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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 01
Bhagavad Gita Chapter 01
oà ajïäna-timirändhasya jïänäïjana-çaläkayä
cakñur unmélitaà yena tasmai çré-gurave namaù
çré-caitanya-mano-'bhéñöaà sthäpitaà yena bhü-tale
svayaà rüpaù kadä mahyaà dadäti sva-padäntikam
vande 'haà çré-guroù çré-yuta-pada-kamalaà
çré-gurün vaiñëaväàç ca çré-rüpaà sägrajätaà
saha-gaëa-raghunäthänvitaà taà sa-jévam
sädvaitaà sävadhütaà parijana-sahitaà
kåñëa-caitanya-devaà çré-rädhä-kåñëa-pädän
saha-gaëa-lalitä-çré-viçäkhänvitäàç ca
he kåñëa karuëä-sindho déna-bandho jagat-pate
gopeça gopikä-känta rädhä-känta namo 'stu te
tapta-käïcana-gauräìgi rädhe våndävaneçvari
våñabhänu-sute devi praëamämi hari-priye
väïchä-kalpatarubhyaç ca kåpä-sindhubhya eva ca
patitänäà pävanebhyo vaiñëavebhyo namo namaù
çré-kåñëa-caitanya prabhu-nityänanda
çré-advaita gadädhara çréväsädi-gaura-bhakta-vånda
hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare
hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare
 Gita is basic Practical
Preaching book
 One must study BG inside
out & that will help govern
our external activities
 One must understand the
flow of Philosophy & not in
isolation (cohesive unit, fits
together)
• History of Mahabharata
(next slide)
• Arjuna’s denial of War
• Lord speaks Gita out of
Compassion for Living
Entities
• Sankaracarya describes
Gita as River of Nectar
Kuru Family… Kuru
ShantanuGanga Satyavati Parashara
VyasadevBhisma
VichitraviryaChitrangada Ambika Ambalika
Dhirastra Vidura
Dasi
Gandhari Kunti Pandu MadriSakuni
Duryodhana
Dusala
Dushasana
98 Sons
Karna Yudhistir Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva
Draupadi Subhadra Abhimanyu Uttara
Parikshit
Janamejaya
brother
Son
Lord
Krsna
Lord
Balarama
Sister of
Divisions of Bhagavad Gita
Chapter 1 to 6 Chapter 7 to 12 Chapter 13 to 18
(Karma Yoga) (Bhakti Yoga) (Jnana Yoga)
Acharya’s give the following Reason why Bhakti Yoga is in the middle of
Srimad Bhagavad Gita
1. Bhakti is Rahasya (Very Secret), Bhakti is essence of all scriptures BG 15.15
2. Karma and Jnana Yoga are dead without Bhakti hence surrounded by both.
Bhakti gives life to Karma and Jnana Yoga
3. Generally we do not disclose anything with is secret until we become intimate.
Hence out of respect, Bhakti is place in the middle.
4. Most important is kept in the middle eg. King travelling with his army is always
in the middle, protected.
Srila Prabhupada Commentary based on…
Prominently
from
Srila
Baldeva
Vidyabhushana
Srila
Visvanath
Chakravarti
Thakura
Srila
Sridhara
Swami
Sripad
Ramanujacarya
Division of 700 Verses in Bhagavad Gita
Sanjaya - 41
Arjuna - 84
Dhritarashtra - 1
Lord Krishna - 574
82% 12%
0.1%5.9%
Chapter 1- Sections
Section Verse Description
A 1.1 to 1.27 Introduction: Preparations for
War
B 1.28 to 1.46 Arjuna's Doubts
Summary - Section - A
Introduction: Preparations for War
1-13 Sanjaya informs King Dhrtarastra of Duryodhana's
appraisal of the relative fighting strengths of the Pandava
and Kuru Armies. Bhisma and the Kuru Army then
loudly blow their conchshells giving Duryodhana joy.
14-19 On the other side, the blowing of Krsna and Arjuna's
transcendental conchshells, as well as the blowing of the
conchshells of the other members of the Pandava Army,
shatters the heart of Duryodhana.
20-27 Arjuna requests Krsna to draw his chariot between the
two armies to observe the Kurus. Arjuna sees many
relatives and well-wishers on both sides.
Verse 1.1 to 1.27
Dhrtarastra’s Question to Sanjaya :
What did they do?
dharma-ksetre
Where religious Rituals are performed
Kuruksetra
Lord Krsna SPG was present
Vedas : Place of worship
Even for Heavenly People
Dhrtarastra fearful about influence of
Holy Place on outcome of battle
• Dhrtarastra’s Fear/Concerns :
Pandavas are righteous,
become stronger (favor)
Bhisma, Drona are saintly
Natural Tendency not to fight, Battle may not
take place, cannot satisfy selfish desire to
rule over the Kingdom.
• Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from Kurus (same family) (mamaka)
Ignorance on bodily concept of life.
Analogy – Remove Weeds
Removing weeds from paddy field, similarly
irreligious people will be wiped out in the battle.
BG 4.8
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse ~ 1
Dhrtarastra’s Question to Sanjaya : What did they do?
Key Points
How to Understand Srimad Bhagavad Gita
Dhrtarastra’s Fear/Concerns : Regarding
dharma-ksetre
Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from
Kurus
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse ~ 1
Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya
• Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya after accessing Military formation of the
Pandavas.
• Duryodhana addressed as King (to encourage despondent King Dhrtarastra)
• Though Duryodhana is King still he has to approach Commander in Chief for advice
(fear).
• Duryodhana is a expert politician/diplomat.
• Opposing General (Dhrstadyumna) is called by referred to as Son of Drupada (His
Enemy)
• Dhrstadyumna was trained by Dronacharya (See the result of his training) (pointed his
mistake.)
• Dhrstadyumna is always disciple of Dronacharya, so being Guru is always an expert.
• By calling Dhrstadyumna as Son of Drupada (His Enemy), provoking Drona.
• Similarly, Pandavas are also trained by Dronacharya, he should not be lenient in
fighting.
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse ~ 2
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse ~ 3
Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya
Key Points
Duryodhana : expert politician/diplomat
Duryodhana referring Dhrstadyumna as
Son of Drupada
Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from
Kurus
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 2 ~ 3
Akshohini (Ref : Mahabharata-Adi Parva 2.15-23)
Terms Pandavas Kauravas
One Akshohini 21,870 Chariots ~ 21,870 Elephants ~ 65,610 Horses ~ 109,350 Foot soldiers
Army Size 7 Akshohini 11 Akshohini
Commander in Chief Dhristadyumna Bhisma, Drona, Karna, Salya, Duryodhana
Maharathis (60000 warriors) Arjuna Bhisma, Drona, Karna, Ashwathama
Atirathis (10000 warriors) Yudhisthira, Bhima,
Dhristadyumna, Ghatotkacha,
Satyaki,Yuyutsu
Shalya, Somadatta, Bhurishrava, Bhagadatta,
Jayadratha, Kritavarma
Types of the
Division
Chariot Elephant
Horses with
Soldiers
Infantry Soldiers
Head of Division
(commander)
Pathi 1 1 3 5 Pathipal
Senamugam 3 3 9 15 Senamukhi
Kulmam 9 9 27 45 Nayak
Ganam 27 27 81 135 Gananayak
Vahini 81 81 243 405 Vahinipati
Birudanai 243 243 729 1215
Birudanadhipati
(Pootanadhipati)
Samu/Sena 729 729 2187 3645 Senapati
Anihini 2187 2187 6561 10935 Anikadhipati
Akshauni 21870 21870 65610 109350 Maha Senapati
Duryodhana Describing Warrior of Opposing Army
• Duryodhana is in dilemma whom (Bhisma, Drona) to represent first.
• Bhavan (Dronacharya) is named before Bhisma, Drona being brahmana is OK with Bhisma
Bhima, Arjuna Kasiraja Yudhamanyu
Yuyudhana, Virata,
Drupada
Purujit Uttamanja
Dhrstaketu Kuntibhoja Sons of Subhadra
Cekitana Saibya Sons of Draupadi
Maha-rathah
Duryodhana Describing His Army
All of them
are fighting
For Rights
Not for
Material
Gains.
Very Strong
Dronacharya Asvatthama Krtavarma
Bhisma Vikarna Salya
Karna Saunadattih Others
Krpacharya Jayadratha
Fighting for
Material Cause
Hence weak.
Most of them
are also favoring
Pandavas.
Ready to Lay
Their lives.
Fate of their
Lives are alredy
Decided.
7
8
4
5
6
9
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 4 ~ 6
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 7 ~ 9
Duryodhana Describing Strength of his Army
• Duryodhana is diplomat (he thinks others in Army feel bad), hence requests them to
support/protect Bhisma.
Duryodhana requesting his Army to support Bhisma
• aparyaptam : immeasurable or insufficient, protected by Bhisma
• Pandavas are protected by Bhima (insignificant as to Bhisma)
• Duryodhana is envious of Bhima (only he is capable of defeating him)
• Bhisma is old and needs support and protection.
• Duryodhana confident of the support from Bhisma & Dronacharya as they supported
him during gambling match.
• Bhisma out of Compassion & to cheer Duryodhana blew the conchshell very loudly.
• Duryodhana defeat is certain, since Lord Krsna is on the other side.
• Bhisma fighting as a matter of duty.
• Tumultuous sound of conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns.
11
12
14
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 10
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 11-12
Krsna and Arjuna blowing Transcendental Conchshell
Krsna, Arjuna & Bhima blowing Transcendental Conchshell
• Krsna and Arjuna conchshell is described as Transcendental
• Madhava : Krsna is husband of Goddess of Fortune
• Chariot given by Agni, capable of conquering all 3 worlds
Victory is
certain
Krsna
Living
Entity
Parts & Parcel
including senses
Situated in Heart
directs senses
based on Living
Entity’s desire
Hrisikesa
Krsna Panchajanya
Arjuna Devadatta
Bhima Paundra
Yudhisthira Ananta-vijaya
Nakula Sughosa
Sahadeva Manipuspaka
15
16-18
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 14
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 15-18
Different names of Krsna, Arjuna & Bhima
Names Meaning
Krsna All attractive
Hrisikesa Master of the Senses (owner of senses)
Madhava Husband of the Goddess of Fortune
Acyuta Infallible One
Madhusudana Killer of demon named Madhu
Govinda one who gives pleasure to the senses or cows.
Vasudeva Son of Vasudeva
Devaki-nandana Son of Devaki
Yasoda-nandana Son of Yasoda
Partha-sarathi Charioteer of Partha (Arjuna)
Kesava Killer of demon Kesi
Janardana Maintainer of all Living entities OR Killer of all living entities
Dhananjaya (Arjuna) conqueror of wealth
Partha Son of Pritha (Kunti devi)
Gudakesa One who conquers sleep
Vrkodara (Bhima) Voracious eater and perform herculean tasks.
Blowing became uproarious, shattered hearts of sons of Dhrtarastra
Arjuna prepared to fight, asks Lord Krsna to draw chariot
between two armies
• Duryodhana team blew Conchshell didn’t shatter Pandavas Hearts (due to
confidence in Lord Krsna), Taking shelter of Lord nothing to fear
• Kauravas hearts shattered due to fear, signs of defeat.
• Arjuna’s flag on the Chariot has emblem of Hanuman (devotee of Lord Rama), signs
of victory (b/c Hanuman co-operated Lord Rama and they both won the battle)
• Also, Lord Krsna is personally present as Hrisikesa to direct his senses.
• Arjuna’s victory is assured.
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 19
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 20
Signs of Victory for the Pandavas
1 Krishna’s personal presence confirms victory
• Supreme Personality of Godhead is the charioteer (1.14) –
“jayas tu pandu-putranam yesam…”
• Krishna as Hrsikesha directly controls the senses of a pure devotee
2 Goddess of fortune
• Whenever and wherever the Lord is present, the goddess of fortune is also there
• She never lives without her husband; therefore all fortune is guaranteed (1.14)
3 Venue -> Kurukshetra is a holy place (1.1), effect of holy place on the war.
4 Hanumanji on Arjuna’s flag
• Hanumanji also helped Lord Rama in gaining victory (1.20)
5 Symbol of Vishnu
• Conchshell is a symbol of Vishnu (1.12 & 1.14)
• This is indirectly indicated by Bhisma and Pandavas conchshells
6 Transcendental conchshells
• Krishna and Arjuna’s conchshell mentioned as divya (transcendental) (1.14)
7 Bhisma’s conchshell to pacify Duryodhana (1.12)
8 Agnideva’s Chariot given to Arjuna – capable of conquering all directions (1.14)
9 Shattering of hearts
• Conchshells of Pandavas shattered Kauravas hearts (1.19)
• Pandavas hearts not shattered – b/c of confidence of taking Shelter of Krishna
Courtesy :
Gauranga Priya Das
• Arjuna calls Lords as Acyuta (infallible one) : never fails in His affection for His devotees21
• Lord Krsna out of love and causeless mercy accepted position of charioteer.
• Lord Krsna takes pleasure in serving his unalloyed pure devotees.
• In any position his supremacy is never challenged.
• Arjuna being pure devotee, has no desire to fight, wanted to see how much they (his
relatives and friends) were bent upon demanding an unwanted war. He wanted to
see the supporters who wanted to please evil-minded Duryodhana, estimate their
strength, not for peace proposal.
22
23
Text 23 - Analogy – Birds of same Flocks fly together
- KAURAVAS
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 21-23
Lord Krsna draws chariot in the midst of two armies
• Gudakesa : Arjuna - one who conquers sleep or ignorance (b/c being Krsna’s friend)
• Arjuna always thinking of Krsna, similarly devotees, Samadhi
• Arjuna could see :
• All kinds of relatives, friends & well wishers.
24
27
• Lord Krsna, Hrisikesa : can understand heart of Arjuna.
• Partha : Son of Prtha (kunti), Arjuna being friend and son of Kunti agreed to be
his charioteer.
25
• Lord Krsna jokingly said “just behold(see with attention)”,
he didn’t expect him not to fight being son of Prtha.
26
• Grandfathers like Bhisma and Somadatta
• Teachers like Dronacharya and Krpacharya
• Maternal uncles like Salya and Sakuni
• Brothers like Duryodhana
• Sons like Laksmana, friends like Asvatthama,
well-wishers like Krtavarma and many other friends
and relatives.
• Arjuna seeing them all is overwhelmed
with compassion, thus spoke
Myself
Grand
Fathers
Father &
Mother
Teacher
Maternal
Uncle
Brothers &
Sisters
Sons,
Friends
Well
Wishers
Other
Friends
Kripa
Compassion
For Specific People
Daya
Mercy
In General
Terms
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 24-27
Summary - Section - B
Arjuna's Doubts
28-46 Arjuna's mind reels thinking how this battle
will finish his family and its traditions. He
sees great sinful reactions awaiting him if he
kills his family members. Feeling it better to
be killed unarmed than to fight, Arjuna, his
mind overwhelmed with grief, casts aside his
bow and sits down upon his chariot.
Verse 1.28 to 1.46
Arjuna’s reaction after seeing his relatives.
•Arjuna symptoms - limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up.
• Further symptoms : body trembling, hair standing on end, bow slipping, skin burning
28
• Reason : Sympathy & Compassion (overwhelmed by kindness), foreseeing their
imminent death, symptoms not due to weakness but to his softheartedness, a
characteristic of a pure devotee of the Lord
• Arjuna astonished to see their fighting spirit.
29
• Genuine devotees of Lord has all Godly qualities, non devotees lacks such qualities.
body trembling,
hair standing on end
great spiritual ecstasy
great fear, material condition
which do not
cause any Fear
Arjuna’s
Symptom
Bow slipping
Heart burning (skin burning)
Material
conception
of life
could
happen
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 28-29
Arjuna see only causes of misfortune.
30
Forgetting
himself
Fearfulness and
Loss of Mental
Equilibrium
• Further symptoms : unable to stand any longer, forgetting himself, mind is reeling
Arjuna’s
Symptom
Weakness of Mind
Excessive
Material
attachments
Nimittani Viparitani : Frustrations, Thinking why am I here?
Sees only misfortune,
he will not be happy
even after winning
Bewildering conditions
Every
Living
Entity
Interested in
himself &
own welfare
Krsna or
Visnu
Real Interest of Jiva
Suffers
By
Krsna’s
will
Krsna Kesava (Killer
of demon Kesi)
Expected to remove
Arjuna’s demons like
doubts
generally
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 30
Arjuna’s Symptoms of Compassion
Parts of the body Symptoms
1 Limbs Quivering
2 Mouth Drying Up
3 Whole body Trembling
4 Hair of the body Standing on the End
5 Hands Gandiva bow slipping
6 Skin Burning
7 Legs Unable to stand any
longer due to
impatience
8 “Forgetting myself and mind reeling” –
Due to weakness of the heart
9 Sees only causes of misfortune Courtesy :
Gauranga Priya Das
Arjuna cannot enjoy kingdom at the cost of killing relatives.
31
Ksatriya dying
in battle field
under Krsna’s
orders Arjuna
Ksatriya
Attracted to bodily
relationships, hoping
to be happy
Eligible to
Enter
Sun
Planet
Renounced order
life devoted to
Krsna
Forgot the
Moral codes
Living
Entity
Killing
Relatives
No Happiness
in Life
Not willing to
fight (eg. Someone
not hungry, not ready
to cook)
Decided to lead
a secluded life
in Forest
similarly
AnalogyI am not
hungry, I am
NOT Going
to Cook
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 31
Arjuna not ready to fight even in exchange of 3 worlds
32
Trying to
satisfy his own
senses
Lord will satisfy
to the extent
they deserve
not desire
• Govinda : Krsna is the object of all pleasures for cows and the senses. Arjuna indicates,
Krsna should understand what will satisfy his senses.
• But Govinda is not meant to satisfy our senses. If we try to satisfy Govinda’s senses our
senses will automatically get satisfied.
Living
Entity Krsna
Order
supplier
Krsna’s
senses
By Lords will
all his desires
are satisfied
Arjuna’s
Material
Calculation
Unable to
share opulence
with relatives
Decides not to
fight even in
exchange of 3
worlds
Spiritual Understanding
Devotee ready to
accept any
opulence, Krsna
wants
Krsna
Do not complain
otherwise if
Krsna not desire
Arjuna, being devotee, very
kind hearted, wants to forgive
his relatives. Lord tolerates
mischief on himself, not for
his devotees. Lord is
determined to punish them.
• Madhusudana : Krsna is killer of demon Madhu, Arjuna is expecting that Krsna would
kill is doubts like demons. Also, Krsna killed demon Madhu, but Krsna is expecting
Arjuna to kill his relatives not demons.
Observing the Armies
on the Battlefield Verse 32-35
Arjuna fearful of sinful reaction.
36
6 kinds of
aggressors
No Sinful
Reaction
Can be
Killed as
punishment
• Kaurava’s did all 6 kinds of aggression on the Pandava’s hence killing them
would not give any sinful reaction.
• Madhava : Husband of goddess of fortune.
• Arjuna calling Krsna as Madhava indicating that Krsna should not engage Arjuna
that would ultimately bring about misfortune. Krsna, however, never brings
misfortune to anyone, to say nothing of His devotees.
1 Poison giver
2 One who sets fire to the house
3 One who attacks with deadly weapons
4 One who plunders riches
5 One who occupies another's land
6 One who kidnaps another's wife
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 36
Arjuna sees Destruction of Family
37
• Arjuna sees due to Greed, the opposite party is ready Fight and Kill each other.
• Arjuna understands result of war (destruction of family), he sees not benefits in
participating in this sinful activity.
• Ksatriya should not refuse invitation of gambling and war.
• Arjuna sees the other party is blind of effect of this challenge, he knowing he evil
consequence, not ready to fight.
38
Destruction
of Dynasty
Family
tradition
vanquished
Family
involved in
irreligion
39
In Varnasrama System :
Elder
members of
the family.
Responsible for
purifying processes
in family from
birth to death
Death of
elder will
stop
purification
process.
Young
members will
become
irreligious
Lose chance
for Spiritual
Salvation.
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 37-39
Garbhadhanam
Before
Conception
Pumsavanam
3rd Month of
Pregnancy
Seemantam
For Protection of
Mother before Child
birth
Jatakarmam
For Intellectual
development of
Child
Anthyeshti
Antim Sanskara
Last Rites
Vivaham
Marriage
Samavartanam
End of Student
Life
Kesantham (Boy)
First Shave
Ritusuddhi (Girl)
First Menstrual Cycle
Praishartham
Before and after
each year of study
Upanayanam
Wearing Sacred
Thread
Vidyarambham
Child is taught to
write first time
Karnavedham
Piercing Ear
Namakaranam
Name giving
ceremony
Nishkramanam
Taking child first
time out of house
Annaprasanam
First time feeding
Solid food
Choodakaranam
First time cutting
Hair
16-Samskaras
Manu Smriti
Samskaras – Purificatory Process
Total 40 Samskaras
16-Major
Arjuna sees Destruction of Family & Society40
Women like
Children
needs
protection
Women
becomes
polluted
Varnasrama System for Peace, Prosperity and Spiritual progress in life
Elder
members of
the family.
Responsible for
purifying processes
in family from
birth to death
Death of
elder will
stop
purification
process.
Young
members will
become
irreligious
Lose chance
for Spiritual
Salvation.
When
irreligion
prominent in
family
Gives rise to
unwanted progeny
Varna-sankarah
Risk of War
& Pestilence
Good
Population
depends on
faithfulness and
Chastity of
Women
Failure of Varnasrama System :
Hellish condition
Family
Who
destroyed
Family
tradition
Ancestors
are not
delivered,
fall down
41
SB 11.5.41
Not applicable to
someone who has
taken shelter of Krsna
Irresponsible
Leader bring
chaos in society
by destroying
Sanatana Dharma
42
Arjuna heard
from Dharma
Shastra
Those who destroy Family
tradition dwell in Hell43
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 40-43
1
5
4
2
3
6
The superiors are killed (1.39)
(destruction of the dynasty)
Destruction of eternal family tradition (1.39)
(Vedic rituals will stop)
Irreligion predominates in the family (1.39)
Women become polluted (1.40)
(unchaste)
Unwanted progeny (1.40)
(varna-sankara)
All kinds of community projects & (1.42)
family welfare activities are devastated
(results in chaos in society)Courtesy :
Tyaga Caitanya Das
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 39-42
Arjuna Fearful of sinful reaction
44 Killing
Relatives
Arjuna’s
Fear of Sinful
reaction
Driven by desire to Enjoy
Royal Happiness
Arjuna’s
Soft heartedness
Being a devotee
Better to die in
the Battle field
Unarmed
45
Arjuna
(overwhelmed with grief)
cast aside his bow and
arrows and sat down in
the Chariot
46
Observing the Armies on the Battlefield
Verse 44-46
Saintly Qualities of Arjuna
1 Softheartedness (1.28)
2 Does not want to kill even for exchange of three worlds (1.35)
3 Ready to forgive any aggressors (1.36), though there is no
reaction in killing them.
4 Considers evil consequences even at the risk of refusing
obligation to fight (1.37 – 1.38)
5 Conscious of obligations to protect family traditions and
morals (1.39 – 1.44)
• He does not think that: “I am transcendental and I have
no obligations”
• Arjuna being saintly is conscious of moral principles –
How he can kill one’s relatives based on selfish motives
(1.44)
6 Ready to be killed unarmed, but not retaliate (1.45)
7 Custom according to Ksatriya fighting principles – unarmed
and unwilling foe should not be attacked
• These symptoms are due to soft heartedness resulting
from being a great devotee
8 Kept his bow down (even broke his vow of not keeping the
bow once lifted) (1.46)
Conclusion: Such a kind and softhearted person is fit to receive
Self-Knowledge (Transcendental Knowledge) (1.46 purport) Courtesy :
Gauranga Priya Das
Summary – Arjuna’s Reasons
Arjuna's Reasons for not wishing to Fight
1.27 to
1.28
Compassion: Arjuna's compassion for those he's about to slay dictates
he shouldn't fight. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.11-30)
1.31 to
1.35,
2.7-2.8
Enjoyment: Arjuna thinks he will not be able to enjoy his kingdom if
the kingdom is won at the cost of the lives of his family members.
(Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.31-32)
1.37 to
1.43
Destruction of Family: Irreligion and unwanted progeny will overcome
the family, performance of traditional, varnasrama-oriented Vedic
rituals will end, and hell will await both the family and the destroyer of
the family. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.45-46, 3.24)
1.44 to
1.45
2.5
Saintliness and fear of sinful reactions: Arjuna thinks enjoying royal
happiness is not worth the resulting sinful reactions for destroying the
family and killing his superiors. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.33-37)
2.6 Indecision: Arjuna does not actually know which is better, conquering
the enemy or being conquered by them.
As the opposing armies stood poised for battle, Arjuna, the mighty warrior,
saw his intimate relatives, teachers and friends in both armies ready to fight and
sacrifice their lives. Overcome by grief and pity, Arjuna failed in strength, his
mind became bewildered, and he gave up his determination to fight.
Arjuna offered the following reasons for not fighting the battle:
1) Compassion: Arjuna's compassion for those he's about to slay dictates he
shouldn't fight.
2) Enjoyment: Arjuna thinks he will not be able to enjoy his kingdom if the
kingdom is won at the cost of the lives of his family members.
3) Destruction of family: Irreligion and unwanted progeny will overcome
the family, performance of traditional, varnasrama-oriented Vedic rituals will
end, and hell will await both the family and the destroyer of the family.
4) Saintliness and fear of sinful reactions: Arjuna thinks enjoying royal
happiness is not worth the resulting sinful reactions for destroying the family
and killing his superiors.
In the beginning of Chapter 2, gave the following reason.
5) Indecision: Arjuna does not actually know which is better, conquering
the enemy or being conquered by them.
Summary – Chapter 1
Compiled by Amritananda das email : amritanandadas@yahoo.com
End of
Bhagavad Gita -1

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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 01

  • 3. oà ajïäna-timirändhasya jïänäïjana-çaläkayä cakñur unmélitaà yena tasmai çré-gurave namaù çré-caitanya-mano-'bhéñöaà sthäpitaà yena bhü-tale svayaà rüpaù kadä mahyaà dadäti sva-padäntikam vande 'haà çré-guroù çré-yuta-pada-kamalaà çré-gurün vaiñëaväàç ca çré-rüpaà sägrajätaà saha-gaëa-raghunäthänvitaà taà sa-jévam sädvaitaà sävadhütaà parijana-sahitaà kåñëa-caitanya-devaà çré-rädhä-kåñëa-pädän saha-gaëa-lalitä-çré-viçäkhänvitäàç ca he kåñëa karuëä-sindho déna-bandho jagat-pate gopeça gopikä-känta rädhä-känta namo 'stu te tapta-käïcana-gauräìgi rädhe våndävaneçvari våñabhänu-sute devi praëamämi hari-priye väïchä-kalpatarubhyaç ca kåpä-sindhubhya eva ca patitänäà pävanebhyo vaiñëavebhyo namo namaù çré-kåñëa-caitanya prabhu-nityänanda çré-advaita gadädhara çréväsädi-gaura-bhakta-vånda hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare
  • 4.  Gita is basic Practical Preaching book  One must study BG inside out & that will help govern our external activities  One must understand the flow of Philosophy & not in isolation (cohesive unit, fits together)
  • 5. • History of Mahabharata (next slide) • Arjuna’s denial of War • Lord speaks Gita out of Compassion for Living Entities • Sankaracarya describes Gita as River of Nectar
  • 6. Kuru Family… Kuru ShantanuGanga Satyavati Parashara VyasadevBhisma VichitraviryaChitrangada Ambika Ambalika Dhirastra Vidura Dasi Gandhari Kunti Pandu MadriSakuni Duryodhana Dusala Dushasana 98 Sons Karna Yudhistir Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva Draupadi Subhadra Abhimanyu Uttara Parikshit Janamejaya brother Son Lord Krsna Lord Balarama Sister of
  • 7. Divisions of Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 to 6 Chapter 7 to 12 Chapter 13 to 18 (Karma Yoga) (Bhakti Yoga) (Jnana Yoga) Acharya’s give the following Reason why Bhakti Yoga is in the middle of Srimad Bhagavad Gita 1. Bhakti is Rahasya (Very Secret), Bhakti is essence of all scriptures BG 15.15 2. Karma and Jnana Yoga are dead without Bhakti hence surrounded by both. Bhakti gives life to Karma and Jnana Yoga 3. Generally we do not disclose anything with is secret until we become intimate. Hence out of respect, Bhakti is place in the middle. 4. Most important is kept in the middle eg. King travelling with his army is always in the middle, protected.
  • 8. Srila Prabhupada Commentary based on… Prominently from Srila Baldeva Vidyabhushana Srila Visvanath Chakravarti Thakura Srila Sridhara Swami Sripad Ramanujacarya
  • 9. Division of 700 Verses in Bhagavad Gita Sanjaya - 41 Arjuna - 84 Dhritarashtra - 1 Lord Krishna - 574 82% 12% 0.1%5.9%
  • 10. Chapter 1- Sections Section Verse Description A 1.1 to 1.27 Introduction: Preparations for War B 1.28 to 1.46 Arjuna's Doubts
  • 11. Summary - Section - A Introduction: Preparations for War 1-13 Sanjaya informs King Dhrtarastra of Duryodhana's appraisal of the relative fighting strengths of the Pandava and Kuru Armies. Bhisma and the Kuru Army then loudly blow their conchshells giving Duryodhana joy. 14-19 On the other side, the blowing of Krsna and Arjuna's transcendental conchshells, as well as the blowing of the conchshells of the other members of the Pandava Army, shatters the heart of Duryodhana. 20-27 Arjuna requests Krsna to draw his chariot between the two armies to observe the Kurus. Arjuna sees many relatives and well-wishers on both sides. Verse 1.1 to 1.27
  • 12. Dhrtarastra’s Question to Sanjaya : What did they do? dharma-ksetre Where religious Rituals are performed Kuruksetra Lord Krsna SPG was present Vedas : Place of worship Even for Heavenly People Dhrtarastra fearful about influence of Holy Place on outcome of battle • Dhrtarastra’s Fear/Concerns : Pandavas are righteous, become stronger (favor) Bhisma, Drona are saintly Natural Tendency not to fight, Battle may not take place, cannot satisfy selfish desire to rule over the Kingdom. • Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from Kurus (same family) (mamaka) Ignorance on bodily concept of life. Analogy – Remove Weeds Removing weeds from paddy field, similarly irreligious people will be wiped out in the battle. BG 4.8 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse ~ 1
  • 13. Dhrtarastra’s Question to Sanjaya : What did they do? Key Points How to Understand Srimad Bhagavad Gita Dhrtarastra’s Fear/Concerns : Regarding dharma-ksetre Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from Kurus Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse ~ 1
  • 14. Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya • Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya after accessing Military formation of the Pandavas. • Duryodhana addressed as King (to encourage despondent King Dhrtarastra) • Though Duryodhana is King still he has to approach Commander in Chief for advice (fear). • Duryodhana is a expert politician/diplomat. • Opposing General (Dhrstadyumna) is called by referred to as Son of Drupada (His Enemy) • Dhrstadyumna was trained by Dronacharya (See the result of his training) (pointed his mistake.) • Dhrstadyumna is always disciple of Dronacharya, so being Guru is always an expert. • By calling Dhrstadyumna as Son of Drupada (His Enemy), provoking Drona. • Similarly, Pandavas are also trained by Dronacharya, he should not be lenient in fighting. Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse ~ 2 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse ~ 3
  • 15. Duryodhana Approaches Dronacharya Key Points Duryodhana : expert politician/diplomat Duryodhana referring Dhrstadyumna as Son of Drupada Dhrtarastra distinguishes Pandavas from Kurus Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 2 ~ 3
  • 16. Akshohini (Ref : Mahabharata-Adi Parva 2.15-23) Terms Pandavas Kauravas One Akshohini 21,870 Chariots ~ 21,870 Elephants ~ 65,610 Horses ~ 109,350 Foot soldiers Army Size 7 Akshohini 11 Akshohini Commander in Chief Dhristadyumna Bhisma, Drona, Karna, Salya, Duryodhana Maharathis (60000 warriors) Arjuna Bhisma, Drona, Karna, Ashwathama Atirathis (10000 warriors) Yudhisthira, Bhima, Dhristadyumna, Ghatotkacha, Satyaki,Yuyutsu Shalya, Somadatta, Bhurishrava, Bhagadatta, Jayadratha, Kritavarma Types of the Division Chariot Elephant Horses with Soldiers Infantry Soldiers Head of Division (commander) Pathi 1 1 3 5 Pathipal Senamugam 3 3 9 15 Senamukhi Kulmam 9 9 27 45 Nayak Ganam 27 27 81 135 Gananayak Vahini 81 81 243 405 Vahinipati Birudanai 243 243 729 1215 Birudanadhipati (Pootanadhipati) Samu/Sena 729 729 2187 3645 Senapati Anihini 2187 2187 6561 10935 Anikadhipati Akshauni 21870 21870 65610 109350 Maha Senapati
  • 17. Duryodhana Describing Warrior of Opposing Army • Duryodhana is in dilemma whom (Bhisma, Drona) to represent first. • Bhavan (Dronacharya) is named before Bhisma, Drona being brahmana is OK with Bhisma Bhima, Arjuna Kasiraja Yudhamanyu Yuyudhana, Virata, Drupada Purujit Uttamanja Dhrstaketu Kuntibhoja Sons of Subhadra Cekitana Saibya Sons of Draupadi Maha-rathah Duryodhana Describing His Army All of them are fighting For Rights Not for Material Gains. Very Strong Dronacharya Asvatthama Krtavarma Bhisma Vikarna Salya Karna Saunadattih Others Krpacharya Jayadratha Fighting for Material Cause Hence weak. Most of them are also favoring Pandavas. Ready to Lay Their lives. Fate of their Lives are alredy Decided. 7 8 4 5 6 9 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 4 ~ 6 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 7 ~ 9
  • 18. Duryodhana Describing Strength of his Army • Duryodhana is diplomat (he thinks others in Army feel bad), hence requests them to support/protect Bhisma. Duryodhana requesting his Army to support Bhisma • aparyaptam : immeasurable or insufficient, protected by Bhisma • Pandavas are protected by Bhima (insignificant as to Bhisma) • Duryodhana is envious of Bhima (only he is capable of defeating him) • Bhisma is old and needs support and protection. • Duryodhana confident of the support from Bhisma & Dronacharya as they supported him during gambling match. • Bhisma out of Compassion & to cheer Duryodhana blew the conchshell very loudly. • Duryodhana defeat is certain, since Lord Krsna is on the other side. • Bhisma fighting as a matter of duty. • Tumultuous sound of conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns. 11 12 14 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 10 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 11-12
  • 19. Krsna and Arjuna blowing Transcendental Conchshell Krsna, Arjuna & Bhima blowing Transcendental Conchshell • Krsna and Arjuna conchshell is described as Transcendental • Madhava : Krsna is husband of Goddess of Fortune • Chariot given by Agni, capable of conquering all 3 worlds Victory is certain Krsna Living Entity Parts & Parcel including senses Situated in Heart directs senses based on Living Entity’s desire Hrisikesa Krsna Panchajanya Arjuna Devadatta Bhima Paundra Yudhisthira Ananta-vijaya Nakula Sughosa Sahadeva Manipuspaka 15 16-18 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 14 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 15-18
  • 20. Different names of Krsna, Arjuna & Bhima Names Meaning Krsna All attractive Hrisikesa Master of the Senses (owner of senses) Madhava Husband of the Goddess of Fortune Acyuta Infallible One Madhusudana Killer of demon named Madhu Govinda one who gives pleasure to the senses or cows. Vasudeva Son of Vasudeva Devaki-nandana Son of Devaki Yasoda-nandana Son of Yasoda Partha-sarathi Charioteer of Partha (Arjuna) Kesava Killer of demon Kesi Janardana Maintainer of all Living entities OR Killer of all living entities Dhananjaya (Arjuna) conqueror of wealth Partha Son of Pritha (Kunti devi) Gudakesa One who conquers sleep Vrkodara (Bhima) Voracious eater and perform herculean tasks.
  • 21. Blowing became uproarious, shattered hearts of sons of Dhrtarastra Arjuna prepared to fight, asks Lord Krsna to draw chariot between two armies • Duryodhana team blew Conchshell didn’t shatter Pandavas Hearts (due to confidence in Lord Krsna), Taking shelter of Lord nothing to fear • Kauravas hearts shattered due to fear, signs of defeat. • Arjuna’s flag on the Chariot has emblem of Hanuman (devotee of Lord Rama), signs of victory (b/c Hanuman co-operated Lord Rama and they both won the battle) • Also, Lord Krsna is personally present as Hrisikesa to direct his senses. • Arjuna’s victory is assured. Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 19 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 20
  • 22. Signs of Victory for the Pandavas 1 Krishna’s personal presence confirms victory • Supreme Personality of Godhead is the charioteer (1.14) – “jayas tu pandu-putranam yesam…” • Krishna as Hrsikesha directly controls the senses of a pure devotee 2 Goddess of fortune • Whenever and wherever the Lord is present, the goddess of fortune is also there • She never lives without her husband; therefore all fortune is guaranteed (1.14) 3 Venue -> Kurukshetra is a holy place (1.1), effect of holy place on the war. 4 Hanumanji on Arjuna’s flag • Hanumanji also helped Lord Rama in gaining victory (1.20) 5 Symbol of Vishnu • Conchshell is a symbol of Vishnu (1.12 & 1.14) • This is indirectly indicated by Bhisma and Pandavas conchshells 6 Transcendental conchshells • Krishna and Arjuna’s conchshell mentioned as divya (transcendental) (1.14) 7 Bhisma’s conchshell to pacify Duryodhana (1.12) 8 Agnideva’s Chariot given to Arjuna – capable of conquering all directions (1.14) 9 Shattering of hearts • Conchshells of Pandavas shattered Kauravas hearts (1.19) • Pandavas hearts not shattered – b/c of confidence of taking Shelter of Krishna Courtesy : Gauranga Priya Das
  • 23. • Arjuna calls Lords as Acyuta (infallible one) : never fails in His affection for His devotees21 • Lord Krsna out of love and causeless mercy accepted position of charioteer. • Lord Krsna takes pleasure in serving his unalloyed pure devotees. • In any position his supremacy is never challenged. • Arjuna being pure devotee, has no desire to fight, wanted to see how much they (his relatives and friends) were bent upon demanding an unwanted war. He wanted to see the supporters who wanted to please evil-minded Duryodhana, estimate their strength, not for peace proposal. 22 23 Text 23 - Analogy – Birds of same Flocks fly together - KAURAVAS Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 21-23
  • 24. Lord Krsna draws chariot in the midst of two armies • Gudakesa : Arjuna - one who conquers sleep or ignorance (b/c being Krsna’s friend) • Arjuna always thinking of Krsna, similarly devotees, Samadhi • Arjuna could see : • All kinds of relatives, friends & well wishers. 24 27 • Lord Krsna, Hrisikesa : can understand heart of Arjuna. • Partha : Son of Prtha (kunti), Arjuna being friend and son of Kunti agreed to be his charioteer. 25 • Lord Krsna jokingly said “just behold(see with attention)”, he didn’t expect him not to fight being son of Prtha. 26 • Grandfathers like Bhisma and Somadatta • Teachers like Dronacharya and Krpacharya • Maternal uncles like Salya and Sakuni • Brothers like Duryodhana • Sons like Laksmana, friends like Asvatthama, well-wishers like Krtavarma and many other friends and relatives. • Arjuna seeing them all is overwhelmed with compassion, thus spoke Myself Grand Fathers Father & Mother Teacher Maternal Uncle Brothers & Sisters Sons, Friends Well Wishers Other Friends Kripa Compassion For Specific People Daya Mercy In General Terms Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 24-27
  • 25. Summary - Section - B Arjuna's Doubts 28-46 Arjuna's mind reels thinking how this battle will finish his family and its traditions. He sees great sinful reactions awaiting him if he kills his family members. Feeling it better to be killed unarmed than to fight, Arjuna, his mind overwhelmed with grief, casts aside his bow and sits down upon his chariot. Verse 1.28 to 1.46
  • 26. Arjuna’s reaction after seeing his relatives. •Arjuna symptoms - limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up. • Further symptoms : body trembling, hair standing on end, bow slipping, skin burning 28 • Reason : Sympathy & Compassion (overwhelmed by kindness), foreseeing their imminent death, symptoms not due to weakness but to his softheartedness, a characteristic of a pure devotee of the Lord • Arjuna astonished to see their fighting spirit. 29 • Genuine devotees of Lord has all Godly qualities, non devotees lacks such qualities. body trembling, hair standing on end great spiritual ecstasy great fear, material condition which do not cause any Fear Arjuna’s Symptom Bow slipping Heart burning (skin burning) Material conception of life could happen Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 28-29
  • 27. Arjuna see only causes of misfortune. 30 Forgetting himself Fearfulness and Loss of Mental Equilibrium • Further symptoms : unable to stand any longer, forgetting himself, mind is reeling Arjuna’s Symptom Weakness of Mind Excessive Material attachments Nimittani Viparitani : Frustrations, Thinking why am I here? Sees only misfortune, he will not be happy even after winning Bewildering conditions Every Living Entity Interested in himself & own welfare Krsna or Visnu Real Interest of Jiva Suffers By Krsna’s will Krsna Kesava (Killer of demon Kesi) Expected to remove Arjuna’s demons like doubts generally Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 30
  • 28. Arjuna’s Symptoms of Compassion Parts of the body Symptoms 1 Limbs Quivering 2 Mouth Drying Up 3 Whole body Trembling 4 Hair of the body Standing on the End 5 Hands Gandiva bow slipping 6 Skin Burning 7 Legs Unable to stand any longer due to impatience 8 “Forgetting myself and mind reeling” – Due to weakness of the heart 9 Sees only causes of misfortune Courtesy : Gauranga Priya Das
  • 29. Arjuna cannot enjoy kingdom at the cost of killing relatives. 31 Ksatriya dying in battle field under Krsna’s orders Arjuna Ksatriya Attracted to bodily relationships, hoping to be happy Eligible to Enter Sun Planet Renounced order life devoted to Krsna Forgot the Moral codes Living Entity Killing Relatives No Happiness in Life Not willing to fight (eg. Someone not hungry, not ready to cook) Decided to lead a secluded life in Forest similarly AnalogyI am not hungry, I am NOT Going to Cook Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 31
  • 30. Arjuna not ready to fight even in exchange of 3 worlds 32 Trying to satisfy his own senses Lord will satisfy to the extent they deserve not desire • Govinda : Krsna is the object of all pleasures for cows and the senses. Arjuna indicates, Krsna should understand what will satisfy his senses. • But Govinda is not meant to satisfy our senses. If we try to satisfy Govinda’s senses our senses will automatically get satisfied. Living Entity Krsna Order supplier Krsna’s senses By Lords will all his desires are satisfied Arjuna’s Material Calculation Unable to share opulence with relatives Decides not to fight even in exchange of 3 worlds Spiritual Understanding Devotee ready to accept any opulence, Krsna wants Krsna Do not complain otherwise if Krsna not desire Arjuna, being devotee, very kind hearted, wants to forgive his relatives. Lord tolerates mischief on himself, not for his devotees. Lord is determined to punish them. • Madhusudana : Krsna is killer of demon Madhu, Arjuna is expecting that Krsna would kill is doubts like demons. Also, Krsna killed demon Madhu, but Krsna is expecting Arjuna to kill his relatives not demons. Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 32-35
  • 31. Arjuna fearful of sinful reaction. 36 6 kinds of aggressors No Sinful Reaction Can be Killed as punishment • Kaurava’s did all 6 kinds of aggression on the Pandava’s hence killing them would not give any sinful reaction. • Madhava : Husband of goddess of fortune. • Arjuna calling Krsna as Madhava indicating that Krsna should not engage Arjuna that would ultimately bring about misfortune. Krsna, however, never brings misfortune to anyone, to say nothing of His devotees. 1 Poison giver 2 One who sets fire to the house 3 One who attacks with deadly weapons 4 One who plunders riches 5 One who occupies another's land 6 One who kidnaps another's wife Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 36
  • 32. Arjuna sees Destruction of Family 37 • Arjuna sees due to Greed, the opposite party is ready Fight and Kill each other. • Arjuna understands result of war (destruction of family), he sees not benefits in participating in this sinful activity. • Ksatriya should not refuse invitation of gambling and war. • Arjuna sees the other party is blind of effect of this challenge, he knowing he evil consequence, not ready to fight. 38 Destruction of Dynasty Family tradition vanquished Family involved in irreligion 39 In Varnasrama System : Elder members of the family. Responsible for purifying processes in family from birth to death Death of elder will stop purification process. Young members will become irreligious Lose chance for Spiritual Salvation. Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 37-39
  • 33. Garbhadhanam Before Conception Pumsavanam 3rd Month of Pregnancy Seemantam For Protection of Mother before Child birth Jatakarmam For Intellectual development of Child Anthyeshti Antim Sanskara Last Rites Vivaham Marriage Samavartanam End of Student Life Kesantham (Boy) First Shave Ritusuddhi (Girl) First Menstrual Cycle Praishartham Before and after each year of study Upanayanam Wearing Sacred Thread Vidyarambham Child is taught to write first time Karnavedham Piercing Ear Namakaranam Name giving ceremony Nishkramanam Taking child first time out of house Annaprasanam First time feeding Solid food Choodakaranam First time cutting Hair 16-Samskaras Manu Smriti Samskaras – Purificatory Process Total 40 Samskaras 16-Major
  • 34. Arjuna sees Destruction of Family & Society40 Women like Children needs protection Women becomes polluted Varnasrama System for Peace, Prosperity and Spiritual progress in life Elder members of the family. Responsible for purifying processes in family from birth to death Death of elder will stop purification process. Young members will become irreligious Lose chance for Spiritual Salvation. When irreligion prominent in family Gives rise to unwanted progeny Varna-sankarah Risk of War & Pestilence Good Population depends on faithfulness and Chastity of Women Failure of Varnasrama System : Hellish condition Family Who destroyed Family tradition Ancestors are not delivered, fall down 41 SB 11.5.41 Not applicable to someone who has taken shelter of Krsna Irresponsible Leader bring chaos in society by destroying Sanatana Dharma 42 Arjuna heard from Dharma Shastra Those who destroy Family tradition dwell in Hell43 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 40-43
  • 35. 1 5 4 2 3 6 The superiors are killed (1.39) (destruction of the dynasty) Destruction of eternal family tradition (1.39) (Vedic rituals will stop) Irreligion predominates in the family (1.39) Women become polluted (1.40) (unchaste) Unwanted progeny (1.40) (varna-sankara) All kinds of community projects & (1.42) family welfare activities are devastated (results in chaos in society)Courtesy : Tyaga Caitanya Das Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 39-42
  • 36. Arjuna Fearful of sinful reaction 44 Killing Relatives Arjuna’s Fear of Sinful reaction Driven by desire to Enjoy Royal Happiness Arjuna’s Soft heartedness Being a devotee Better to die in the Battle field Unarmed 45 Arjuna (overwhelmed with grief) cast aside his bow and arrows and sat down in the Chariot 46 Observing the Armies on the Battlefield Verse 44-46
  • 37. Saintly Qualities of Arjuna 1 Softheartedness (1.28) 2 Does not want to kill even for exchange of three worlds (1.35) 3 Ready to forgive any aggressors (1.36), though there is no reaction in killing them. 4 Considers evil consequences even at the risk of refusing obligation to fight (1.37 – 1.38) 5 Conscious of obligations to protect family traditions and morals (1.39 – 1.44) • He does not think that: “I am transcendental and I have no obligations” • Arjuna being saintly is conscious of moral principles – How he can kill one’s relatives based on selfish motives (1.44) 6 Ready to be killed unarmed, but not retaliate (1.45) 7 Custom according to Ksatriya fighting principles – unarmed and unwilling foe should not be attacked • These symptoms are due to soft heartedness resulting from being a great devotee 8 Kept his bow down (even broke his vow of not keeping the bow once lifted) (1.46) Conclusion: Such a kind and softhearted person is fit to receive Self-Knowledge (Transcendental Knowledge) (1.46 purport) Courtesy : Gauranga Priya Das
  • 38. Summary – Arjuna’s Reasons Arjuna's Reasons for not wishing to Fight 1.27 to 1.28 Compassion: Arjuna's compassion for those he's about to slay dictates he shouldn't fight. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.11-30) 1.31 to 1.35, 2.7-2.8 Enjoyment: Arjuna thinks he will not be able to enjoy his kingdom if the kingdom is won at the cost of the lives of his family members. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.31-32) 1.37 to 1.43 Destruction of Family: Irreligion and unwanted progeny will overcome the family, performance of traditional, varnasrama-oriented Vedic rituals will end, and hell will await both the family and the destroyer of the family. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.45-46, 3.24) 1.44 to 1.45 2.5 Saintliness and fear of sinful reactions: Arjuna thinks enjoying royal happiness is not worth the resulting sinful reactions for destroying the family and killing his superiors. (Lord Krishna refutes >> BG 2.33-37) 2.6 Indecision: Arjuna does not actually know which is better, conquering the enemy or being conquered by them.
  • 39. As the opposing armies stood poised for battle, Arjuna, the mighty warrior, saw his intimate relatives, teachers and friends in both armies ready to fight and sacrifice their lives. Overcome by grief and pity, Arjuna failed in strength, his mind became bewildered, and he gave up his determination to fight. Arjuna offered the following reasons for not fighting the battle: 1) Compassion: Arjuna's compassion for those he's about to slay dictates he shouldn't fight. 2) Enjoyment: Arjuna thinks he will not be able to enjoy his kingdom if the kingdom is won at the cost of the lives of his family members. 3) Destruction of family: Irreligion and unwanted progeny will overcome the family, performance of traditional, varnasrama-oriented Vedic rituals will end, and hell will await both the family and the destroyer of the family. 4) Saintliness and fear of sinful reactions: Arjuna thinks enjoying royal happiness is not worth the resulting sinful reactions for destroying the family and killing his superiors. In the beginning of Chapter 2, gave the following reason. 5) Indecision: Arjuna does not actually know which is better, conquering the enemy or being conquered by them. Summary – Chapter 1
  • 40. Compiled by Amritananda das email : amritanandadas@yahoo.com