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Introduction
Basketball (commonly nicknamed "B-ball" or "hoops") is a team
sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing
or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following
a set of rules. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely
viewed sports.[1]
A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches in
diameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a
field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. A
field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching
or closer to the hoop than the three-point line, and three points (a "3
pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The team with
more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime)
may be issued when the game ends with a tie. The ball can be advanced
on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or
passing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to walk with the
ball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resume
dribbling).
Basketball is one of the most popular team based sports played and
watched throughout the world. It is played by both males and females of
all ages and fitness levels. It is a game played by two opposing teams on
a court measuring 29 x 15 metres. The aim of the game is for each team
to defend a goal area while trying to score goals at the opposing end of
the court. Each team consists of ten players of which only five may take
the court at any one time during play.
For optimal performance during play at an elite level a variety of
areas must be addressed. These include the high skill level, flexibility,
muscular strength, endurance and importantly the specific use of both
the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
History
1. Creation
In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith,[2] a physical education
professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian
Association Training School[3] (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) in
Springfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym class
active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his
students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New
England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly
suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a
peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast with
modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls
had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this
proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed,[4]
allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.
Basketball was originally played with an association football. The first
balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the
late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more
visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is
now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except
for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary
means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but
limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a
major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the
ball shape
2. High school basketball
Before widespread school district consolidation, most American high
schools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. During the
first decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal
interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel
requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of
professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball
was unrivaled in many parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary of
high school teams was Indiana's Franklin Wonder Five, which took the
nation by storm during the 1920s, dominating Indiana basketball and
earning national recognition.
Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball
team in varsity competition.[12] Basketball's popularity remains high,
both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entire
community, as well as at some larger schools known for their basketball
teams where many players go on to participate at higher levels of
competition after graduation. In the 2003–04 season, 1,002,797 boys and
girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition,
according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.
Rules and regulations
Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary
among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are
used in this section.
The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the
ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the
opponents from doing so on their own. An attempt to score in this way is
called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it
is taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6.25 metres (20 ft 6 in)
from the basket in international games and 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) in
NBA games. A one-point shot can be earned when shooting from the
foul line after a foul is made.
Playing regulations
Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA)[27] or 12 minutes
(NBA).[28] College games use two 20-minute halves,[29] while high
school varsity games use 8 minute quarters.[30] 15 minutes are allowed
for a half-time break under FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rules[29][31][32] and
10 minutes in high school.[30] Overtime periods are five minutes in
length[29][33][34] except for high school which is four minutes in length.[30]
Teams exchange baskets for the second half. The time allowed is actual
playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore,
games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game
time, typically about two hours.
Five players from each team may be on the court at one time.[35][36][37][38]
Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped.
Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies
of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches,
managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers.
For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair
of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within the
team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers
that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players' names
and, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms.
Equipment
 Basketball (ball)
 Basketball court
 Backboard (basketball)
Fouls
The referee signals that a foul has been committed.
Personal foul (basketball) and Technical foul
An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physical
contact is illegal and is called a foul. These are most commonly
committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by
offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball
to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are
fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was
successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is
attempted from a line 15 feet (4.6 m) from the basket.
The referee may use discretion in calling fouls (for example, by
considering whether an unfair advantage was gained), sometimes
making fouls controversial calls or no-calls. The calling of fouls can
vary between games, leagues and even among referees.
Positions
Basketball positions in the offensive zone
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have
evolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades of
basketball's evolution, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or two
guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more
specific positions have evolved, namely:
1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the
team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets
to the right player at the right time
2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards
the opponent's best perimeter player on defense
3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via
cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks
rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively
4. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the
basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or
against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense)
5. center: uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the
basket closely (on defense), or to rebound.
The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will
choose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or the
center with a third guard. The most commonly interchanged positions
are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have good
leadership and ball handling skills.

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Basket ball

  • 1. Introduction Basketball (commonly nicknamed "B-ball" or "hoops") is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports.[1] A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop than the three-point line, and three points (a "3 pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The team with more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a tie. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or passing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to walk with the ball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resume dribbling). Basketball is one of the most popular team based sports played and watched throughout the world. It is played by both males and females of all ages and fitness levels. It is a game played by two opposing teams on a court measuring 29 x 15 metres. The aim of the game is for each team to defend a goal area while trying to score goals at the opposing end of the court. Each team consists of ten players of which only five may take the court at any one time during play. For optimal performance during play at an elite level a variety of areas must be addressed. These include the high skill level, flexibility, muscular strength, endurance and importantly the specific use of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
  • 2. History 1. Creation In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith,[2] a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School[3] (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed,[4] allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.
  • 3. Basketball was originally played with an association football. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the ball shape 2. High school basketball Before widespread school district consolidation, most American high schools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. During the first decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary of high school teams was Indiana's Franklin Wonder Five, which took the nation by storm during the 1920s, dominating Indiana basketball and earning national recognition. Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition.[12] Basketball's popularity remains high, both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entire community, as well as at some larger schools known for their basketball teams where many players go on to participate at higher levels of competition after graduation. In the 2003–04 season, 1,002,797 boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.
  • 4. Rules and regulations Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section. The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own. An attempt to score in this way is called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6.25 metres (20 ft 6 in) from the basket in international games and 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) in NBA games. A one-point shot can be earned when shooting from the foul line after a foul is made. Playing regulations Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA)[27] or 12 minutes (NBA).[28] College games use two 20-minute halves,[29] while high school varsity games use 8 minute quarters.[30] 15 minutes are allowed for a half-time break under FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rules[29][31][32] and 10 minutes in high school.[30] Overtime periods are five minutes in length[29][33][34] except for high school which is four minutes in length.[30] Teams exchange baskets for the second half. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours. Five players from each team may be on the court at one time.[35][36][37][38] Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped. Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers.
  • 5. For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players' names and, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms. Equipment  Basketball (ball)  Basketball court  Backboard (basketball) Fouls The referee signals that a foul has been committed. Personal foul (basketball) and Technical foul An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physical contact is illegal and is called a foul. These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was
  • 6. successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet (4.6 m) from the basket. The referee may use discretion in calling fouls (for example, by considering whether an unfair advantage was gained), sometimes making fouls controversial calls or no-calls. The calling of fouls can vary between games, leagues and even among referees. Positions Basketball positions in the offensive zone Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more specific positions have evolved, namely: 1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense
  • 7. 3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively 4. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense) 5. center: uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound. The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. The most commonly interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have good leadership and ball handling skills.