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michael rowe physiotherapy department university of the western cape blended learning in clinical education
“ lecture; a process by which the notes of a teacher become the notes of a student without passing through the minds of either”  o'donnell (1997)
clinical education confusion as to an exact definition rothstein (2002) working definition: learning that takes place within a clinical context, application of theory in clinical context
Needs in clinical education A common vision evident in the process and product of the clinical experience Develop ongoing reflective practice and lifelong learning Establish mutually beneficial relationships Consistent quality assurance Greater emphasis on the relationship between theory and practice Strohschein, et al. (2002)
models of clinical education several models exist, none of which is able to address all of the needs in clinical education strohschein, et al. (2002) no model is superior to another lekkas, et al. (2007)
clinical practice the healthcare practitioner must constantly review and re-prioritise existing and new problems in an enterprise of active interpretation thornquist (2001a, 2001b) practice knowledge exists as a relation between questions and answers in a context of meaning that is often intuitive and hidden higgs, et al. (2004)
but tacit knowledge is hard to “teach”
reflection an important component of clinical practice schon (1987) “ ...a mental process with purpose...applied to relatively complicated...problems for which there is no obvious solution” moon (1999)
reflective learning we make sense of the world by interpreting facts through our own frames of reference higgs et al. (2004) questions may guide reflective activities marquardt (2005) an influential component of clinical practice and professional development dewey (1933), schon (1983/5)
reflection and reasoning reflection and reasoning both emphasise the connection between action and thinking aars (2008) focused reflection is a significant factor in developing clinical practice through clinical reasoning  murphy (2004)
making meaning through reflection is more important than memorising content
but reflection is also hard to “teach” boud & walker (1999)
developing practice knowledge sharing knowledge and experiences in a collegial environment enables external knowledge to be internalised develops problem solving strategies promotes critical reflective thinking challenges unshared biases mason (1998), hanko (1999)
knowledge: a negotiated outcome of social learning experiences that are integrated within the network siemens (2004)
blended learning a systematic combination of face-to-face and technology mediated interactions between students, teachers and learning resources bliuc, goodyear & ellis (2007) allows for greater flexibility and responsiveness in teaching and learning lewin, singh, bateman & glover (2009)
blended learning (cont) true potential is in enhancing communication and promoting reflection blended learning is highly context dependent, so it cannot be generalised from other domains harris, connolly & feeney (2009) the medium is less important than the way in which learning is approached laurillard (cited in ennew & fernandez-young, 2005)
technology and society technology = knowledge, and use of tools and crafts “because the nature of technology used by a society influences what the society is and becomes, individuals who do not become technologically literate will be left behind” johnson & johnson (2004) social software is... a collection of technologies    mason & rennie (2008) an enabler of social reform    boyd (2006)
“ a new communication paradigm is being constructed through  community interaction  and participation, which enables the formation of  loosely connected groups  with relative ease” wesch (2009) http://bit.ly/8ZaA6g
“ the world is changed” galadriel the lord of the rings
aim to develop, implement and evaluate a blended learning approach to a teaching module within an undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum
objective :: assess 1. assess teaching strategies and stakeholder attitudes a) blended learning implementations b) stakeholder current attitudes
objective :: analyse 2. analyse the curriculum to determine alignment a) evaluate outcomes, content, teaching, assessment b) determine each modules' appropriateness c) choose a module to be developed
objective :: develop 3. develop a module that will promote: a) student-centred learning b) inquiry-based learning c) self-directed learning d) small group learning
objective :: implement and evaluate 4. implement and evaluate the module a) teach the module using blended learning b) evaluate the effectiveness of the module
method :: setting and sample setting a physiotherapy department in the western cape sample all staff and registered undergraduate students
method :: design action research: systematic review survey document analysis delphi study process evaluation
method :: design (1) objective 1 assess strategies for blended learning, and staff and student attitudes towards those strategies a) systematic literature review b) survey of staff and students
objective 1a: departmental survey
disseminating results
objective 1b: systematic review
supervisor review
method :: design (2) objective 2 conduct an analysis of the curriculum in order to determine alignment, and the appropriateness of blended learning across all modules a) document analysis to map curriculum to outcomes b) delphi method to determine module appropriateness
document analysis
curriculum development
method :: design (3) objective 3 develop an appropriate module using a blended learning approach a) developed using feedback from steps 1 and 2 b) will use a social constructivist approach
method :: design (4) objective 4 implement and evaluate the module a) teach the developed module as part of the curriculum b) survey using process evaluation
ethical considerations permission standard ethical practices involving human participants informed consent voluntary participation anonymity results
 
collaborative groupwork
applied paediatric assignment
discussion
contributing to a global conversation
collaborative peer review
4 th  year ethics assignment
user interface
sharing resources
sharing experiences
personal reflection
reflective discussion
comment review
 
personal reflection
discussion
developing practice knowledge sharing knowledge and experiences in a collegial environment enables external knowledge to be internalised develops problem solving strategies promotes critical reflective thinking challenges unshared biases mason (1998), hanko (1999)
thank you url | mrowe.co.za/blog twitter | michael_rowe email | [email_address]

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Blended learning in clinical education

  • 1. michael rowe physiotherapy department university of the western cape blended learning in clinical education
  • 2. “ lecture; a process by which the notes of a teacher become the notes of a student without passing through the minds of either” o'donnell (1997)
  • 3. clinical education confusion as to an exact definition rothstein (2002) working definition: learning that takes place within a clinical context, application of theory in clinical context
  • 4. Needs in clinical education A common vision evident in the process and product of the clinical experience Develop ongoing reflective practice and lifelong learning Establish mutually beneficial relationships Consistent quality assurance Greater emphasis on the relationship between theory and practice Strohschein, et al. (2002)
  • 5. models of clinical education several models exist, none of which is able to address all of the needs in clinical education strohschein, et al. (2002) no model is superior to another lekkas, et al. (2007)
  • 6. clinical practice the healthcare practitioner must constantly review and re-prioritise existing and new problems in an enterprise of active interpretation thornquist (2001a, 2001b) practice knowledge exists as a relation between questions and answers in a context of meaning that is often intuitive and hidden higgs, et al. (2004)
  • 7. but tacit knowledge is hard to “teach”
  • 8. reflection an important component of clinical practice schon (1987) “ ...a mental process with purpose...applied to relatively complicated...problems for which there is no obvious solution” moon (1999)
  • 9. reflective learning we make sense of the world by interpreting facts through our own frames of reference higgs et al. (2004) questions may guide reflective activities marquardt (2005) an influential component of clinical practice and professional development dewey (1933), schon (1983/5)
  • 10. reflection and reasoning reflection and reasoning both emphasise the connection between action and thinking aars (2008) focused reflection is a significant factor in developing clinical practice through clinical reasoning murphy (2004)
  • 11. making meaning through reflection is more important than memorising content
  • 12. but reflection is also hard to “teach” boud & walker (1999)
  • 13. developing practice knowledge sharing knowledge and experiences in a collegial environment enables external knowledge to be internalised develops problem solving strategies promotes critical reflective thinking challenges unshared biases mason (1998), hanko (1999)
  • 14. knowledge: a negotiated outcome of social learning experiences that are integrated within the network siemens (2004)
  • 15. blended learning a systematic combination of face-to-face and technology mediated interactions between students, teachers and learning resources bliuc, goodyear & ellis (2007) allows for greater flexibility and responsiveness in teaching and learning lewin, singh, bateman & glover (2009)
  • 16. blended learning (cont) true potential is in enhancing communication and promoting reflection blended learning is highly context dependent, so it cannot be generalised from other domains harris, connolly & feeney (2009) the medium is less important than the way in which learning is approached laurillard (cited in ennew & fernandez-young, 2005)
  • 17. technology and society technology = knowledge, and use of tools and crafts “because the nature of technology used by a society influences what the society is and becomes, individuals who do not become technologically literate will be left behind” johnson & johnson (2004) social software is... a collection of technologies mason & rennie (2008) an enabler of social reform boyd (2006)
  • 18. “ a new communication paradigm is being constructed through community interaction and participation, which enables the formation of loosely connected groups with relative ease” wesch (2009) http://bit.ly/8ZaA6g
  • 19. “ the world is changed” galadriel the lord of the rings
  • 20. aim to develop, implement and evaluate a blended learning approach to a teaching module within an undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum
  • 21. objective :: assess 1. assess teaching strategies and stakeholder attitudes a) blended learning implementations b) stakeholder current attitudes
  • 22. objective :: analyse 2. analyse the curriculum to determine alignment a) evaluate outcomes, content, teaching, assessment b) determine each modules' appropriateness c) choose a module to be developed
  • 23. objective :: develop 3. develop a module that will promote: a) student-centred learning b) inquiry-based learning c) self-directed learning d) small group learning
  • 24. objective :: implement and evaluate 4. implement and evaluate the module a) teach the module using blended learning b) evaluate the effectiveness of the module
  • 25. method :: setting and sample setting a physiotherapy department in the western cape sample all staff and registered undergraduate students
  • 26. method :: design action research: systematic review survey document analysis delphi study process evaluation
  • 27. method :: design (1) objective 1 assess strategies for blended learning, and staff and student attitudes towards those strategies a) systematic literature review b) survey of staff and students
  • 32. method :: design (2) objective 2 conduct an analysis of the curriculum in order to determine alignment, and the appropriateness of blended learning across all modules a) document analysis to map curriculum to outcomes b) delphi method to determine module appropriateness
  • 35. method :: design (3) objective 3 develop an appropriate module using a blended learning approach a) developed using feedback from steps 1 and 2 b) will use a social constructivist approach
  • 36. method :: design (4) objective 4 implement and evaluate the module a) teach the developed module as part of the curriculum b) survey using process evaluation
  • 37. ethical considerations permission standard ethical practices involving human participants informed consent voluntary participation anonymity results
  • 38.  
  • 42. contributing to a global conversation
  • 44. 4 th year ethics assignment
  • 51.  
  • 54. developing practice knowledge sharing knowledge and experiences in a collegial environment enables external knowledge to be internalised develops problem solving strategies promotes critical reflective thinking challenges unshared biases mason (1998), hanko (1999)
  • 55. thank you url | mrowe.co.za/blog twitter | michael_rowe email | [email_address]