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Water Sustainability
Do our future generation really have
      sufficient fresh water?
Facts of Sydney and Water


•   Sydney’s population has   doubled since the 50’s and is still increasing due to
    civilisation and policy of centralisation. The population is now 4,284,379.
•   151000 litres/person annually OR annual total of 634,742 mega litres; this equals

    to   20.128 ton/sec.
•   Except for 1998, the last 13 years have seen below average inflows to Warragamba
    Dam, which supplies 80% of the water supply.
•   The population is estimated to reach 5.3 million by 2031 which means water

    consumption will increase by at least      20% by then.
•   Recycle water only accounts for 4% of Sydney water supply.
•   Sydney faces the risk of drought and that water crisis is possible in Sydney.
Sydney’s Water Sustainability | Biocity Studio
Sydney’s Water Sustainability | Biocity Studio
Sydney’s Water Sustainability | Biocity Studio
Waste Water and Sewage
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/
About Wastewater
•    Sydney Water collects + treats more than 1,2 billion litres of wastewater each
     day. 36 million litres or 3% is recycled daily.
•    Around 75% of the wastewater is processed at Malabar, North Head and Bondi.
     The effect of discharges on water quality and aquatic life is monitored weekly by
     the Department of Environment and Climate Change to ensure performance
     standards are met.
•    Use of recycled water has increased from 6.2 billion litres a year in 1995 to
     approximately 25 billion litres a year. This will grow to                           70 billion
                                                                                  litres a
     year by 2015.
•    Sydney Water operates 65 Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices (SQIDs),
     including trash racks, litter booms and sediment traps.
•    Trade Waste Policy is in place to control the quantity and quality of trade waste
     discharged.
•    Sydney Water owns 31 sewage treatment plants.
    http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/images/WastewaterSystem.jpg;
    http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/
    http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/WastewaterTreatmentPlants/
Black water vs. Greywater
•    Black water contains water from                              Grey water is contaminated or used
     the toilet (or kitchen sink)                                  water that does not contain sewage
•    It is treated by chemical or                                  e.g. showers, sinks or washing
     biological agents and disinfected                             machines.
•    It is generally not suitable for                             Grey water is safe to use on gardens
     reuse                                                         if it is either treated or not stored for
                                                                   more than 24 hours.
                                                                  The amount of Grey water is much
                                                                   more than Black water and is less
                                                                   expensive to be treated




http://www.ecocommunity.com.au/default2.asp?active_page_id=123
Facts and Figures


                                                                       In Sydney approx. 70% of
                                                                       piped water  waste water
                                                                       which is minimally treated
                                                                       and discharged to the
                                                                       ocean.

                       About 9% of water
                       consumption is used for
                       drinking and personal
                       hygiene.                                                    CSIRO projections show that
                                                                                   Sydney’s average annual rainfall
                                                                                   may decrease by 3%by 2030.




http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/Environment/Water/CurrentStatus/WaterConservation/WaterDemand.asp
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/annualreport/pdf/Annual_Report_Summary_2008_Final.pdf
Sewerage system & development patterns
                              Polluted streams became the first sewerage channels. Later the
                                 sewerage network followed the patterns of development.




                         Fresh water
                         Open Sewers
                         Underground Sewers                                              Settlement
                         New water source                                                Increase in population
                         Dams, pumps and pipes                                           Drought




                                                              Residential and Industrial Pollution
                                                              More water needed



Henry F.J.J, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
What precipitated the development of waste water
                                   system?
        •      Ridding of waste + no backflow
        •      Hygiene and comfort
        •      Minimise spread of disease and pests




Henry F.J.J, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
What are the infrastructure that support the waste
                               water system?
       •     23,500km of sewer pipes
       •     663 sewage-pumping stations
       •     31 sewage treatment plants
       •     $33 million on cleaning,
             repairing and relining pipes.
             (2006-07)
                                                                                                   243 500
                                                                                                    Olympic pools




                                                                                                  487 billion litres of
                                                                                                  treated wastewater
                                                                                                  (2006-07)

http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm
Image: http://www.digitalapoptosis.com/archives/montreal/Olympic%20Pool.jpg
What effect has the system had on the city?

       +                                                                        -
       •     Improve quality of life – convenience                              •     Backflow of waste from ocean
       •     Control of various pest and diseases                                     outfalls
       •     Production of crops (sewerage farms                                •     Condensed areas of odour near
             in the past)                                                             treatment plants
       •     100% of captured biosolids re-used
             (for horticulture and other beneficial
             purposes)
       •     Save water
       •     Desalination plant to supply up to
                                                                                                       Wollongong - Treatment
             15% of Sydney’s drinking water by                                                         Plant + recycled water
             2009–10                                                                                   plant.
       •     Recycled water to replace 12% of                                                          Image:
                                                                                                       http://www.waterforlife.nsw.gov.au
             drinking water supply by 2015 (70                                                         /__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/1457/
                                                                                                       06mwp_chapter_5.pdf
             billion litres)

Henry F.J.J, 1939, The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/annualreport/pdf/Annual_Report_Summary_2008_Final.pdf
Limitations of the System

       •     Expensive to construct/upgrade
       •     Maintenance is difficult (leaking pipes)
       •     Difficult to implement upgrades/dual
             systems in existing developments
       •     Loss of resources (water and nutrients)
       •     System bypass due to overflow




http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/SewageOverflows/
Effects on Nature

       Areas that are dammed are flooded



       Destruction/modification of natural habitats

       Ramifications on biodiversity of area




                                                                                               Warragamba Dam
       Concrete channels increase flow velocity

       May cause siltation or erosion downstream



Image:
http://eduplanner.net/gnu/data/blog/file/kalkin/3544170614_eb43ea15_rhs_warragamba4302C0.jpg
Relationship between Resources


       -
       •     Fresh water  waste water  ocean
       •     Large consumer of energy  treatment,
             distribution and removal of waste.



       +
       •     Recycled water + particles 
             Irrigation/horticulture (nutrients)/
             industrial water supply




http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/Performance/Goal4.cfm
The Tank Stream (1788-1826)

Water was a top priority for the first settlement
of Australia and Sydney Cove was selected by
Governor Phillip due to a rivulet later known as
the Tank Stream. (The name came from the
three tanks excavated near its channel.)
The Tank Stream became the primary water
supply of the settlement for almost four decades
until it became severely affected by drought and
pollution in 1826.
Wells and rainfall became the alternatives as a
source of water in the following years.
In 1850 the swamp areas which fed the Tank
Stream were drained to permit further
development of the City. Consequently the Tank
Stream became little more than an open sewer.
By the 1860’s the Tank Stream was covered and
converted into part of the city’s main sewer.
(The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J
Henry, 1939)
Busby’s Bore (1830-1858)
In 1824 the Governor directed John Busby (a Mineral Surveyor) to search for water. In 1826 Busby reported in favour of drawing a
supply from the Lachlan Swamps.
Busby’s Bore is a 3.5 km tunnel with an average height of 1.5m and width of 1.2m. It extends from Lachlan Swamps to Hyde Park and
has 28 vertical shafts along the way. The project commenced in 1827 and began to supply Sydney with fresh water from seepage
springs by 1830 however the project was not complete until 1837.
Water became so abundant by 1833 that it became a source of revenue for the government by selling water to merchants at the
port.
The bore had a capacity of from 1,365,000L to 1,820,000L per day and provided an adequate supply of water to the population of
Sydney at the time (20,000).
In 1854 a small pumping station plant was constructed along with dams at several locations to increase flow and conserve water.
These supplementations allowed Busby’s Bore to remain the sole source of Sydney’s water supply until 1858 when the Botany
Swamps Water Supply Scheme commenced.
(The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J Henry, 1939)
The Botany Swamp (1858-1886)

In 1824 the Governor directed John Busby (a Mineral
Surveyor) to search for water. In 1826 Busby reported in favour
of drawing a supply from the Lachlan Swamps.
Busby’s Bore is a 3.5 km tunnel with an average height of 1.5m
and width of 1.2m. It extends from Lachlan Swamps to Hyde
Park and has 28 vertical shafts along the way. The project
commenced in 1827 and began to supply Sydney with fresh
water from seepage springs by 1830 however the project was
not complete until 1837.
Water became so abundant by 1833 that it became a source of
revenue for the government by selling water to merchants at
the port.
The bore had a capacity of from 1,365,000L to 1,820,000L per
day and provided an adequate supply of water to the
population of Sydney at the time (20,000).
In 1854 a small pumping station plant was constructed along
with dams at several locations to increase flow and conserve
water. These supplementations allowed Busby’s Bore to
remain the sole source of Sydney’s water supply until 1858
when the Botany Swamps Water Supply Scheme commenced.
(The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J Henry, 1939)
Upper Nepean Scheme (1867-1888)

Explosive population growth and recurring dry seasons result in the
need for the fourth source of water supply. The upper Nepean
River was chosen for the location of another 4 dam: Cataract Dam,
Avon Dam, Cordeaux Dam, Nepean Dam. The scheme diverted
water from a series of weirs on the Cataract, Cordeaux, Avon and
Nepean rivers to Prospect Reservoir via 64km of tunnels, canals
and upper Canals. The prospect reservoir by the time of 1888 has a
capacity available for supply of 8,877 million litres of water.
Woronora River Works (1867-1888)

The Upper Nepean Scheme brought
only temporary relief to Sydney’s
water supply problems. The limit of its
practicable capacity and additional
sources had to be considered. Then in
the early 20th century,
recommendations for the
construction of Woronora Dam and
Warragamba Dam was approved. The
construction of Woronora Dam
started in 1927 and finished in 1941 at
a cost of about $13,000,000. it has the
capacity of 71,790 million litres, which
is 8 times as big as the prospect
reservoir.

Due to rapid development in the
Sutherland-Cronulla area, and thereby
increased demand for water, new
pumping stations were constructed.
Bibliography
•   http://www.sydneywater.com.au/, viewed 14 January 2009
•   http://www.ecocommunity.com.au/, viewed 14 January 2009
•   http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/, viewed 14 January 2009
•   http://farm3.static.flickr.com/, viewed 14 January 2009
•   Henry, FJJ, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
•   Beasley, M, 1988, The sweat of their brows: 100 years of the sydney Water Board 1888-
    1988, The Board, Sydney
•   Aird, W 1961, The water supply, sewerage and drainage board of Sydney, Metropolitan Water
    Sewerage and Drainage Boar, Sydney
Case Study

•      Currently greater Sydney recycles about 25 billion litres of wastewater a year. By
       2015, we'll be recycling 70 billion litres of wastewater a year - that's up to 12% of
       Sydney's water needs.
•      Homes
       One of Australia's largest residential recycling schemes at Rouse Hill provides
       recycled water to about 17,500 homes. This will more than double to around
       36,000 homes.
•      Industry
       Sydney Water's largest industrial recycling project at Port Kembla provides about
       20 million litres of recycled water a day to BlueScope Steel, saving about 17% of
       the Illawarra's daily water use.
•      Environment
       A new recycled water plant at St Marys will produce up to 18 billion litres a year of
       highly treated recycled water to help maintain the flow of the Hawkesbury-Nepean
       River, through the Replacement Flows Project.
    http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SavingWater/RecyclingandReuse/
Sydney’s Water Sustainability | Biocity Studio

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Sydney’s Water Sustainability | Biocity Studio

  • 1. Water Sustainability Do our future generation really have sufficient fresh water?
  • 2. Facts of Sydney and Water • Sydney’s population has doubled since the 50’s and is still increasing due to civilisation and policy of centralisation. The population is now 4,284,379. • 151000 litres/person annually OR annual total of 634,742 mega litres; this equals to 20.128 ton/sec. • Except for 1998, the last 13 years have seen below average inflows to Warragamba Dam, which supplies 80% of the water supply. • The population is estimated to reach 5.3 million by 2031 which means water consumption will increase by at least 20% by then. • Recycle water only accounts for 4% of Sydney water supply. • Sydney faces the risk of drought and that water crisis is possible in Sydney.
  • 8. About Wastewater • Sydney Water collects + treats more than 1,2 billion litres of wastewater each day. 36 million litres or 3% is recycled daily. • Around 75% of the wastewater is processed at Malabar, North Head and Bondi. The effect of discharges on water quality and aquatic life is monitored weekly by the Department of Environment and Climate Change to ensure performance standards are met. • Use of recycled water has increased from 6.2 billion litres a year in 1995 to approximately 25 billion litres a year. This will grow to 70 billion litres a year by 2015. • Sydney Water operates 65 Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices (SQIDs), including trash racks, litter booms and sediment traps. • Trade Waste Policy is in place to control the quantity and quality of trade waste discharged. • Sydney Water owns 31 sewage treatment plants. http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/images/WastewaterSystem.jpg; http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/ http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/WastewaterTreatmentPlants/
  • 9. Black water vs. Greywater • Black water contains water from  Grey water is contaminated or used the toilet (or kitchen sink) water that does not contain sewage • It is treated by chemical or e.g. showers, sinks or washing biological agents and disinfected machines. • It is generally not suitable for  Grey water is safe to use on gardens reuse if it is either treated or not stored for more than 24 hours.  The amount of Grey water is much more than Black water and is less expensive to be treated http://www.ecocommunity.com.au/default2.asp?active_page_id=123
  • 10. Facts and Figures In Sydney approx. 70% of piped water  waste water which is minimally treated and discharged to the ocean. About 9% of water consumption is used for drinking and personal hygiene. CSIRO projections show that Sydney’s average annual rainfall may decrease by 3%by 2030. http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/Environment/Water/CurrentStatus/WaterConservation/WaterDemand.asp http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm http://www.sydneywater.com.au/annualreport/pdf/Annual_Report_Summary_2008_Final.pdf
  • 11. Sewerage system & development patterns Polluted streams became the first sewerage channels. Later the sewerage network followed the patterns of development. Fresh water Open Sewers Underground Sewers Settlement New water source Increase in population Dams, pumps and pipes Drought Residential and Industrial Pollution More water needed Henry F.J.J, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
  • 12. What precipitated the development of waste water system? • Ridding of waste + no backflow • Hygiene and comfort • Minimise spread of disease and pests Henry F.J.J, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney
  • 13. What are the infrastructure that support the waste water system? • 23,500km of sewer pipes • 663 sewage-pumping stations • 31 sewage treatment plants • $33 million on cleaning, repairing and relining pipes. (2006-07) 243 500 Olympic pools 487 billion litres of treated wastewater (2006-07) http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm Image: http://www.digitalapoptosis.com/archives/montreal/Olympic%20Pool.jpg
  • 14. What effect has the system had on the city? + - • Improve quality of life – convenience • Backflow of waste from ocean • Control of various pest and diseases outfalls • Production of crops (sewerage farms • Condensed areas of odour near in the past) treatment plants • 100% of captured biosolids re-used (for horticulture and other beneficial purposes) • Save water • Desalination plant to supply up to Wollongong - Treatment 15% of Sydney’s drinking water by Plant + recycled water 2009–10 plant. • Recycled water to replace 12% of Image: http://www.waterforlife.nsw.gov.au drinking water supply by 2015 (70 /__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/1457/ 06mwp_chapter_5.pdf billion litres) Henry F.J.J, 1939, The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/performance/Goal3.cfm http://www.sydneywater.com.au/annualreport/pdf/Annual_Report_Summary_2008_Final.pdf
  • 15. Limitations of the System • Expensive to construct/upgrade • Maintenance is difficult (leaking pipes) • Difficult to implement upgrades/dual systems in existing developments • Loss of resources (water and nutrients) • System bypass due to overflow http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsandOperations/SewageOverflows/
  • 16. Effects on Nature Areas that are dammed are flooded Destruction/modification of natural habitats Ramifications on biodiversity of area Warragamba Dam Concrete channels increase flow velocity May cause siltation or erosion downstream Image: http://eduplanner.net/gnu/data/blog/file/kalkin/3544170614_eb43ea15_rhs_warragamba4302C0.jpg
  • 17. Relationship between Resources - • Fresh water  waste water  ocean • Large consumer of energy  treatment, distribution and removal of waste. + • Recycled water + particles  Irrigation/horticulture (nutrients)/ industrial water supply http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/Reports/AnnualReport/2007/menu/Performance/Goal4.cfm
  • 18. The Tank Stream (1788-1826) Water was a top priority for the first settlement of Australia and Sydney Cove was selected by Governor Phillip due to a rivulet later known as the Tank Stream. (The name came from the three tanks excavated near its channel.) The Tank Stream became the primary water supply of the settlement for almost four decades until it became severely affected by drought and pollution in 1826. Wells and rainfall became the alternatives as a source of water in the following years. In 1850 the swamp areas which fed the Tank Stream were drained to permit further development of the City. Consequently the Tank Stream became little more than an open sewer. By the 1860’s the Tank Stream was covered and converted into part of the city’s main sewer. (The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J Henry, 1939)
  • 19. Busby’s Bore (1830-1858) In 1824 the Governor directed John Busby (a Mineral Surveyor) to search for water. In 1826 Busby reported in favour of drawing a supply from the Lachlan Swamps. Busby’s Bore is a 3.5 km tunnel with an average height of 1.5m and width of 1.2m. It extends from Lachlan Swamps to Hyde Park and has 28 vertical shafts along the way. The project commenced in 1827 and began to supply Sydney with fresh water from seepage springs by 1830 however the project was not complete until 1837. Water became so abundant by 1833 that it became a source of revenue for the government by selling water to merchants at the port. The bore had a capacity of from 1,365,000L to 1,820,000L per day and provided an adequate supply of water to the population of Sydney at the time (20,000). In 1854 a small pumping station plant was constructed along with dams at several locations to increase flow and conserve water. These supplementations allowed Busby’s Bore to remain the sole source of Sydney’s water supply until 1858 when the Botany Swamps Water Supply Scheme commenced. (The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J Henry, 1939)
  • 20. The Botany Swamp (1858-1886) In 1824 the Governor directed John Busby (a Mineral Surveyor) to search for water. In 1826 Busby reported in favour of drawing a supply from the Lachlan Swamps. Busby’s Bore is a 3.5 km tunnel with an average height of 1.5m and width of 1.2m. It extends from Lachlan Swamps to Hyde Park and has 28 vertical shafts along the way. The project commenced in 1827 and began to supply Sydney with fresh water from seepage springs by 1830 however the project was not complete until 1837. Water became so abundant by 1833 that it became a source of revenue for the government by selling water to merchants at the port. The bore had a capacity of from 1,365,000L to 1,820,000L per day and provided an adequate supply of water to the population of Sydney at the time (20,000). In 1854 a small pumping station plant was constructed along with dams at several locations to increase flow and conserve water. These supplementations allowed Busby’s Bore to remain the sole source of Sydney’s water supply until 1858 when the Botany Swamps Water Supply Scheme commenced. (The Water Supply and Sewerage of Sydney, F.J.J Henry, 1939)
  • 21. Upper Nepean Scheme (1867-1888) Explosive population growth and recurring dry seasons result in the need for the fourth source of water supply. The upper Nepean River was chosen for the location of another 4 dam: Cataract Dam, Avon Dam, Cordeaux Dam, Nepean Dam. The scheme diverted water from a series of weirs on the Cataract, Cordeaux, Avon and Nepean rivers to Prospect Reservoir via 64km of tunnels, canals and upper Canals. The prospect reservoir by the time of 1888 has a capacity available for supply of 8,877 million litres of water.
  • 22. Woronora River Works (1867-1888) The Upper Nepean Scheme brought only temporary relief to Sydney’s water supply problems. The limit of its practicable capacity and additional sources had to be considered. Then in the early 20th century, recommendations for the construction of Woronora Dam and Warragamba Dam was approved. The construction of Woronora Dam started in 1927 and finished in 1941 at a cost of about $13,000,000. it has the capacity of 71,790 million litres, which is 8 times as big as the prospect reservoir. Due to rapid development in the Sutherland-Cronulla area, and thereby increased demand for water, new pumping stations were constructed.
  • 23. Bibliography • http://www.sydneywater.com.au/, viewed 14 January 2009 • http://www.ecocommunity.com.au/, viewed 14 January 2009 • http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/, viewed 14 January 2009 • http://farm3.static.flickr.com/, viewed 14 January 2009 • Henry, FJJ, 1939, The water supply and sewerage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney • Beasley, M, 1988, The sweat of their brows: 100 years of the sydney Water Board 1888- 1988, The Board, Sydney • Aird, W 1961, The water supply, sewerage and drainage board of Sydney, Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Boar, Sydney
  • 24. Case Study • Currently greater Sydney recycles about 25 billion litres of wastewater a year. By 2015, we'll be recycling 70 billion litres of wastewater a year - that's up to 12% of Sydney's water needs. • Homes One of Australia's largest residential recycling schemes at Rouse Hill provides recycled water to about 17,500 homes. This will more than double to around 36,000 homes. • Industry Sydney Water's largest industrial recycling project at Port Kembla provides about 20 million litres of recycled water a day to BlueScope Steel, saving about 17% of the Illawarra's daily water use. • Environment A new recycled water plant at St Marys will produce up to 18 billion litres a year of highly treated recycled water to help maintain the flow of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, through the Replacement Flows Project. http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SavingWater/RecyclingandReuse/