SlideShare a Scribd company logo
USF, San Francisco CA, July 13, 2015
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Melanie Swan
Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
www.BlockchainStudies.org
Bitcoin and Blockchain Explained:
Cryptocitizen Smartnetwork Trust
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Thesis
1
Blockchain technology is not just about
cryptocurrencies, registering wills and IP on
blockchains, and bank transfers taking less
than 3 days to settle, philosophically
blockchains invite a new level of thinking
about the sensibility of the Cryptocitizen and
possibilities for societal shared trust
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain
2
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Bitcoin-FinTech-Blockchain Growth
3
https://angel.co/bitcoin, http://thefinanser.co.uk/fsclub/2015/02/the-fintech-scene-is-so-hot-its-boiling.html
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/
Silicon Valley Bank:
Global investment in
FinTech is set to
double from $10
billion in 2014 to
$19.7 billion in 2015,
and reach $46.1
billion by 2020
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Gartner Emerging Technology Hype Cycle
4
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/
Cryptocurrencies added July 2014
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
 Context of Internet protocol stack, Bitcoin is
just the first blockchain app
What is meant by Blockchain?
5
Bitcoin (Btc) – $$,
the digital currency
Bitcoin protocol –
protocol for
transferring the Bitcoin
cryptocurrency
The Bitcoin
Blockchain – the
cryptographic ledger
on which Bitcoin runs
Gmail
SMTP – simple mail
transfer protocol
TCP/IP – transmission
control
protocol/Internet
protocol
Application
Layer
Application
Protocol Layer
General
Protocol Layer
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
What is Bitcoin?
6
Satoshi Nakamoto’s original design for the blockchain (2008) https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
 Finally – a digital currency that works!
 Created by: Satoshi Nakamoto
 Combination of BitTorrent technology (peer-to-
peer file sharing) and public key cryptography
 Solves double-spend problem
 Copiability of digital assets; digital cash, like an image
attached to an email, can be copied infinite times
 Provides a secure network where any
transaction can be independently confirmed
unique and valid without a centralized
intermediary like a bank or government
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
How does Bitcoin work?
7
1. Download software wallet app
 Blockchain.info, Mycelium, etc.
2. Transfer Bitcoin via QR Code / public key address
3. See your transaction confirm, post to the blockchain
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Where can I use Bitcoin?
8
http://bitcoinmaps.info/, http://coinmap.org/, https://airbitz.co/
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Use Bitcoin to avoid Digital Identity theft
9
Amazon,
Overstock,
Newegg, etc.
www.bitcoinvalues.net/who-accepts-bitcoins-payment-companies-stores-take-bitcoins.html
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Economic and privacy arguments for Bitcoin
 Vendor payments market
 1-3% merchant transaction fee
 Hack-able ‘honey pot’ identity databases
 Banking services market
 5 bn individuals worldwide without access
to banking, financial, credit services
 Remittances market
 $4 tn global market, 5-30% transaction
fee; immediate funds transfer solution
 Successful examples suggest
demand for digital payments
 Starbucks mobile app, Apple Pay
10
http://www.bitcoinvalues.net/who-accepts-bitcoins-payment-companies-
stores-take-bitcoins.html
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
How big is the market and is it liquid?
Which cryptocurrency should I use?
11
https://coinmarketcap.com/
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Bitcoin Price Volume Chart (1/1/15-7/13/15)
12
http://bitcoincharts.com/
 Price increase per events in Greece and China
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
What is the blockchain?
13
https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin, https://bitcoin.org/en/download, https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/
 The open-source software upon which
Bitcoin runs
 A technology protocol layer like TCP/IP
 A transaction database, a decentralized
public ledger of all transactions
 Giant ‘interactive Google doc spreadsheet’
that anyone can view and administrators
(miners) continually verify and update to
confirm that each transaction is valid
 Literally blocks (batches of
transactions) in a chain, a sequential
ledger of transactions
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
How robust is the network?
14
https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/
 6441 Global Nodes running full Bitcoind (July 2015)
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Financial and Public Records Applications
 Financial instruments
1. Currency
2. Private equities
3. Public equities
4. Bonds
5. Derivatives Commodities
6. Spending records
7. Trading records
8. Mortgage/loan records
9. Servicing records
10. Crowdfunding
11. Microfinance
15
http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour
 Public Records
1. Land titles
2. Vehicle registries
3. Business incorporations
4. Criminal records
5. Passports
6. Birth certificates
7. Death certificates
8. Voter Registration
9. Voting Records
10. Health/safety inspections
11. Building permits
12. Court records
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
What is Smart Property?
 Register assets to blockchain via unique key
 Blocktrace ledger tracks diamonds
 Real-time GPS LoJack tracking for any asset
 Blockchain becomes an inventory, tracking,
and buy-sell mechanism for all hard assets
 Decentralized asset exchange
 Digital authentication access system
 Blockchain-based keyless entry
16
https://openbazaar.org/, http://www.edgelogic.net/blocktrace
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Decentralized Application (Dapp) Ecosystem
17
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
Project Name and URL Activity Centralized
Equivalent
OpenBazaar, BitMarkets, BitPremier
https://openbazaar.org
Buy/sell items locally Craigslist
LaZooz
http://lazooz.org
On-demand ride service Uber, Lyft
Twister
http://twister.net.co
Social networking, peer-to-peer
microblogging
Twitter, Facebook
Gems
http://getgems.org
Social networking, private
token-based social messaging
Twitter, SMS apps
Bitmessage
https://bitmessage.org
Secure messaging (individual or
broadcast)
SMS services
Storj
http://storj.io/
File storage Dropbox, Google Drive
Onename
https://onename.com/
BitID
https://github.com/bitid/bitid
Bithandle
http://www.hackathon.io/bithandle
Digital identity verification VeriFone, Verisign, Facebook
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
What are Smart Contracts?
18
 Agreements between parties posted to the
blockchain for automated execution
 Cryptolaw: intersection of technological (inexorable,
uninfringeable) and legal frameworks (flexible)
 Smart Contract Examples:
 Bet on high temperature tomorrow
 Inheritance pay-out at age 21 or death of benefactor
 Mortgage with automatic interest-rate resets
 Code: Ethereum and Eris
 https://github.com/ethereum/
 https://erisindustries.com/
https://eng.erisindustries.com/smart%20contracts/2014/12/17/dennys-smart-contracting/ ,
http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour,
http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001555.html
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Smart Contract
Law Firm?
19
http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/
 Law is something to be
radically reshaped by
the emergence of
technology, it is about
the management and
manipulation of data on
an entirely new scale -
Richard Susskind
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain IOT
20
http://www.zdnet.com/article/internet-of-things-market-to-hit-7-1-trillion-by-2020-idc/,
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
https://gigaom.com/2014/09/09/check-out-ibms-proposal-for-an-internet-of-things-architecture-using-bitcoins-block-chain-tech/
 M2M/IOT Bitcoin payment network to
enable the machine economy
 The economic layer the web never had
 IOT 2020: 26 bn devices in a $7 tn market
 Smarthome IOT networks (dist. privacy)
 Self-mining ecologies
 Privacy orchestration: devices, personal
robotics, digital health assistants
 IBM Adept
 Blockchain + Messaging + BitTorrent
 Blockchains as scalable communication and
coordination mechanism
Smartcity Connected
Car Orchestration
Smarthome IOT and
Personal Robotics
Coordination
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Health
 Blockchain technology in health-related applications
1. EMRs: Personal Health Record Storage and Access
 Personal health records stored and administered via blockchain
 Users key-permission doctors and other parties into records
2. Health Research Commons (info processing)
 Aggregated personal medical records, quantified self data
commons (DNA.bits), genome and connectome files
3. Health Document Notary Services
 Proof-of-insurance, test results, prescriptions, status, condition,
treatment, physician referrals
4. Doctor Vendor RFP Services
 (Like Uber drivers) doctors and health practices bid to supply
medical services; automated bidding via tradenets
21
http://futurememes.blogspot.fr/2014/09/blockchain-health-remunerative-health.html
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Genomics
22
 Jurisdictional regulation prevents
individuals from having access to
their own genetic data
http://genomesunzipped.org/2011/03/people-have-a-right-to-access-their-own-genetic-information.php
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchains: Global and Liberty-enhancing
23
 Global governance for transnational organizations
 WikiLeaks, ICANN, Wikipedia
 Benefits of blockchain administration
 Uplift to cloud from local jurisdictional regulations
 Universal administration mechanism for global organizations
 Structure promotes transparency, accountability, freedom
 Namecoin: decentralized DNS
http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2010/12/07/visa-mastercard-move-to-choke-wikileaks/
Snowden Affair
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Government
 Opt-in Personalized Government
 Composting vs education
 Reputation-based ID system, voting,
dispute resolution, national income
distribution, public documents
registration and repository
 Neighbor.ly
 Self-directed community bonds
 Precedentcoin
 Crowdsourced legal services, justice
entrepreneurs, blockchain arbitration
 Sidekik
 On-demand tele-attorney, private police
24
http://www.bitnation.co/, https://bitcoinmagazine.com/17066/first-blockchain-wedding-2/,
https://bitcoinmagazine.com/19813/sidekik-decentralized-video-streaming-storage/
World’s First Blockchain Marriage:
David Mondrus and Joyce Bayo, October
5, 2014, Disney World FL, Coins in the
Kingdom Bitcoin Conference, Jeffrey
Tucker (Liberty.me) presiding
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Representation and Voting
 Delegative democracy (Liquid Democracy)
 Voting power temporarily vested in
delegates not long-term representatives
 Group proposition development
 Futarchy, two-step program
1. Traditional vote on outcomes (ex: GDP)
2. Prediction markets to determine specific
proposals for achieving the outcome
 Random Sample Elections
 Randomly selected individuals vote on a
single issue, blockchain orchestration
 Convergent Facilitation
 Register group needs as smart assets
25
https://bitcoinmagazine.com/17066/first-blockchain-wedding-2/,
http://www.bitnation-blog.com/latest-update-dec-22nd-2014/
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Legal
 Notary Service, Attestation
 Register contracts, agreements, wills (Proof of Existence, Factom)
 Register, protect, and transact IP (Monegraph, Ascribe)
 How it works
 Hash + timestamp + blockchain record
26
http://www.proofofexistence.com/
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Science and What is Mining?
Bitcoin: world’s largest supercomputer @ 42 petahashes/second
 Mining is the process of adding
transaction records to the public
ledger by performing a computing
task that is costly to execute but
easy to verify
 Issue: mining is purposefully
wasteful to deter malicious players
 ‘Green’ mining projects
 Primecoin
 Foldingcoin
 Gridcoin
 Zennet
27
http://www.righto.com/2014/02/bitcoin-mining-hard-way-algorithms.html,
http://codinginmysleep.com/bitcoin-mining-in-plain-english/
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Smartnetwork Application: Friendly AI
 Argument…
1. Digital intelligences will be
running on consensus-managed
smartnetworks
2. Good reputational standing is
required to conduct operations
 Resource access, fund-raising,
services-providing, contracts
3. Consensus only validates and
records bonafide transactions
from ‘good’ agents
4. Therefore all agents ‘good’
28
Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society:
Mind, Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted. Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized
Autonomous Organization). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March 27-29, 2015. accepted.
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Derrida: Ontology of Joycean Consensus
29
Derrida. Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes In Joyce. Pp. 267, 296.
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
 Affirmation is not solo, “saying yes” is dependent
upon another to hear it and acknowledge receipt
 The affirmation relation is liberty-enhancing and
totalization-resisting, the affirming and acknowledging
parties, and the yes itself, remain distinct
 “The two responses refer to each other without having any
relationship between them. The two sign yet prevent the
signature from gathering itself together [totalizing].”
 The yes “addresses itself to some other which it does not constitute”
 The yes avoids its own totalization, “The yes, by responding and
countersigning, does not let itself be counted or discounted [totalized].”
 Well-formed consensus: preserve the integrity of
entities in a network of ad-hoc relations
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Cryptocitizen Sensibility
 A new relationship with authority and
responsibility-taking
 Digital safety: Backing up our money
 Governance services vs. being governed
 Trend: happened with news media,
entertainment, stock-trading, health services;
now happening with economics and politics
 Freedom of choice, autonomy, and self-
determination of economic and political
systems as basic human rights
 Responsibility for trust-generating
behavior per reduced government
involvement in decentralization
30
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Philosophy
Smartnetwork Trust & Consensus Realities
 Trust is manufactured on
smartnetworks though consensus
protocols and independent
confirmations of truth states
 Smartnetworks are a way of making
new and pluralistic reality
 Different network consensus protocols
come to different truth states about the
world, thus…
 …creating mulitple realities, and
 …the notion that realitiy is maleable and
can be created; gives portability with reality
31
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Art
32
Rio, Tel Aviv, Hamburg, Barcelona, Seoul, Tokyo, New York
http://bitfilm.com/festival.html
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Art
33
http://cryptoart.com/
 Fine art paper wallets
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Art
34
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=98392.0
 Cryptographic art
Someone used Bitcoin's ability to
embed arbitrary text inside a
transaction to put an ASCII Art Ben
Bernanke into the Bitcoin blockchain
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Art
35
http://fiatleak.com/
 Data visualization as art
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Art
36
http://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-best-Bitcoin-visualizations
 Data visualization as art
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained 37
Satoshi Dice betting game
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Literacy
 ‘Bitcoin MOOCs,’ ‘Kiva for literacy’
 Peer-to-peer learning contracts
 Literacy beyond reading
 Technical, Agricultural, Vocational Literacy
 Blockchain-based personal development
contracts
 QS-biometric utility function imputation and tracking
 Maslow chains, subjectivation and actualization chains
 Development Economics 2.0
 Decentralized credit bureaus, literacy contracts,
remittances, blockchain-tracked aid, microcredit,
 Open-source FICO scores
 Peer-vouched reputation
38
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Blockchain Applications by Sector (selected)
39
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
Crucial Blockchain Properties
• Cryptoledger
• Decentralized network
• Trustless
counterparties
• Independent
consensus-confirmed
transactions
• Permanent record
• Public records
repository
• Notarization time-
stamping hashes
• Universal format
• Accessibility
Government
& Legal
• Transnational orgs
• Personalized
governance services
• Voting, propositions
• P2P bonds
• Tele-attorney services
• IP registration and
exchange
• Tax receipts
• Notary service and
document registry
Economics
and Markets
• Currency
• Payments &
Remittance
• Banking & Finance
• Clearing &
Settlement
• Insurance
• FinTech
• Trading & Derivatives
• QA & Internal Audit
• Crowdfunding
IOT
• Agricultural & drone
sensor networks
• Smarthome networks
• Integrated smartcity,
connected car,
smarthome sensors
• Self-driving car
• Personalized robots,
robotic companions
• Personalized drones
• Digital assistants
• Communication
(messaging)
• Large-scale
coordination
• Entity ingress/egress
• Transaction security
• Universal format
• Large-scale multi-
data-stream
integration
• Privacy and security
• Real-time
accessibility
Health
• Universal EMR
• Health databanks
• QS Data Commons
• Big health data
stream analytics
• Digital health wallet
• Smart property
• HealthToken
• Personal
development
contracts
• Large-scale
infrastructural
element for
coordination
• Checks-and-
balances system
for ‘good-player’
access
• Community
supercomputing
• Crowd analysis
• P2P resourcenets
• Film, dataviz
• AI: blockchain
advocates, friendly
AI, blockchain
learners, digital
mindfile services
Science,
Art, AI
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Summary: The blockchain is…
40
 A decentralized public transaction ledger
 A markets and smart property management system for all
of the world’s assets, smart property, and documents
 An enabler of the M2M/IOT machine economy
 A tool for science, health, literacy, and art applications
 A new form of information technology, a decentralized
system of checks and balances, an infrastructure, an
organizing system that is universal and planetary-scale
 Growing sensibility of the Cryptocitizen in self-authority
responsibility-taking and smartnetworks as a means of
conferring a reality truth state and societal shared trust
http://www.melanieswan.com/documents/BlockchainThinking_SWAN.pdf
July 13, 2015
Blockchain Explained
Thesis
41
Philosophically, blockchain
technology invites a new level of
thinking about the possibilities for
societal design and the
sensibilities of the emerging
Cryptocitizen
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
USF, San Francisco CA, July 13, 2015
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Bitcoin and Blockchain Explained:
Cryptocitizen Smartnetwork Trust
Thank You! Questions?
Melanie Swan
Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
www.BlockchainStudies.org

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Bitcoin and Blockchain Explained: Cryptocitizen Smartnetwork Trust

  • 1. USF, San Francisco CA, July 13, 2015 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies melanie@BlockchainStudies.org www.BlockchainStudies.org Bitcoin and Blockchain Explained: Cryptocitizen Smartnetwork Trust
  • 2. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Thesis 1 Blockchain technology is not just about cryptocurrencies, registering wills and IP on blockchains, and bank transfers taking less than 3 days to settle, philosophically blockchains invite a new level of thinking about the sensibility of the Cryptocitizen and possibilities for societal shared trust http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 3. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain 2
  • 4. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Bitcoin-FinTech-Blockchain Growth 3 https://angel.co/bitcoin, http://thefinanser.co.uk/fsclub/2015/02/the-fintech-scene-is-so-hot-its-boiling.html http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/ Silicon Valley Bank: Global investment in FinTech is set to double from $10 billion in 2014 to $19.7 billion in 2015, and reach $46.1 billion by 2020
  • 5. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Gartner Emerging Technology Hype Cycle 4 http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/ Cryptocurrencies added July 2014
  • 6. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained  Context of Internet protocol stack, Bitcoin is just the first blockchain app What is meant by Blockchain? 5 Bitcoin (Btc) – $$, the digital currency Bitcoin protocol – protocol for transferring the Bitcoin cryptocurrency The Bitcoin Blockchain – the cryptographic ledger on which Bitcoin runs Gmail SMTP – simple mail transfer protocol TCP/IP – transmission control protocol/Internet protocol Application Layer Application Protocol Layer General Protocol Layer
  • 7. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained What is Bitcoin? 6 Satoshi Nakamoto’s original design for the blockchain (2008) https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf  Finally – a digital currency that works!  Created by: Satoshi Nakamoto  Combination of BitTorrent technology (peer-to- peer file sharing) and public key cryptography  Solves double-spend problem  Copiability of digital assets; digital cash, like an image attached to an email, can be copied infinite times  Provides a secure network where any transaction can be independently confirmed unique and valid without a centralized intermediary like a bank or government
  • 8. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained How does Bitcoin work? 7 1. Download software wallet app  Blockchain.info, Mycelium, etc. 2. Transfer Bitcoin via QR Code / public key address 3. See your transaction confirm, post to the blockchain
  • 9. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Where can I use Bitcoin? 8 http://bitcoinmaps.info/, http://coinmap.org/, https://airbitz.co/
  • 10. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Use Bitcoin to avoid Digital Identity theft 9 Amazon, Overstock, Newegg, etc. www.bitcoinvalues.net/who-accepts-bitcoins-payment-companies-stores-take-bitcoins.html
  • 11. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Economic and privacy arguments for Bitcoin  Vendor payments market  1-3% merchant transaction fee  Hack-able ‘honey pot’ identity databases  Banking services market  5 bn individuals worldwide without access to banking, financial, credit services  Remittances market  $4 tn global market, 5-30% transaction fee; immediate funds transfer solution  Successful examples suggest demand for digital payments  Starbucks mobile app, Apple Pay 10 http://www.bitcoinvalues.net/who-accepts-bitcoins-payment-companies- stores-take-bitcoins.html
  • 12. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained How big is the market and is it liquid? Which cryptocurrency should I use? 11 https://coinmarketcap.com/
  • 13. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Bitcoin Price Volume Chart (1/1/15-7/13/15) 12 http://bitcoincharts.com/  Price increase per events in Greece and China
  • 14. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained What is the blockchain? 13 https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin, https://bitcoin.org/en/download, https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/  The open-source software upon which Bitcoin runs  A technology protocol layer like TCP/IP  A transaction database, a decentralized public ledger of all transactions  Giant ‘interactive Google doc spreadsheet’ that anyone can view and administrators (miners) continually verify and update to confirm that each transaction is valid  Literally blocks (batches of transactions) in a chain, a sequential ledger of transactions
  • 15. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained How robust is the network? 14 https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/  6441 Global Nodes running full Bitcoind (July 2015)
  • 16. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Financial and Public Records Applications  Financial instruments 1. Currency 2. Private equities 3. Public equities 4. Bonds 5. Derivatives Commodities 6. Spending records 7. Trading records 8. Mortgage/loan records 9. Servicing records 10. Crowdfunding 11. Microfinance 15 http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour  Public Records 1. Land titles 2. Vehicle registries 3. Business incorporations 4. Criminal records 5. Passports 6. Birth certificates 7. Death certificates 8. Voter Registration 9. Voting Records 10. Health/safety inspections 11. Building permits 12. Court records
  • 17. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained What is Smart Property?  Register assets to blockchain via unique key  Blocktrace ledger tracks diamonds  Real-time GPS LoJack tracking for any asset  Blockchain becomes an inventory, tracking, and buy-sell mechanism for all hard assets  Decentralized asset exchange  Digital authentication access system  Blockchain-based keyless entry 16 https://openbazaar.org/, http://www.edgelogic.net/blocktrace
  • 18. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Decentralized Application (Dapp) Ecosystem 17 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Project Name and URL Activity Centralized Equivalent OpenBazaar, BitMarkets, BitPremier https://openbazaar.org Buy/sell items locally Craigslist LaZooz http://lazooz.org On-demand ride service Uber, Lyft Twister http://twister.net.co Social networking, peer-to-peer microblogging Twitter, Facebook Gems http://getgems.org Social networking, private token-based social messaging Twitter, SMS apps Bitmessage https://bitmessage.org Secure messaging (individual or broadcast) SMS services Storj http://storj.io/ File storage Dropbox, Google Drive Onename https://onename.com/ BitID https://github.com/bitid/bitid Bithandle http://www.hackathon.io/bithandle Digital identity verification VeriFone, Verisign, Facebook
  • 19. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained What are Smart Contracts? 18  Agreements between parties posted to the blockchain for automated execution  Cryptolaw: intersection of technological (inexorable, uninfringeable) and legal frameworks (flexible)  Smart Contract Examples:  Bet on high temperature tomorrow  Inheritance pay-out at age 21 or death of benefactor  Mortgage with automatic interest-rate resets  Code: Ethereum and Eris  https://github.com/ethereum/  https://erisindustries.com/ https://eng.erisindustries.com/smart%20contracts/2014/12/17/dennys-smart-contracting/ , http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour, http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001555.html
  • 20. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Smart Contract Law Firm? 19 http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/  Law is something to be radically reshaped by the emergence of technology, it is about the management and manipulation of data on an entirely new scale - Richard Susskind
  • 21. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain IOT 20 http://www.zdnet.com/article/internet-of-things-market-to-hit-7-1-trillion-by-2020-idc/, http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 https://gigaom.com/2014/09/09/check-out-ibms-proposal-for-an-internet-of-things-architecture-using-bitcoins-block-chain-tech/  M2M/IOT Bitcoin payment network to enable the machine economy  The economic layer the web never had  IOT 2020: 26 bn devices in a $7 tn market  Smarthome IOT networks (dist. privacy)  Self-mining ecologies  Privacy orchestration: devices, personal robotics, digital health assistants  IBM Adept  Blockchain + Messaging + BitTorrent  Blockchains as scalable communication and coordination mechanism Smartcity Connected Car Orchestration Smarthome IOT and Personal Robotics Coordination
  • 22. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Health  Blockchain technology in health-related applications 1. EMRs: Personal Health Record Storage and Access  Personal health records stored and administered via blockchain  Users key-permission doctors and other parties into records 2. Health Research Commons (info processing)  Aggregated personal medical records, quantified self data commons (DNA.bits), genome and connectome files 3. Health Document Notary Services  Proof-of-insurance, test results, prescriptions, status, condition, treatment, physician referrals 4. Doctor Vendor RFP Services  (Like Uber drivers) doctors and health practices bid to supply medical services; automated bidding via tradenets 21 http://futurememes.blogspot.fr/2014/09/blockchain-health-remunerative-health.html
  • 23. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Genomics 22  Jurisdictional regulation prevents individuals from having access to their own genetic data http://genomesunzipped.org/2011/03/people-have-a-right-to-access-their-own-genetic-information.php
  • 24. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchains: Global and Liberty-enhancing 23  Global governance for transnational organizations  WikiLeaks, ICANN, Wikipedia  Benefits of blockchain administration  Uplift to cloud from local jurisdictional regulations  Universal administration mechanism for global organizations  Structure promotes transparency, accountability, freedom  Namecoin: decentralized DNS http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2010/12/07/visa-mastercard-move-to-choke-wikileaks/ Snowden Affair
  • 25. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Government  Opt-in Personalized Government  Composting vs education  Reputation-based ID system, voting, dispute resolution, national income distribution, public documents registration and repository  Neighbor.ly  Self-directed community bonds  Precedentcoin  Crowdsourced legal services, justice entrepreneurs, blockchain arbitration  Sidekik  On-demand tele-attorney, private police 24 http://www.bitnation.co/, https://bitcoinmagazine.com/17066/first-blockchain-wedding-2/, https://bitcoinmagazine.com/19813/sidekik-decentralized-video-streaming-storage/ World’s First Blockchain Marriage: David Mondrus and Joyce Bayo, October 5, 2014, Disney World FL, Coins in the Kingdom Bitcoin Conference, Jeffrey Tucker (Liberty.me) presiding
  • 26. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Representation and Voting  Delegative democracy (Liquid Democracy)  Voting power temporarily vested in delegates not long-term representatives  Group proposition development  Futarchy, two-step program 1. Traditional vote on outcomes (ex: GDP) 2. Prediction markets to determine specific proposals for achieving the outcome  Random Sample Elections  Randomly selected individuals vote on a single issue, blockchain orchestration  Convergent Facilitation  Register group needs as smart assets 25 https://bitcoinmagazine.com/17066/first-blockchain-wedding-2/, http://www.bitnation-blog.com/latest-update-dec-22nd-2014/
  • 27. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Legal  Notary Service, Attestation  Register contracts, agreements, wills (Proof of Existence, Factom)  Register, protect, and transact IP (Monegraph, Ascribe)  How it works  Hash + timestamp + blockchain record 26 http://www.proofofexistence.com/
  • 28. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Science and What is Mining? Bitcoin: world’s largest supercomputer @ 42 petahashes/second  Mining is the process of adding transaction records to the public ledger by performing a computing task that is costly to execute but easy to verify  Issue: mining is purposefully wasteful to deter malicious players  ‘Green’ mining projects  Primecoin  Foldingcoin  Gridcoin  Zennet 27 http://www.righto.com/2014/02/bitcoin-mining-hard-way-algorithms.html, http://codinginmysleep.com/bitcoin-mining-in-plain-english/
  • 29. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Smartnetwork Application: Friendly AI  Argument… 1. Digital intelligences will be running on consensus-managed smartnetworks 2. Good reputational standing is required to conduct operations  Resource access, fund-raising, services-providing, contracts 3. Consensus only validates and records bonafide transactions from ‘good’ agents 4. Therefore all agents ‘good’ 28 Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Mind, Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted. Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Organization). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March 27-29, 2015. accepted.
  • 30. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Derrida: Ontology of Joycean Consensus 29 Derrida. Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes In Joyce. Pp. 267, 296. http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Affirmation is not solo, “saying yes” is dependent upon another to hear it and acknowledge receipt  The affirmation relation is liberty-enhancing and totalization-resisting, the affirming and acknowledging parties, and the yes itself, remain distinct  “The two responses refer to each other without having any relationship between them. The two sign yet prevent the signature from gathering itself together [totalizing].”  The yes “addresses itself to some other which it does not constitute”  The yes avoids its own totalization, “The yes, by responding and countersigning, does not let itself be counted or discounted [totalized].”  Well-formed consensus: preserve the integrity of entities in a network of ad-hoc relations
  • 31. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Cryptocitizen Sensibility  A new relationship with authority and responsibility-taking  Digital safety: Backing up our money  Governance services vs. being governed  Trend: happened with news media, entertainment, stock-trading, health services; now happening with economics and politics  Freedom of choice, autonomy, and self- determination of economic and political systems as basic human rights  Responsibility for trust-generating behavior per reduced government involvement in decentralization 30
  • 32. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Philosophy Smartnetwork Trust & Consensus Realities  Trust is manufactured on smartnetworks though consensus protocols and independent confirmations of truth states  Smartnetworks are a way of making new and pluralistic reality  Different network consensus protocols come to different truth states about the world, thus…  …creating mulitple realities, and  …the notion that realitiy is maleable and can be created; gives portability with reality 31
  • 33. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Art 32 Rio, Tel Aviv, Hamburg, Barcelona, Seoul, Tokyo, New York http://bitfilm.com/festival.html
  • 34. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Art 33 http://cryptoart.com/  Fine art paper wallets
  • 35. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Art 34 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=98392.0  Cryptographic art Someone used Bitcoin's ability to embed arbitrary text inside a transaction to put an ASCII Art Ben Bernanke into the Bitcoin blockchain
  • 36. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Art 35 http://fiatleak.com/  Data visualization as art
  • 37. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Art 36 http://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-best-Bitcoin-visualizations  Data visualization as art
  • 38. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained 37 Satoshi Dice betting game
  • 39. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Literacy  ‘Bitcoin MOOCs,’ ‘Kiva for literacy’  Peer-to-peer learning contracts  Literacy beyond reading  Technical, Agricultural, Vocational Literacy  Blockchain-based personal development contracts  QS-biometric utility function imputation and tracking  Maslow chains, subjectivation and actualization chains  Development Economics 2.0  Decentralized credit bureaus, literacy contracts, remittances, blockchain-tracked aid, microcredit,  Open-source FICO scores  Peer-vouched reputation 38
  • 40. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Blockchain Applications by Sector (selected) 39 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Crucial Blockchain Properties • Cryptoledger • Decentralized network • Trustless counterparties • Independent consensus-confirmed transactions • Permanent record • Public records repository • Notarization time- stamping hashes • Universal format • Accessibility Government & Legal • Transnational orgs • Personalized governance services • Voting, propositions • P2P bonds • Tele-attorney services • IP registration and exchange • Tax receipts • Notary service and document registry Economics and Markets • Currency • Payments & Remittance • Banking & Finance • Clearing & Settlement • Insurance • FinTech • Trading & Derivatives • QA & Internal Audit • Crowdfunding IOT • Agricultural & drone sensor networks • Smarthome networks • Integrated smartcity, connected car, smarthome sensors • Self-driving car • Personalized robots, robotic companions • Personalized drones • Digital assistants • Communication (messaging) • Large-scale coordination • Entity ingress/egress • Transaction security • Universal format • Large-scale multi- data-stream integration • Privacy and security • Real-time accessibility Health • Universal EMR • Health databanks • QS Data Commons • Big health data stream analytics • Digital health wallet • Smart property • HealthToken • Personal development contracts • Large-scale infrastructural element for coordination • Checks-and- balances system for ‘good-player’ access • Community supercomputing • Crowd analysis • P2P resourcenets • Film, dataviz • AI: blockchain advocates, friendly AI, blockchain learners, digital mindfile services Science, Art, AI
  • 41. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Summary: The blockchain is… 40  A decentralized public transaction ledger  A markets and smart property management system for all of the world’s assets, smart property, and documents  An enabler of the M2M/IOT machine economy  A tool for science, health, literacy, and art applications  A new form of information technology, a decentralized system of checks and balances, an infrastructure, an organizing system that is universal and planetary-scale  Growing sensibility of the Cryptocitizen in self-authority responsibility-taking and smartnetworks as a means of conferring a reality truth state and societal shared trust http://www.melanieswan.com/documents/BlockchainThinking_SWAN.pdf
  • 42. July 13, 2015 Blockchain Explained Thesis 41 Philosophically, blockchain technology invites a new level of thinking about the possibilities for societal design and the sensibilities of the emerging Cryptocitizen http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 43. USF, San Francisco CA, July 13, 2015 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Bitcoin and Blockchain Explained: Cryptocitizen Smartnetwork Trust Thank You! Questions? Melanie Swan Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies melanie@BlockchainStudies.org www.BlockchainStudies.org