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BIOSYNTHESIS OF HISTIDINE
 AMINO ACID
 ESSENTIAL AND NON
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
 HISTIDINE
 BIOSYNTHESIS OF HISTIDINE
CONTENTS
AMINO ACID
 Amino acids are the basic structural building units (blocks) of proteins and other
biomolecules.
 They are molecules containing an amine group(- NH2), a carboxylic group(-
COOH), and a side chain(R) that is specific to each amino acid.
 Unlike most organic compounds, amino acids are soluble in water.
 They have either high melting points or decompose upon heating.
 They act more like inorganic materials than organic compounds.
STRUCTURE OF
AMINO ACID
• side chain (R group) is specific in every amino acid.
• ThisThe R group or side chain gives each amino acid protein specific
characteristics, including size, polarity and pH.
• When R=H the molecule is called glycine, when R=CH3, the molecule is
called alanine.
•
ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL
AMINO ACIDS
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS : Essential amino acids are also known as indispensable amino
acids. These are the group of amino acids which humans and other vertebrates cannot
synthesize by metabolic processes, because human body does not have the metabolic
pathways which is required for synthesis of these essential amino acids.
There are 9 essential amino acids: Phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, Threonine,
Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Leucine, and Lysine.
NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS : Nonessential amino acids are also known as
dispensable amino acids. Humans body can synthesize these amino acids by using
essential amino acids.
There are 11 nonessential amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid,
Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, Serine, and Tyrosine
HISTIDINE (C6H9N302)
 Histidine is both essential and non- essential amino acid and has a positively charged imidazole
functional group.
 Histidine is an α-amino acid which is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
 The presence of imidazole group in the histidine makes histidine to participate in the enzyme
catalyzed reactions. The unprotonated imidazole group is nucleophilic and can serve as base,
the protonated form serves as a acid.
FUNCTIONS
 Develops and maintain healthy tissues in all parts of the body
 Used in the treatment of mental disorders and some types of sexual dysfunctions.
 It the precursor for histamine, which is an amine produced in the body necessary for inflammation.
 Histidine is also important in normal sexual functioning.
BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY OF HISTIDINE
ATP
phosphoribosyltransferase
Phosphoribosyl-ATP
pyrophosphatase
Phosphoribosyl-AMP
cyclohydrolase
Phosphoribosyl-5-amino-1-
phosphoribosyl-4-
imidazolecarboxiamide
Imidazoleylycerol phosphate
synthase
Imidazole glycerol-phosphate
dehydratase
Histidinol-phosphate
aminotransferase
Histidinolphosphate
Histidinol dehydrogenase
Histidinol dehydrogenase
STEPS
 Histidine is synthesized from phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate(PRPP). Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is
synthesized from Ribose-5-phosphate by the enzyme ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase in the pentose
phosphate pathway.
 The first reaction involved in the biosynthesis of histidine is the condensation of PRPP and ATP with help of
enzyme ATP-phosphoribosyl transferase.
 The product of condensation, phosphoribosyl-ATP is hydrolyses to phosphoribosyl-AMP(PRAMP) by the
His4 gene. This is an irreversible step.
 The His4 then catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosylformimino AICAR-phosphate.
 This phosphoribosylmimino AICAR-phosphate is the converted to Phophoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P by
His6 gene product.
 The His7 gene now splits the phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-A to D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-
phosphate.
 Then His3 forms imidazole acetol phosphate from D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate by releasing
H2O.
 After the formation of imidazole acetol phosphate His5 makes L-histidinol-phosphate and is hydrolyzed to to
histidinol by His 2.
 The L-histidinol is oxidized to form L-histidinal, which is an amino aldehyde by His4.
 In the final final step the L-histidinal is converted to L-histidine by His4.
 ABI CHANDRA DULAL
 ADITYA PRADHAN
 EMMANUEAL MANGER
 PRANESH SHARMA
 REJITA MANGER
 SIMRAN GURUNG
GROUP
REFERENCES
Biosynthesis of histidine

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Biosynthesis of histidine

  • 2.  AMINO ACID  ESSENTIAL AND NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS  HISTIDINE  BIOSYNTHESIS OF HISTIDINE CONTENTS
  • 3. AMINO ACID  Amino acids are the basic structural building units (blocks) of proteins and other biomolecules.  They are molecules containing an amine group(- NH2), a carboxylic group(- COOH), and a side chain(R) that is specific to each amino acid.  Unlike most organic compounds, amino acids are soluble in water.  They have either high melting points or decompose upon heating.  They act more like inorganic materials than organic compounds.
  • 4. STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACID • side chain (R group) is specific in every amino acid. • ThisThe R group or side chain gives each amino acid protein specific characteristics, including size, polarity and pH. • When R=H the molecule is called glycine, when R=CH3, the molecule is called alanine. •
  • 5. ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS : Essential amino acids are also known as indispensable amino acids. These are the group of amino acids which humans and other vertebrates cannot synthesize by metabolic processes, because human body does not have the metabolic pathways which is required for synthesis of these essential amino acids. There are 9 essential amino acids: Phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Leucine, and Lysine. NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS : Nonessential amino acids are also known as dispensable amino acids. Humans body can synthesize these amino acids by using essential amino acids. There are 11 nonessential amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, Serine, and Tyrosine
  • 6. HISTIDINE (C6H9N302)  Histidine is both essential and non- essential amino acid and has a positively charged imidazole functional group.  Histidine is an α-amino acid which is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.  The presence of imidazole group in the histidine makes histidine to participate in the enzyme catalyzed reactions. The unprotonated imidazole group is nucleophilic and can serve as base, the protonated form serves as a acid.
  • 7. FUNCTIONS  Develops and maintain healthy tissues in all parts of the body  Used in the treatment of mental disorders and some types of sexual dysfunctions.  It the precursor for histamine, which is an amine produced in the body necessary for inflammation.  Histidine is also important in normal sexual functioning.
  • 8. BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY OF HISTIDINE ATP phosphoribosyltransferase Phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphatase Phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase Phosphoribosyl-5-amino-1- phosphoribosyl-4- imidazolecarboxiamide
  • 10. STEPS  Histidine is synthesized from phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate(PRPP). Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is synthesized from Ribose-5-phosphate by the enzyme ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase in the pentose phosphate pathway.  The first reaction involved in the biosynthesis of histidine is the condensation of PRPP and ATP with help of enzyme ATP-phosphoribosyl transferase.  The product of condensation, phosphoribosyl-ATP is hydrolyses to phosphoribosyl-AMP(PRAMP) by the His4 gene. This is an irreversible step.  The His4 then catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosylformimino AICAR-phosphate.  This phosphoribosylmimino AICAR-phosphate is the converted to Phophoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P by His6 gene product.  The His7 gene now splits the phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-A to D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol- phosphate.  Then His3 forms imidazole acetol phosphate from D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate by releasing H2O.  After the formation of imidazole acetol phosphate His5 makes L-histidinol-phosphate and is hydrolyzed to to histidinol by His 2.  The L-histidinol is oxidized to form L-histidinal, which is an amino aldehyde by His4.  In the final final step the L-histidinal is converted to L-histidine by His4.
  • 11.  ABI CHANDRA DULAL  ADITYA PRADHAN  EMMANUEAL MANGER  PRANESH SHARMA  REJITA MANGER  SIMRAN GURUNG GROUP