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Roadmap for Future Research Directions
Big Data for Public Policy – The State of Play
(BDVA Webinar, 14/05/2019)
Interim Status
Francesco Mureddu, Lisbon Council
This project has received funding from the European Union’s
Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under
grant agreement No 769623
www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
2www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Structure of the presentation
• Introduction of the Big Policy Canvas project
• Rational and methodology for elaborating the roadmap
• Structure of the roadmap
• Data driven policy making
• Research clusters and challenges
• Conclusions and next steps
3www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Big Policy Canvas Project (1)
• The Big Policy Canvas project is a coordination and support action running for 24 months (until September 2019), under the
topic CO-CREATION-06-2017. Coordinator is ATOS, partners are NTUA, Fokus and Lisbon Council
• The Big Policy Canvas project aims at renovating the public sector on a cross-border level by mapping the needs of public
administrations, with methods, technologies, tools and applications, from both the public & the private sector, stepping upon
the power of open innovation and the rich opportunities for analysis and informed policy making generated by big data
• Big Policy Canvas’ concept lies in delivering a framework for the effective exploitation of relevant data and the encouragement
of networking and engagement among the relevant stakeholders for data-driven and informed policymaking, facilitated by
specific, proposed methods and tools.
• Big Policy Canvas is delivering a set of assets
- Big Policy Canvas Knowledge Base, is a state-of-the-art, online and dynamic repository that functions as an accumulator uniting all
the knowledge produced during the project. It is structured along the three dimensions of needs, trends and assets and furthermore
offers a mapping among them by defining how they are interconnected and how they influence each other
- Big Policy Canvas Assessment Framework, is a methodology for mapping needs and trends to application domains, as well as for
assessing the former in terms of their criticality or intensity respectively, with the ultimate goal of prioritising application domains
and bringing forward those of greater interest, importance, urgency and capability for innovation.
- Big Policy Canvas Roadmap for Future Directions. The roadmap capitalises on the project outputs to carve the way for the future of
EU policy-making and modelling
4www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Big Policy Canvas Project (2)
5www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Map of methods,
technologies and
tools to the public
sector needs,
trends, barriers
Analysis of gaps
and external
factors in public
administration
Refinement of
research
challenges and
first online
version of the
roadmap
First version of
research
challenges online
Preparatory and
introductory part
to the roadmap
Literature review Literature review
Methodology to Develop the Roadmap (1)
Refinement of
research
challenges and gap
analysis
Elaboration of
recommendations
Input from experts
Vienna Workshop
WP4:
PA Oriented
Methods,
Tools
&Technologies
Landscape
WP3:
PA Needs,
Trends and
Barriers
Landscape
Comments from the
experts in the
online first version
Comments on the
first online version
of the roadmap
Input from Events
6www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Methodology to Develop the Roadmap (2)
• Major points addressed by the roadmap
- Which major research challenges should be considered and
addressed for evidence-based policy-making and policy-
monitoring in order to tackle wider societal challenges
- Which sub-challenges and emerging technologies are part of
these major challenges?
- How are these challenges related to the different policy
domains?
- What kind of instruments are necessary to tackle this
challenges?
- What is the anticipated impact of these challenges to each
policy domain and to the society?
- Which are the broad recommendation for policy makers,
researchers and industry that are meaningful to accelerate the
roadmap’s take-up?
7www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
General Structure
Introduction to the roadmap
• Rationale and scope
• Methodology
Current status and what is new
• Big Data
• Tasks of the policy makers
• Data Driven Government
• Key challenges of evidence-based policy making
Gaps and research needs
• External Framework Analysis
• Triangulation of Needs, Trends and Assets
• Research Gaps to be filled
Short and long-term research challenges
• Structure in following slide
Research directions and recommendations
• Future research directions
• Recommendation for research at EU level
8www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Research Challenges Chapter
ü Research challenges will be grouped in clusters
ü For each cluster, we will present:
ü Description, vision, map against relevant gaps
ü For each research challenge, we will present:
ü Description and link with the state of the art
ü Importance in the policy making process
ü Timeline (short and long term)
ü Applications and tools
9www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results - Data-Driven Policy Making
• Data-driven policy making aims to make use of new data sources and new techniques for
processing these data and to realize co-creation of policies, involving citizens and other relevant
stakeholders
• Clearly it is related to the notion of evidence-based policy making, which considers relevant the
inclusion of systematic research, program management experience and political judgement in the
policy making process (Head 2018)
• However, data-driven policy making stresses the importance of big data and open data sources
into policy making as well as with co-creation of policy by involving citizens to increase legitimacy
(Bijlsma et al 2011) and decrease citizens’ distrust in government (Davies 2017)
10www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results - The Policy Cycle
• Policy making is the process
of creating and monitoring
policies to solve societal
challenges
• In this respect, it is often
conceptualized as a policy
cycle, consisting of several
different phases, such as
agenda setting, policy design,
policy implementation,
monitoring and evaluation
11www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results – Data Driven Government (1)
• Agenda setting:
• The challenge addressed is to detect (or even predict) problems before they become
too costly to face
• One traditional problem of policy making is that statistics become available only long
time after the problems have emerged, hence increasing the costs to solving it
• Alternative metrics and datasets can be used to identify early warning signs at an
earlier stage and lower costs helping to better understanding causal links
• Specifically, according to Longo et al. (2017), big data can serve as an input for “framing
a policy problem before it is apprehended as such, indicating where a need is being
unmet or where an emerging problem might be countered early”
• Moreover according to Höchtl et al. (2016, p. 159) governments can identify emergent
topics early and to create relevant agenda points collecting data from social networks
with high degrees of participation and identifying citizens’ policy preferences
12www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results – Data Driven Government (2)
• Policy design
• Big data and data analytics solutions can be used for providing
evidence for the ex ante impact assessment of policy options, by
helping to predict possible outcomes of the different options
• In this regard, Giest (2017, pag. 376) argues that the increased use of
big data is shaping policy instruments, as “The vast amount of
administrative data collected at various governmental levels and in
different domains, such as tax systems, social programs, health records
and the like, can— with their digitization— be used for decision-making
in areas of education, economics, health and social policy”
13www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results – Data Driven Government (3)
• Policy implementation
• Big data and data analytics can help identifying the key stakeholders to
involve in policy or to be targeted by policies
• One way in which big data can influence the implementation stage of
the policy process is the real-time production of data
• The execution of new policies immediately produces new data, which
can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of policies and improving the
future implementation processes
• Testing a new policy in real time can provide insights whether it has the
desired effect or requires modification
• Furthemore, as shown by Dunleavy (2016, pp. 12-13) big data can be
used for behavioral insights
14www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results – Data Driven Government (4)
• Policy evaluation
• Big data and data analytics approaches can help detecting the impact
of policies at an early stage (Höchtl et al., 2016, p. 149), before formal
evaluation exercises are carried out, or detecting problems related to
implementation, such as corruption in public spending.
• Most importantly, big data can be used for continuous evaluation of
policies, to inform the policy analysis process, while even empowering
and engage citizens and stakeholders in the process (Schintler and
Kulkarni 2014, p. 343).
15www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Results – Data Driven Government (5)
• In summary, big data tools and technologies present interesting
opportunities to address some of the aforementioned key challenges of
data-based policy making:
• Anticipate detection of problems before they become intractable;
• Generate a fruitful involvement of citizens in the policy making activity;
• Making sense of thousand opinions from citizens;
• Uncover causal relationships behind policy problems;
• Identify cheaper and real-time proxies for official statistics;
• Identify key stakeholders to be involved in or target by specific policies;
• Anticipate or monitor in real time the impact of policies.
16www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Research Clusters and Challenges
• We define five main research clusters related to the use of Big Data in policy making
• Four of them are built on the Big Data cycle and value chain, while the fifth one is
transversal at each phase of the cycle
17www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Research Clusters (1)
•Privacy, transparency and trust. Even more than with traditional IT architectures, Big Data requires
systems for determining and maintaining data ownership, data definitions, and data flows. Ubiquity
of algorithms in everyday lives is an important reason to focus on addressing challenges associated
with the design and technical aspects of algorithms and preventing bias from the onset. In fact, the
use of algorithms for automated decision-making about individuals can result in harmful
discrimination, and biased decision making (based on bias in the training data).
•Data acquisition, cleaning and storing. The appropriateness of any Big Data source for decision-
making should be made clear to users. Any known limitations of the data accuracy, sources, and bias
should be readily available, along with recommendations about the kinds of decision-making the
data can and cannot support.
•Data clustering, integration and fusion. Combination and meaning extraction of big data stemming
from different data sources to be repurposed for another goal. This requires the composition of
teams that combine to types of expertise: data scientists, which can combine different datasets and
apply novel statistical techniques; domain experts, that help know the history of how data were
collected and can help in the interpretation.
18www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Research Clusters (2)
•Modelling and analysis with big data. Here the point is to develop effective
infrastructures merging the science of data with the development of highly predictive
models, to come up with engaging and meaningful visualizations and friendly scenario
simulation engines. Understanding the present through data is often not enough and
the impact of specific decisions and solutions can be correctly assessed only when
projected into the future. Hence the need of tools allowing for a realistic forecast of
how a change in the current conditions will affect and modify the future scenario:
scenario simulators and decision support tools
•Data visualization. Making sense and extract meaning of data can be achieved by
placing them in a visual context: patterns, trends and correlations that might go
undetected in text-based data can be exposed and recognized easier with data
visualization software. This is clearly important in a policy making context, in particular
when considering the problem setting phase of the policy cycle and the visualization
often results of big data modelling and analysis.
19www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Research Challenges
Research Cluster Research Challenges
C1- Privacy, Transparency and Trust
RC 1.1 - Big Data nudging
RC 1.2 - Pervasive data collection
RC 1.3 - Algorithmic bias and transparency
C2 - Data acquisition, cleaning and storing
RC 2.1 – Real time big data collection and production
RC 2.2 - Quality assessment, data cleaning and formatting
RC 2.3 - Representativeness of data collected
C3 - Data clustering, integration and fusion
RC 3.1 - Identification of patterns, trends and relevant observables
RC 3.2 - Extraction of relevant information and feature extraction
RC 3.3 - Integration and interoperability of PA datasets
C4 - Modelling and analysis with big data
RC 4.1 - Identification of suitable modelling schemes inferred from existing data
RC 4.2 - Collaborative model simulations and scenarios generation
RC 4.3 - Integration and re-use of modelling schemes
C5 - Data visualization
RC 5.1 - Visualization of dynamic data in real time
RC 5.2 - Interactive data visualization
20www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
RC 1 – Privacy, transparency and trust
• Algorithmic bias and transparency.
• Many decisions, in the public as well as in the private sector, are today automated and performed by
algorithms.
• Algorithms are designed by humans, and increasingly learn by observing human behaviour through
data, therefore they tend to adopt the biases of their developers and of society as a whole.
• As such, algorithmic decision making can reinforce the prejudice and the bias of the data it is fed with,
ultimately compromising the basic human rights such as fair process.
• Bias is typically not written in the code, but developed through machine learning based on data.
• For this reason, it is particularly difficult to detect bias, and can be done only through ex-post auditing
and simulation rather than ex-ante analysis of the code.
• There is a need for common practice and tools to controlling data quality, bias and transparency in
algorithms.
• Furthermore, as required by GDPR, there is a need for ways to explain machine decisions in human
format
• Main relevant methodologies are algorithm co-creation, regulatory technologies, auditability of
algorithms, data management processing algorithms and data quality governance approaches
21www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
RC 2 – Data Acquisition, Cleaning and Storing
Quality assessment, data cleaning and formatting.
• More data does not necessarily mean good or better data, and many of the data available lack the
quality required for its safe use in many applications, especially when we are talking about data
coming from social networks and internet of things.
• Quality assessment is a phase where the data is prepared following the requirements
• Data cleaning is the process of correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a database.
Data cleaning may be performed interactively with data wrangling tools, or as batch processing
through scripting.
• A final action is formatting, as once one has downloaded sets of data is not obvious at all that their
format will be suitable for further analysis and integration in the existing platforms.
• Regarding data quality, it is mandatory to use existing and develop new frameworks including
big data quality dimensions, quality characteristics, and quality indexes
• For what concerns data cleaning, the need for overcoming the hurdle is driving development of
technologies that can automate data cleansing processes to help accelerate business analytics.
22www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
RC 3 – Data clustering, integration and fusion
Integration and interoperability of PA databases
•The integration and interoperability of government data is becoming increasingly urgent as government holds
massive and fastly growing amounts of data that are dramatically underexploited.
•The achievement of the once only principle, as well the opportunities of big data only add to the urgency.
•New solutions are needed that balance the need for data integration with the safeguards on data protection,
the demand for data centralisation with the need to respect each administration autonomy, and the
requirement for ex ante homogenization with more pragmatic, on demand approaches based on the “data
lake” paradigm.
•And appropriate, modular data access and interoperability is further complicated by the need to include
private data sources as provider and user of government data, at the appropriate level of granularity.
•This needs to work with full transparency and full consent by citizens, ideally enabling citizens to track in
real time who is accessing their personal data and for what purposes.
•The Data & Analytics Framework (DAF) by the Italian Digital Team aims to develop and simplify the
interoperability of public data between PAs, standardize and promote the dissemination of open data,
optimize data analysis processes and generate knowledge to be re-used
23www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
RC 4 – Modelling and analysis with Big Data
•Collaborative modelling simulation and scenario generation.
•Decision-making processes have to be supported with meaningful representations of the present
situations along with accurate simulation engines to generate and evaluate future scenarios
•Hence the need of tools allowing for a realistic forecast of how a change in the current conditions will
affect and modify the future scenario: scenario simulators and decision support tools
•Such engaging and meaningful visualizations and friendly scenario simulation engines should allow
stakeholders to collaboratively engage in the modelling and simulation process
•The weakest form of involvement is feedback to the session facilitator, similar to the conventional way of
modelling. Stronger forms are proposals for changes or (partial) model proposals.
•In this particular approach the modelling process should be supported by a combination of narrative
scenarios, modelling rules, and e-Participation tools (all Integrated via an ICT e-Governance platform): so
the policy model for a given domain can be created iteratively using cooperation of several stakeholder
groups (decision makers, analysts, companies, civic society, and the general public.
•The Citychrone++ platform (http://whatif.cslparis.com/citychrone.html), provides users with a
powerful tool to assess the present status of urban accessibility and design and evaluate future
scenarios
•It integrates flexible data analysis tools with a simple scenario simulation platform in the area of
urban accessibility.
24www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
RC 5 – Data visualization
•Visualization of dynamic data in real time.
•Due to continuing advances in sensor technology and increasing availability of digital infrastructure that allows
for acquisition, transfer, and storage of big data sets, large amounts of data become available even in real-time.
•Since most analysis and visualization methods focus on static data sets, adding a dynamic component to the
data source results in major challenges for both the automated and visual analysis methods
•Besides typical technical challenges such as unpredictable data volumes, unexpected data features and
unforeseen extreme values, a major challenge is the capability of analysis methods to work incrementally
•Furthermore, scalability of visualization in face of big data availability is a permanent challenge, since
visualization requires additional performances with respect to traditional analytics in order to allow for real time
interaction and reduce latency
•Finally, visualization is largely a demand-and design-driven research area. In this sense one of the main
challenges is to ensure the multidisciplinary collaboration of engineering, statistics, computer science and graphic
design.
•Visualization of dynamic data in real time allows policy makers to react timely with respect to issues they
face, identifying problems at an early stage, detect unexpected patterns and connections between data.
•An example can be given by movement data (e.g., road, naval, or air-traffic) enabling analysis in several
application fields (e.g., landscape planning and design, urban development, and infrastructure planning).
25www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Contribute to the Roadmap
Input from experts and stakeholders
• The most important part of the roadmap is published in
commentable format
- Short and long-term research challenges
• New version of the roadmap to be published at the end of May in
commentable format
• The tool used is https://roadmap.bigpolicycanvas.eu/ linking to
https://www.bigpolicycanvas.eu/results/roadmap
26www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
Events Related to the Roadmap
The roadmap will be presented in several events in the following months
• 6 June in Bruxelles: Co-Creation Summit within the scope of the Co-VAL project
• 10-12 June in London: Conference Data for Policy (http://dataforpolicy.org/)
- 10 June – Workshop for Policy Makers
- 12 June – Paper Extracted from the Roadmap
• 13-14 June in Venice: BPC final event will be celebrated in Major Cities of
Europe Conference (www.majorcities.eu/conferences/2019-venice/)
- People interested can get a discount to register in the MCE 2019 conference
contacting us through the project email (info@bigpolicycanvas.eu), to attend the
final event
• 27 June in Riga: BDVA Big Data Panel Policy4Data – Lessons learnt and looking ahead
• 2-5 September in Camerino: EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2019, workshop on the roadmap
Thank you for your attention
Francesco Mureddu
Francesco.Mureddu@lisboncouncil.net
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020
research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 769623
www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu

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BDVe Webinar Series - Big Data for Public Policy, the state of play - Roadmap for Future Research Directions

  • 1. Roadmap for Future Research Directions Big Data for Public Policy – The State of Play (BDVA Webinar, 14/05/2019) Interim Status Francesco Mureddu, Lisbon Council This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 769623 www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu
  • 2. 2www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Structure of the presentation • Introduction of the Big Policy Canvas project • Rational and methodology for elaborating the roadmap • Structure of the roadmap • Data driven policy making • Research clusters and challenges • Conclusions and next steps
  • 3. 3www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Big Policy Canvas Project (1) • The Big Policy Canvas project is a coordination and support action running for 24 months (until September 2019), under the topic CO-CREATION-06-2017. Coordinator is ATOS, partners are NTUA, Fokus and Lisbon Council • The Big Policy Canvas project aims at renovating the public sector on a cross-border level by mapping the needs of public administrations, with methods, technologies, tools and applications, from both the public & the private sector, stepping upon the power of open innovation and the rich opportunities for analysis and informed policy making generated by big data • Big Policy Canvas’ concept lies in delivering a framework for the effective exploitation of relevant data and the encouragement of networking and engagement among the relevant stakeholders for data-driven and informed policymaking, facilitated by specific, proposed methods and tools. • Big Policy Canvas is delivering a set of assets - Big Policy Canvas Knowledge Base, is a state-of-the-art, online and dynamic repository that functions as an accumulator uniting all the knowledge produced during the project. It is structured along the three dimensions of needs, trends and assets and furthermore offers a mapping among them by defining how they are interconnected and how they influence each other - Big Policy Canvas Assessment Framework, is a methodology for mapping needs and trends to application domains, as well as for assessing the former in terms of their criticality or intensity respectively, with the ultimate goal of prioritising application domains and bringing forward those of greater interest, importance, urgency and capability for innovation. - Big Policy Canvas Roadmap for Future Directions. The roadmap capitalises on the project outputs to carve the way for the future of EU policy-making and modelling
  • 5. 5www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Map of methods, technologies and tools to the public sector needs, trends, barriers Analysis of gaps and external factors in public administration Refinement of research challenges and first online version of the roadmap First version of research challenges online Preparatory and introductory part to the roadmap Literature review Literature review Methodology to Develop the Roadmap (1) Refinement of research challenges and gap analysis Elaboration of recommendations Input from experts Vienna Workshop WP4: PA Oriented Methods, Tools &Technologies Landscape WP3: PA Needs, Trends and Barriers Landscape Comments from the experts in the online first version Comments on the first online version of the roadmap Input from Events
  • 6. 6www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Methodology to Develop the Roadmap (2) • Major points addressed by the roadmap - Which major research challenges should be considered and addressed for evidence-based policy-making and policy- monitoring in order to tackle wider societal challenges - Which sub-challenges and emerging technologies are part of these major challenges? - How are these challenges related to the different policy domains? - What kind of instruments are necessary to tackle this challenges? - What is the anticipated impact of these challenges to each policy domain and to the society? - Which are the broad recommendation for policy makers, researchers and industry that are meaningful to accelerate the roadmap’s take-up?
  • 7. 7www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu General Structure Introduction to the roadmap • Rationale and scope • Methodology Current status and what is new • Big Data • Tasks of the policy makers • Data Driven Government • Key challenges of evidence-based policy making Gaps and research needs • External Framework Analysis • Triangulation of Needs, Trends and Assets • Research Gaps to be filled Short and long-term research challenges • Structure in following slide Research directions and recommendations • Future research directions • Recommendation for research at EU level
  • 8. 8www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Research Challenges Chapter ü Research challenges will be grouped in clusters ü For each cluster, we will present: ü Description, vision, map against relevant gaps ü For each research challenge, we will present: ü Description and link with the state of the art ü Importance in the policy making process ü Timeline (short and long term) ü Applications and tools
  • 9. 9www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results - Data-Driven Policy Making • Data-driven policy making aims to make use of new data sources and new techniques for processing these data and to realize co-creation of policies, involving citizens and other relevant stakeholders • Clearly it is related to the notion of evidence-based policy making, which considers relevant the inclusion of systematic research, program management experience and political judgement in the policy making process (Head 2018) • However, data-driven policy making stresses the importance of big data and open data sources into policy making as well as with co-creation of policy by involving citizens to increase legitimacy (Bijlsma et al 2011) and decrease citizens’ distrust in government (Davies 2017)
  • 10. 10www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results - The Policy Cycle • Policy making is the process of creating and monitoring policies to solve societal challenges • In this respect, it is often conceptualized as a policy cycle, consisting of several different phases, such as agenda setting, policy design, policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation
  • 11. 11www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results – Data Driven Government (1) • Agenda setting: • The challenge addressed is to detect (or even predict) problems before they become too costly to face • One traditional problem of policy making is that statistics become available only long time after the problems have emerged, hence increasing the costs to solving it • Alternative metrics and datasets can be used to identify early warning signs at an earlier stage and lower costs helping to better understanding causal links • Specifically, according to Longo et al. (2017), big data can serve as an input for “framing a policy problem before it is apprehended as such, indicating where a need is being unmet or where an emerging problem might be countered early” • Moreover according to Höchtl et al. (2016, p. 159) governments can identify emergent topics early and to create relevant agenda points collecting data from social networks with high degrees of participation and identifying citizens’ policy preferences
  • 12. 12www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results – Data Driven Government (2) • Policy design • Big data and data analytics solutions can be used for providing evidence for the ex ante impact assessment of policy options, by helping to predict possible outcomes of the different options • In this regard, Giest (2017, pag. 376) argues that the increased use of big data is shaping policy instruments, as “The vast amount of administrative data collected at various governmental levels and in different domains, such as tax systems, social programs, health records and the like, can— with their digitization— be used for decision-making in areas of education, economics, health and social policy”
  • 13. 13www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results – Data Driven Government (3) • Policy implementation • Big data and data analytics can help identifying the key stakeholders to involve in policy or to be targeted by policies • One way in which big data can influence the implementation stage of the policy process is the real-time production of data • The execution of new policies immediately produces new data, which can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of policies and improving the future implementation processes • Testing a new policy in real time can provide insights whether it has the desired effect or requires modification • Furthemore, as shown by Dunleavy (2016, pp. 12-13) big data can be used for behavioral insights
  • 14. 14www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results – Data Driven Government (4) • Policy evaluation • Big data and data analytics approaches can help detecting the impact of policies at an early stage (Höchtl et al., 2016, p. 149), before formal evaluation exercises are carried out, or detecting problems related to implementation, such as corruption in public spending. • Most importantly, big data can be used for continuous evaluation of policies, to inform the policy analysis process, while even empowering and engage citizens and stakeholders in the process (Schintler and Kulkarni 2014, p. 343).
  • 15. 15www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Results – Data Driven Government (5) • In summary, big data tools and technologies present interesting opportunities to address some of the aforementioned key challenges of data-based policy making: • Anticipate detection of problems before they become intractable; • Generate a fruitful involvement of citizens in the policy making activity; • Making sense of thousand opinions from citizens; • Uncover causal relationships behind policy problems; • Identify cheaper and real-time proxies for official statistics; • Identify key stakeholders to be involved in or target by specific policies; • Anticipate or monitor in real time the impact of policies.
  • 16. 16www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Research Clusters and Challenges • We define five main research clusters related to the use of Big Data in policy making • Four of them are built on the Big Data cycle and value chain, while the fifth one is transversal at each phase of the cycle
  • 17. 17www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Research Clusters (1) •Privacy, transparency and trust. Even more than with traditional IT architectures, Big Data requires systems for determining and maintaining data ownership, data definitions, and data flows. Ubiquity of algorithms in everyday lives is an important reason to focus on addressing challenges associated with the design and technical aspects of algorithms and preventing bias from the onset. In fact, the use of algorithms for automated decision-making about individuals can result in harmful discrimination, and biased decision making (based on bias in the training data). •Data acquisition, cleaning and storing. The appropriateness of any Big Data source for decision- making should be made clear to users. Any known limitations of the data accuracy, sources, and bias should be readily available, along with recommendations about the kinds of decision-making the data can and cannot support. •Data clustering, integration and fusion. Combination and meaning extraction of big data stemming from different data sources to be repurposed for another goal. This requires the composition of teams that combine to types of expertise: data scientists, which can combine different datasets and apply novel statistical techniques; domain experts, that help know the history of how data were collected and can help in the interpretation.
  • 18. 18www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Research Clusters (2) •Modelling and analysis with big data. Here the point is to develop effective infrastructures merging the science of data with the development of highly predictive models, to come up with engaging and meaningful visualizations and friendly scenario simulation engines. Understanding the present through data is often not enough and the impact of specific decisions and solutions can be correctly assessed only when projected into the future. Hence the need of tools allowing for a realistic forecast of how a change in the current conditions will affect and modify the future scenario: scenario simulators and decision support tools •Data visualization. Making sense and extract meaning of data can be achieved by placing them in a visual context: patterns, trends and correlations that might go undetected in text-based data can be exposed and recognized easier with data visualization software. This is clearly important in a policy making context, in particular when considering the problem setting phase of the policy cycle and the visualization often results of big data modelling and analysis.
  • 19. 19www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Research Challenges Research Cluster Research Challenges C1- Privacy, Transparency and Trust RC 1.1 - Big Data nudging RC 1.2 - Pervasive data collection RC 1.3 - Algorithmic bias and transparency C2 - Data acquisition, cleaning and storing RC 2.1 – Real time big data collection and production RC 2.2 - Quality assessment, data cleaning and formatting RC 2.3 - Representativeness of data collected C3 - Data clustering, integration and fusion RC 3.1 - Identification of patterns, trends and relevant observables RC 3.2 - Extraction of relevant information and feature extraction RC 3.3 - Integration and interoperability of PA datasets C4 - Modelling and analysis with big data RC 4.1 - Identification of suitable modelling schemes inferred from existing data RC 4.2 - Collaborative model simulations and scenarios generation RC 4.3 - Integration and re-use of modelling schemes C5 - Data visualization RC 5.1 - Visualization of dynamic data in real time RC 5.2 - Interactive data visualization
  • 20. 20www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu RC 1 – Privacy, transparency and trust • Algorithmic bias and transparency. • Many decisions, in the public as well as in the private sector, are today automated and performed by algorithms. • Algorithms are designed by humans, and increasingly learn by observing human behaviour through data, therefore they tend to adopt the biases of their developers and of society as a whole. • As such, algorithmic decision making can reinforce the prejudice and the bias of the data it is fed with, ultimately compromising the basic human rights such as fair process. • Bias is typically not written in the code, but developed through machine learning based on data. • For this reason, it is particularly difficult to detect bias, and can be done only through ex-post auditing and simulation rather than ex-ante analysis of the code. • There is a need for common practice and tools to controlling data quality, bias and transparency in algorithms. • Furthermore, as required by GDPR, there is a need for ways to explain machine decisions in human format • Main relevant methodologies are algorithm co-creation, regulatory technologies, auditability of algorithms, data management processing algorithms and data quality governance approaches
  • 21. 21www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu RC 2 – Data Acquisition, Cleaning and Storing Quality assessment, data cleaning and formatting. • More data does not necessarily mean good or better data, and many of the data available lack the quality required for its safe use in many applications, especially when we are talking about data coming from social networks and internet of things. • Quality assessment is a phase where the data is prepared following the requirements • Data cleaning is the process of correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a database. Data cleaning may be performed interactively with data wrangling tools, or as batch processing through scripting. • A final action is formatting, as once one has downloaded sets of data is not obvious at all that their format will be suitable for further analysis and integration in the existing platforms. • Regarding data quality, it is mandatory to use existing and develop new frameworks including big data quality dimensions, quality characteristics, and quality indexes • For what concerns data cleaning, the need for overcoming the hurdle is driving development of technologies that can automate data cleansing processes to help accelerate business analytics.
  • 22. 22www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu RC 3 – Data clustering, integration and fusion Integration and interoperability of PA databases •The integration and interoperability of government data is becoming increasingly urgent as government holds massive and fastly growing amounts of data that are dramatically underexploited. •The achievement of the once only principle, as well the opportunities of big data only add to the urgency. •New solutions are needed that balance the need for data integration with the safeguards on data protection, the demand for data centralisation with the need to respect each administration autonomy, and the requirement for ex ante homogenization with more pragmatic, on demand approaches based on the “data lake” paradigm. •And appropriate, modular data access and interoperability is further complicated by the need to include private data sources as provider and user of government data, at the appropriate level of granularity. •This needs to work with full transparency and full consent by citizens, ideally enabling citizens to track in real time who is accessing their personal data and for what purposes. •The Data & Analytics Framework (DAF) by the Italian Digital Team aims to develop and simplify the interoperability of public data between PAs, standardize and promote the dissemination of open data, optimize data analysis processes and generate knowledge to be re-used
  • 23. 23www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu RC 4 – Modelling and analysis with Big Data •Collaborative modelling simulation and scenario generation. •Decision-making processes have to be supported with meaningful representations of the present situations along with accurate simulation engines to generate and evaluate future scenarios •Hence the need of tools allowing for a realistic forecast of how a change in the current conditions will affect and modify the future scenario: scenario simulators and decision support tools •Such engaging and meaningful visualizations and friendly scenario simulation engines should allow stakeholders to collaboratively engage in the modelling and simulation process •The weakest form of involvement is feedback to the session facilitator, similar to the conventional way of modelling. Stronger forms are proposals for changes or (partial) model proposals. •In this particular approach the modelling process should be supported by a combination of narrative scenarios, modelling rules, and e-Participation tools (all Integrated via an ICT e-Governance platform): so the policy model for a given domain can be created iteratively using cooperation of several stakeholder groups (decision makers, analysts, companies, civic society, and the general public. •The Citychrone++ platform (http://whatif.cslparis.com/citychrone.html), provides users with a powerful tool to assess the present status of urban accessibility and design and evaluate future scenarios •It integrates flexible data analysis tools with a simple scenario simulation platform in the area of urban accessibility.
  • 24. 24www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu RC 5 – Data visualization •Visualization of dynamic data in real time. •Due to continuing advances in sensor technology and increasing availability of digital infrastructure that allows for acquisition, transfer, and storage of big data sets, large amounts of data become available even in real-time. •Since most analysis and visualization methods focus on static data sets, adding a dynamic component to the data source results in major challenges for both the automated and visual analysis methods •Besides typical technical challenges such as unpredictable data volumes, unexpected data features and unforeseen extreme values, a major challenge is the capability of analysis methods to work incrementally •Furthermore, scalability of visualization in face of big data availability is a permanent challenge, since visualization requires additional performances with respect to traditional analytics in order to allow for real time interaction and reduce latency •Finally, visualization is largely a demand-and design-driven research area. In this sense one of the main challenges is to ensure the multidisciplinary collaboration of engineering, statistics, computer science and graphic design. •Visualization of dynamic data in real time allows policy makers to react timely with respect to issues they face, identifying problems at an early stage, detect unexpected patterns and connections between data. •An example can be given by movement data (e.g., road, naval, or air-traffic) enabling analysis in several application fields (e.g., landscape planning and design, urban development, and infrastructure planning).
  • 25. 25www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Contribute to the Roadmap Input from experts and stakeholders • The most important part of the roadmap is published in commentable format - Short and long-term research challenges • New version of the roadmap to be published at the end of May in commentable format • The tool used is https://roadmap.bigpolicycanvas.eu/ linking to https://www.bigpolicycanvas.eu/results/roadmap
  • 26. 26www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu Events Related to the Roadmap The roadmap will be presented in several events in the following months • 6 June in Bruxelles: Co-Creation Summit within the scope of the Co-VAL project • 10-12 June in London: Conference Data for Policy (http://dataforpolicy.org/) - 10 June – Workshop for Policy Makers - 12 June – Paper Extracted from the Roadmap • 13-14 June in Venice: BPC final event will be celebrated in Major Cities of Europe Conference (www.majorcities.eu/conferences/2019-venice/) - People interested can get a discount to register in the MCE 2019 conference contacting us through the project email (info@bigpolicycanvas.eu), to attend the final event • 27 June in Riga: BDVA Big Data Panel Policy4Data – Lessons learnt and looking ahead • 2-5 September in Camerino: EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2019, workshop on the roadmap
  • 27. Thank you for your attention Francesco Mureddu Francesco.Mureddu@lisboncouncil.net This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 769623 www.BigPolicyCanvas.eu