
34
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
BCI Cloudminds: Identity Multiplicity
 BCI cloudminds do not
necessarily preclude or curtail
personal identity, and some
rather accentuate and extend it
 One or more digital selves
participate in cloudminds on a
limited basis
 ‘Classic meatspace brains’
 Different configurations of selves
(for example, a team of selves,
what Hanson calls a ‘self clan’ or
an ‘em[ulation] clan’)
35
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda
 Introduction
 BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)
 Cloudminds
 Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation
 Adoption Risks
 Expected: privacy, security, etc.
 Credit-assignation via blockchain administration
 Fear of personal identity loss
 Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing
36
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
BCI Cloudminds
Gradual Adoption Strategies
 Sharing unused brain processing cycles
 SETI@home for your brain
 Backup, archival, storage
 Life-logging, memory-logging
 Digital self as opposed to original self
 Permissioning limited access to certain domains
of the brain and cognitive activity
 Demarcating structural borders
 Personal connectome files limit cortical access
 Limited time blocks (sleep cycles) for mindstream access
 Full cloudmind participation: problem-solving,
creative-expression, idea-generation
37
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Conclusion, this talk addressed:
 The potential advent of brain-
computer interfaces (BCIs) that
are ubiquitous and widely-
adopted, where humans might
be continuously connected to the
Internet and other minds in
cloudmind formats
 Adoption risk solutions
 Privacy, security, reversibility, credit
assignation, and personal identity
retention
38
April 2, 2016
Blockchain Cloudminds
Thesis Statement
Crypto Abundance Theory of Flourishing
39
Blockchains might be an important singularity-class
technology (e.g.; one that is globally robust with checks
and balances) for producing an empowering relation
with technology, for example through the safe adoption
of BCI cloudminds
Accelerando: blockchain-type trust networks join
humans and technology in partnership, where digital
copies “watch over their originals from the consensus
cyberspace of the city”
Source: Stross (2006). Accelerando. P. 355
Sunnyvale CA, April 2, 2016
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Blockchain Cloudminds
Human-Machine Pooled-Mind DACs
Thank You! Questions?
Melanie Swan
Blockchain Theorist
Philosophy & Economic Theory
New School for Social Research, NY NY
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org

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Blockchain Cloudminds: Human-Machine Pooled-Mind DACs

  • 1. Sunnyvale CA, April 2, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Blockchain Cloudminds Human-Machine Pooled-Mind DACs Melanie Swan Blockchain Theorist Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
  • 2. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 1 Melanie Swan  Blockchain Theorist, Philosophy and Economic Theory, New School for Social Research, NY  Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies  Instructor, Singularity University; Affiliate Scholar, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology (IEET); Contributor, EDGE Traditional Markets Background Economic Theory Leadership http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Book: Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy
  • 3. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds ‘Fermi’s Crypto Paradox’ First contact attempted via blockchain confirmation but…  Earth using hierarchical not decentralized power models  Backward crypto (SHA 3 vs SHA 78)  Object-oriented not state-change programming models; immature category theory, no general typing or Haskell  Smart contract DAC oracle found no lookup on Earth  No consensus-based algorithmic trust to validate the incoming message, lack of digital smartnetworks  Periphery node could not join the decentralized computing network; no asynchronous BFT1 truth-state updating in distributed computing network  Human (physical) time not integrated with compute time paradigms and so missed the blocktime confirm 2 1BFT: Byzantine Fault Tolerance
  • 4. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Contemporary Challenge 3 http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/ How to develop empowering human- machine collaborations? San Francisco CA law firm
  • 5. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Thesis Statement Crypto Abundance Theory of Flourishing 4 Blockchains might be an important singularity-class technology (e.g.; one that is globally robust with checks and balances) for producing an empowering relation with technology, for example through the safe adoption of BCI cloudminds
  • 6. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda  Introduction  BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)  Cloudminds  Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation  Adoption Risks  Expected: privacy, security, etc.  Credit-assignation via blockchain administration  Fear of personal identity loss  Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing 5
  • 7. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Modern Relations with Technology 6 The Prosthetic Relation The Drone Relation L’Intrus (The Intruder) – Jean-Luc Nancy Théorie du drone (Drone Theory) – Gregoire Chamayou Impoverished relation: roving invisible Panopticon, never safe from unseen eyes Intimate relation: Accepting the foreign into our own body
  • 8. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds The Data Relation  Cloud, background, crunching away, silent tracking, continuous uploading  Algorithms predicting and defining our preferences  What is our relation? Impoverished: neither side has full mental model of the other (the very basis for conducive interaction with another)  Data models humans as a sketch: purchasing agent not aspirational being  Humans have no way see, grasp or act on big data, it acts on us (drone relation) 7
  • 9. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 8 Think through the problem of human-machine collaboration in one of the most vulnerable cases: opening our brains up to big data in BCI Cloudminds
  • 10. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)?  A brain-computer interface (BCI), brain- machine interface (BMI), or neural prosthesis is any technology linking the human brain to a computer  A computational system implanted in the brain that allows a person to control a computer using only brainwaves; for example reading the electrical signals from the brain as a person focuses on a computer screen  Used to repair human cognitive and sensory-motor function  Over 219,000 worldwide cochlear implants 9 Source: http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Cochlear-Implant-Frequently-Asked-Questions/
  • 11. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Future Applications of BCIs 24-7 connectivity to the Internet and other minds  Pathology resolution; cognitive enhancement; platform for human-machine collaboration  The BCI functionality of typing on a keyboard with the mind suggests the possibility of having an always-on brain-Internet connection  Cell phones connected every individual, BCIs connect every brain? (cloudmind, telepathic noosphere)  Ubiquitous BCIs, on-board smartphones (‘better horse’); new possibilities like cloudminds (‘car’)  Key functionality: 24-7 connectivity  Human cognitive processing continuously linked to the Internet and other minds in cloudminds via BCI, VR headset, QS wearables, smart contact lenses, etc. 10 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 12. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda  Introduction  BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)  Cloudminds  Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation  Adoption Risks  Expected: privacy, security, etc.  Credit-assignation via blockchain administration  Fear of personal identity loss  Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing 11
  • 13. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 12 A Cloudmind is a cloud-based thinker, a mind based in the Internet cloud; some sort of virtual processing or thinking capability (‘a mind’), located in Internet databanks without physical incorporeality ‘Mind’ is generally denoting an entity with some capacity for processing, not the volitionary action and free will of a consciousness agent What is a Cloudmind? Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 14. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Different types of Cloudminds  Machine minds  Deep-learners, big data analytics, algorithms crunching in the background, IoT ecosystems  Human minds  Backups, sims, digital selves  Human-human minds  Human-machine minds  A person plus a cloud-based personal assistant ‘thinker helper’ such as Siri or Her  Mind-pools  Multi-agent minds operating together, multiple entities pooled together, human minds, human- machine minds, or machine minds 13 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 15. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Prototypical Cloudminds  Functionality already exists: automated cloud- based coordination of processing activity by multiple agents  Mechanical Turk  Orchestrated tasks requiring human intelligence  Crowdsourced eLabor marketplaces  Topcoder, Elance, Upwork (formerly Odesk), etc.  Humans as a community computing network  Each person a computing node operating on data  Big data algorithms  Classifiers, recommendation parsers, sentiment engines, neural nets 14 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 16. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Cloudmind Starter App: SETI@home for the brain  Sell permissioned braincycles to the cloud (like selling generated electricity back into the power grid)  Sharing unused computing resource  Community computing projects such as SETI@home or protein Folding@home  Timesharing cognitive processing power during sleep cycles or other down time  Securely and unobtrusively share one’s own unused resources, downtime braincycles 15
  • 17. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 3 Classes of BCI Cloudmind Applications 1. Health and biology  Survival, pathology resolution, cure and enhancement, health-tracking, daily health check, neural data-logging to EMRs, virtual patient modeling 2. Information and entertainment  In-mind 24-7 information query (antiquated device lookup), permissioned experience- sharing, crowdfile event memories 3. Actualization, self-creating  Realization of individual cognitive and artistic potential, individual and collaborative sense 16 Source: EMR: Electronic Medical Record. http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 18. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Cloudmind App: Crowdminding an IoT Archipelago  Commanding IoT-connected objects in the environment  Sense of feeling as one entity: commander and ship, remote telepresencing robot  Control physical objects in a local or remote environment  A security guard could command a whole smart building  Link with your smarthome IoT security system  Concept: One cloudmind entity that is a human plus IoT objects, functioning together 17 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 19. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda  Introduction  BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)  Cloudminds  Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation  Adoption Risks  Expected: privacy, security, etc.  Credit-assignation via blockchain administration  Fear of personal identity loss  Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing 18
  • 20. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Adoption Risks 1. Expected: privacy, security, etc. 2. Credit-assignation  Blockchain-tracking 3. Personal identity protection  Identity multiplicity  Brain: enormous sensitivity for a trustworthy and responsible adoption path could be one that is gradual and identifies specific limited use cases 19 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 21. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 1. Expected Adoption Risks  Accommodate wide spectrum of adoption and non-adoption  Clear pathways to increased engagement  Uncoerced and reversible adoption  Responsible technology design principles  Monitoring ecosystem with external referees  Industry standards bodies (BCIs: IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) working group)  Security, anti-virus protection, mind-hacking safeguards  Privacy: transparency, opt-out, and monetization selections regarding data collection and use 20 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 22. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Fear of being absorbed into the vortex  Cloudminds so entrancing as to become extremely addictive, possibly to the detriment of otherwise being able to ‘participate in a meaningful life’ 21
  • 23. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Video Games: mixed research results  Negative  Susceptibility to addiction, player fatigue, etc.  Positive  Social interaction remains a priority  Ultimately novelty preferred to pleasure, turn away from pleasure-center stimulation out of boredom  Gamers have more grey matter and better brain connectivity  Conclusion  Video games are not only for fun, entertainment, community, and status-garnering, but also for brain development and intelligence amplification: “brainjack our potential”  BCI cloudmind design challenge: produce applications that safely extend our being as humans while balancing risks 22 Source: References cited in Swan, M. The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining your way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. In review.
  • 24. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds The Future: Cloudmind Fulfillment or Couch Potato?  What is ‘healthy’ or ‘addictive’ in mentally-stimulating virtual reality?  Cloudminds might be exactly the venue for meaningful engagement opportunities, remuneration, and fulfillment, especially in a post- scarcity automation economy where labor-work is no longer compulsory  Unclear why ‘couch-potatoing’ into virtually-fulfilling states might be categorially ‘bad’ 23 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 25. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda  Introduction  BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)  Cloudminds  Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation  Adoption Risks  Expected: privacy, security, etc.  Credit-assignation via blockchain administration  Fear of personal identity loss  Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing 24
  • 26. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds What is blockchain technology? 25 Blockchains are the secure distributed ledger software that underlies cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin – a giant tracking ledger or database, a means of updating truth states in distributed computing network Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 27. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds What is blockchain technology? 26 More broadly, blockchains are a new form of singularity-class technology, core next-gen infrastructure for Kardashev-level advance; planetary-scale projects; hierarchical models break; cannot get to million-member genome banks with centralized models, need secure distributed smartnetworks; modernizing IT System of checks-and-balances; trust-manufacturing system; enrichens the impoverished big data relationship we have with the cloud, now data quietly crunches in the background with accountability; in a way that is tracked and can be inspected on- demand, including with remuneration Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 28. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudmind Administration  Blockchains (giant online cryptographic ledgers), might be used to administer all of the coordination aspects of cloudminds  Privacy  Security  Credit-tracking 27 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 29. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Line-item Tracking and Credit-Assignation  Like Github, or SVN or CVS for brainstorming, tracking line-items  Deep-learning algorithms could automatically transcribe BCI thoughts, like creating a written transcript from Skype calls now  Ideas logged to blockchains with time date-stamped hashes  Line-item contributions thus tracked in cloudminds, acknowledging and rewarding new ideas in a trustable annuity stream, in an open but inconspicuous ledger that does not detract from the idea generation itself 28 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 30. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds 3. Fear of Personal Identity loss  Fear of being irreversibly incorporated into a groupmind  Personal identity (Webster):  The persistent and continuous unity of the individual person 29
  • 31. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Personal Identity: Multidisciplinary Question 30 Philosophy of Mind Psychology Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Psychology Philosophy of Biology Theoretical Biology Social Theory Sociology Sociobiology Biology
  • 32. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Philosophical Views of Personal Identity  Traditional ‘philosophy of mind’ view  Assumes already-existing subject  Personal identity needed for continuity and persistence  Personal identity is not required for the survival of the person, relational experience between past/future selves and experience is (Parfit)  fMRI studies: We procrastinate because we think of our future selves as strangers  Third persons no different than politicians or celebrities 31 Sources: http://nautil.us/issue/9/time/why-we-procrastinate citing van Gelder JL, Hershfield HE, Nordgren LF. (2013). Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency. Psychol Sci. 24(6):974-80, and Pronin, Emily. (2008). How we see ourselves and how we see others. Science. 320(5880):1177-80.
  • 33. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Biology: Individuals are not a Privileged Unit  What are the appropriate units in biology?  Organisms do not play a privileged role  Genes, genomes, mechanisms, phenotypes, gene pools, organisms, populations, ecologies  Individual is merely convenient terminology  Individuals are spatiotemporally localized entities that have reasonably sharp beginnings and endings in time 32 Hull, David (1980), "Individuality and Selection," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 311-332.
  • 34. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Multidisciplinary Conclusion: Personal Identity is Ephemeral and Constructive  Hypothesis is supported by multiple fields  If the evolutionary biological drivers that caused personal identity to develop as a fitness adaptation were to change, the need for personal identity too would change/disappear  Biology  Individuality is not personal identity  Psychology/Sociology  Malleability of self  Philosophy  Relationality and subjectivation  Evolutionary Biology  Fitness adaptation 33
  • 35. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Personal Identity: custom and familiarity  Preferencing of personal identity and humans as an organizational unit is custom and familiarity - so far there been no other alternative  Having known only one mode of existence we may have developed a natural attachment  Assumption (bias?) that memory, emotion, and ‘meaning’ can only be instantiated in humans, but it is possible that in the future, any pattern associated with the human brain might be stored as information 34
  • 36. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds BCI Cloudminds: Identity Multiplicity  BCI cloudminds do not necessarily preclude or curtail personal identity, and some rather accentuate and extend it  One or more digital selves participate in cloudminds on a limited basis  ‘Classic meatspace brains’  Different configurations of selves (for example, a team of selves, what Hanson calls a ‘self clan’ or an ‘em[ulation] clan’) 35
  • 37. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Blockchain Cloudminds Agenda  Introduction  BCIs (Brain-computer Interfaces)  Cloudminds  Applications: health, info-entertainment, subjectivation  Adoption Risks  Expected: privacy, security, etc.  Credit-assignation via blockchain administration  Fear of personal identity loss  Concluding Vision: Theory of Crypto Flourishing 36
  • 38. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds BCI Cloudminds Gradual Adoption Strategies  Sharing unused brain processing cycles  SETI@home for your brain  Backup, archival, storage  Life-logging, memory-logging  Digital self as opposed to original self  Permissioning limited access to certain domains of the brain and cognitive activity  Demarcating structural borders  Personal connectome files limit cortical access  Limited time blocks (sleep cycles) for mindstream access  Full cloudmind participation: problem-solving, creative-expression, idea-generation 37
  • 39. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Conclusion, this talk addressed:  The potential advent of brain- computer interfaces (BCIs) that are ubiquitous and widely- adopted, where humans might be continuously connected to the Internet and other minds in cloudmind formats  Adoption risk solutions  Privacy, security, reversibility, credit assignation, and personal identity retention 38
  • 40. April 2, 2016 Blockchain Cloudminds Thesis Statement Crypto Abundance Theory of Flourishing 39 Blockchains might be an important singularity-class technology (e.g.; one that is globally robust with checks and balances) for producing an empowering relation with technology, for example through the safe adoption of BCI cloudminds Accelerando: blockchain-type trust networks join humans and technology in partnership, where digital copies “watch over their originals from the consensus cyberspace of the city” Source: Stross (2006). Accelerando. P. 355
  • 41. Sunnyvale CA, April 2, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Blockchain Cloudminds Human-Machine Pooled-Mind DACs Thank You! Questions? Melanie Swan Blockchain Theorist Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org