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INTRODUCTION TO
SAP2000 is general-purpose civil-engineering software ideal for the analysis and
design of engineering working on transportation, industrial, public works, sports,
and other facilities. Basic and advanced systems, ranging from 2D to 3D, of simple
geometry to complex, may be modeled, analyzed, designed, and optimized using a
practical and intuitive object-based modeling environment that simplifies and
streamlines the engineering process.
SAP2000 is object based, meaning that the models are created using members that
represent the physical reality. A beam with multiple members framing into it is
created as a single object, just as it exists in the real world, and the meshing needed
to ensure that connectivity exists with the other members is handled internally by
the program. Results for analysis and design are reported for the overall object, and
not for each sub-element that makes up the object, providing information that is
both easier to interpret and more consistent with the physical structure.
Integrated modeling templates, code-based loading assignments, advanced analysis
options, design-optimization procedures, and customizable output reports all
coordinate across a powerful platform to make SAP2000 especially useful for
practicing professionals. It has proven to be the most integrated, productive and
practical general purpose structural program. Now we can harness the power of
SAP2000 for all of our analysis and design tasks, including small day-to-day
problems.
Some Special Features of
1. Templates
SAP2000 has a wide selection of templates for quickly starting a new model.
SAP2000 includes parametric templates for the following types of structures:
Simple Beams, 3D Trusses, 3D Frames, Storage Vessels, Staircases, Dam
Structures, and Pipes.
2. Grid Systems
Grids can be defined as Cartesian or cylindrical in SAP2000. There is no limit
to the number of grid systems in model and they can be rotated in any direction
or placed at any origin within the model.
3. Plans and Elevations
Plan and elevation views are automatically generated at every grid line to allow
for quick navigation of the model. Users can create their own elevation sections
by using Developed Elevation features.
4. Interactive Database Editing
Interactive database editing allows users to edit model data in a table view
which simplifies the task of making changes to the model. Tables are easily
exportable and importable from Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access.
5. Messing Tools
Engineers have many options when it comes to mesh generation in SAP2000.
Simply select area object and then select the rules for the automatic mesh
generator to use.
6. Structural Components
a) Joints: SAP2000 automatically creates joints at structural object
intersections or internal joints when meshing structural objects. Joint
coordinates and information may be displayed on screen in the model
window or in tabular format.
b) Frames: The frame element uses a general, three dimensional, beam-
column formulation which includes the effects of biaxial bending, torsion,
axial deformation, and biaxial shear deformations. SAP2000 has a built-in
library of standard concrete, steel and composite section properties of
International Standard sections.
c) Cables: The cable element is a highly nonlinear element used to model the
catenary behaviour of slender cables under their own self-weight. Tension-
stiffing and large deflection nonlinearity are inherently included in the
formulation.
There are more components like tendons, shells, solids, links, hinges and springs.
7. Loading
a) Automatic Code Based Loading: SAP2000 will automatically generate
and apply seismic and wind loads based on various domestic and international
codes. SAP2000 also has a sophisticated moving load generator that allows
users to apply moving loads to lanes on frame and shell elements.
b) Wave loads: The wave-loading feature automatically generates loading on
the structure resulting from waves, current flow, buoyancy, and wind.
Multi-stepped static linear loading can be generated to simulate the wane
moving through the structure. In addition, dynamic (time-history) loading
can also be generated to include inertial effects as the wave moves through
the structure.
c) User Loads: Define specific loads to model a wide array of loading
conditions with SAP2000 built-in user loading options.
8. Analysis
a) Static: SAP2000 can perform both linear static and multi-step static
analysis.
b) Dynamic: SAP2000 dynamic analysis capabilities include the calculation
of vibration modes using Ritz or Eigen, response spectrum analysis, and time-
history analysis for both linear and nonlinear behaviour.
c) Buckling: Linear (bifurcation) buckling modes of a structure can be found
under any set of loads.
d) P-Delta: P-Delta analysis captures the softening effect of compression and
stiffening effect of tension.
e) Pushover: Pushover analysis features in SAP2000 include the
implementation of FEMA 356 and the hinge and fibre hinge option based on
stress-strain.
9. Load Combinations: SAP2000 allows for an unlimited number of load cases
and combinations. Load combination types include: linear addictive, envelope
(min/max), absolute add, SRSS, and range combinations. Combination
components can include other combinations.
10.Model Alive: For small to medium sized structures, analysis can be performed
on the fly as you build and modify the model. For each change you make to the
geometry, properties, or loading, the structure instantly responds with the new
deformed shaped, moment diagram, or any other plot of results. It’s like
working with a live model, and it is a very powerful tool for conceptual design
and for testing “what-if” scenarios.
11.Design:
a) Steel Frame: Fully integrated steel frame design includes member size
optimization and implementation of design codes. SAP2000 allows users to
interactively view design results at any frame member, change the parameters
or section properties, and display the updated member results.
b) Concrete Frame: Fully integrated concrete frame design in SAP2000
includes: required area of steel calculations, auto selection lists for new
member sizing, implementation of design codes, interactive design and
review, and comprehensive overwrite capabilities.
It also has Aluminium Frame and Cold Formed Frame design option.
12.Output and Display
a) Deformed Geometry: Users can display deformed geometry based on
any load or combination of load, as well as animations of modes.
b) Force Diagrams: Shear and moment diagrams display internal shear forces,
moments, and displacements at all locations along the length of a frame
element for any load case or load combination. SAP2000 gives the option to
scroll along the length to display values or scroll directly to the maximum
value location.
c) Virtual Work Diagrams: In SAP2000, virtual work diagrams can be used
as an aid to determine which elements should be stiffened to achieve the
most efficient control over the lateral displacements of a structure.
13.Tabular Output: SAP2000 has the ability to display tables for all input data,
analysis results, and design results. Tables supportsort, cut, copy and paste for
use in the programs. Print or save tabular data to Access, Excel, Word, HTML,
or TEXT.
14.Video Animations: SAP2000 has the ability to generate video (.avi) files to
visually display a set of analysis results that vary over a particular time period,
such as in a time history analysis.
15.Load Optimizer: The load optimizer is a tool in SAP2000 to compute the
optimal load application to achieve desired structural response. Loads may be
applied linearly, nonlinearly, or in staged-construction. Goals and limits may
include displacements, forces, moments and more.
16.Reporting: Pre-formatted printed reports are available at the push of a button.
These reports include all pertinent
17.Section Designer: Section Designer is a utility that is built into SAP2000. It
allows users the ability to create specialized sections of any arbitrary shape and
material, including rebar layout. All sections properties, biaxial interaction
diagrams, and moment curvature diagrams are automatically calculated.
18.Import and Export: SAP2000 supports many industry standards for
importing and exporting data. Autodesk Revit Structure, Tekla Structures,
AutoCAD (AXF/DWG), CIS/2, IFC, IGES, and SDNF are all supported.
SAP2000 also supports exporting of a model to a Microsoft Access database. If
users are using other analysis packages, SAP2000 can import files from
FrameWorks Plus, STAAD, and STRUDL.

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Basics of sap2000

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO SAP2000 is general-purpose civil-engineering software ideal for the analysis and design of engineering working on transportation, industrial, public works, sports, and other facilities. Basic and advanced systems, ranging from 2D to 3D, of simple geometry to complex, may be modeled, analyzed, designed, and optimized using a practical and intuitive object-based modeling environment that simplifies and streamlines the engineering process. SAP2000 is object based, meaning that the models are created using members that represent the physical reality. A beam with multiple members framing into it is created as a single object, just as it exists in the real world, and the meshing needed to ensure that connectivity exists with the other members is handled internally by the program. Results for analysis and design are reported for the overall object, and not for each sub-element that makes up the object, providing information that is both easier to interpret and more consistent with the physical structure. Integrated modeling templates, code-based loading assignments, advanced analysis options, design-optimization procedures, and customizable output reports all coordinate across a powerful platform to make SAP2000 especially useful for practicing professionals. It has proven to be the most integrated, productive and practical general purpose structural program. Now we can harness the power of SAP2000 for all of our analysis and design tasks, including small day-to-day problems.
  • 2. Some Special Features of 1. Templates SAP2000 has a wide selection of templates for quickly starting a new model. SAP2000 includes parametric templates for the following types of structures: Simple Beams, 3D Trusses, 3D Frames, Storage Vessels, Staircases, Dam Structures, and Pipes. 2. Grid Systems Grids can be defined as Cartesian or cylindrical in SAP2000. There is no limit to the number of grid systems in model and they can be rotated in any direction or placed at any origin within the model. 3. Plans and Elevations Plan and elevation views are automatically generated at every grid line to allow for quick navigation of the model. Users can create their own elevation sections by using Developed Elevation features. 4. Interactive Database Editing Interactive database editing allows users to edit model data in a table view which simplifies the task of making changes to the model. Tables are easily exportable and importable from Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access. 5. Messing Tools Engineers have many options when it comes to mesh generation in SAP2000. Simply select area object and then select the rules for the automatic mesh generator to use. 6. Structural Components a) Joints: SAP2000 automatically creates joints at structural object intersections or internal joints when meshing structural objects. Joint coordinates and information may be displayed on screen in the model window or in tabular format.
  • 3. b) Frames: The frame element uses a general, three dimensional, beam- column formulation which includes the effects of biaxial bending, torsion, axial deformation, and biaxial shear deformations. SAP2000 has a built-in library of standard concrete, steel and composite section properties of International Standard sections. c) Cables: The cable element is a highly nonlinear element used to model the catenary behaviour of slender cables under their own self-weight. Tension- stiffing and large deflection nonlinearity are inherently included in the formulation. There are more components like tendons, shells, solids, links, hinges and springs. 7. Loading a) Automatic Code Based Loading: SAP2000 will automatically generate and apply seismic and wind loads based on various domestic and international codes. SAP2000 also has a sophisticated moving load generator that allows users to apply moving loads to lanes on frame and shell elements. b) Wave loads: The wave-loading feature automatically generates loading on the structure resulting from waves, current flow, buoyancy, and wind. Multi-stepped static linear loading can be generated to simulate the wane moving through the structure. In addition, dynamic (time-history) loading can also be generated to include inertial effects as the wave moves through the structure.
  • 4. c) User Loads: Define specific loads to model a wide array of loading conditions with SAP2000 built-in user loading options. 8. Analysis a) Static: SAP2000 can perform both linear static and multi-step static analysis. b) Dynamic: SAP2000 dynamic analysis capabilities include the calculation of vibration modes using Ritz or Eigen, response spectrum analysis, and time- history analysis for both linear and nonlinear behaviour. c) Buckling: Linear (bifurcation) buckling modes of a structure can be found under any set of loads. d) P-Delta: P-Delta analysis captures the softening effect of compression and stiffening effect of tension. e) Pushover: Pushover analysis features in SAP2000 include the implementation of FEMA 356 and the hinge and fibre hinge option based on stress-strain. 9. Load Combinations: SAP2000 allows for an unlimited number of load cases and combinations. Load combination types include: linear addictive, envelope (min/max), absolute add, SRSS, and range combinations. Combination components can include other combinations. 10.Model Alive: For small to medium sized structures, analysis can be performed on the fly as you build and modify the model. For each change you make to the geometry, properties, or loading, the structure instantly responds with the new deformed shaped, moment diagram, or any other plot of results. It’s like
  • 5. working with a live model, and it is a very powerful tool for conceptual design and for testing “what-if” scenarios. 11.Design: a) Steel Frame: Fully integrated steel frame design includes member size optimization and implementation of design codes. SAP2000 allows users to interactively view design results at any frame member, change the parameters or section properties, and display the updated member results. b) Concrete Frame: Fully integrated concrete frame design in SAP2000 includes: required area of steel calculations, auto selection lists for new member sizing, implementation of design codes, interactive design and review, and comprehensive overwrite capabilities. It also has Aluminium Frame and Cold Formed Frame design option. 12.Output and Display a) Deformed Geometry: Users can display deformed geometry based on any load or combination of load, as well as animations of modes. b) Force Diagrams: Shear and moment diagrams display internal shear forces, moments, and displacements at all locations along the length of a frame element for any load case or load combination. SAP2000 gives the option to scroll along the length to display values or scroll directly to the maximum value location. c) Virtual Work Diagrams: In SAP2000, virtual work diagrams can be used as an aid to determine which elements should be stiffened to achieve the most efficient control over the lateral displacements of a structure.
  • 6. 13.Tabular Output: SAP2000 has the ability to display tables for all input data, analysis results, and design results. Tables supportsort, cut, copy and paste for use in the programs. Print or save tabular data to Access, Excel, Word, HTML, or TEXT. 14.Video Animations: SAP2000 has the ability to generate video (.avi) files to visually display a set of analysis results that vary over a particular time period, such as in a time history analysis. 15.Load Optimizer: The load optimizer is a tool in SAP2000 to compute the optimal load application to achieve desired structural response. Loads may be applied linearly, nonlinearly, or in staged-construction. Goals and limits may include displacements, forces, moments and more. 16.Reporting: Pre-formatted printed reports are available at the push of a button. These reports include all pertinent 17.Section Designer: Section Designer is a utility that is built into SAP2000. It allows users the ability to create specialized sections of any arbitrary shape and material, including rebar layout. All sections properties, biaxial interaction diagrams, and moment curvature diagrams are automatically calculated. 18.Import and Export: SAP2000 supports many industry standards for importing and exporting data. Autodesk Revit Structure, Tekla Structures, AutoCAD (AXF/DWG), CIS/2, IFC, IGES, and SDNF are all supported. SAP2000 also supports exporting of a model to a Microsoft Access database. If users are using other analysis packages, SAP2000 can import files from FrameWorks Plus, STAAD, and STRUDL.