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Basic Radiation Safety
Awareness Training
Radiation Safety Program
713-500-5840
Environmental Health and Safety
Outline
 History of Radiation
 Natural & Man-Made Background Sources of
Radiation
 Fundamentals
 Exposure Limits & Regulations
 Detection of Radiation
 Safe Practices with Radiation
 Biological Effects of Radiation
 Where to Find Further Information
First Known Human Use of
Uranium
 79 A D
 Roman artisans
produce yellow
colored glass in
mosaic mural near
Naples, Italy
Radium Effects Confirmed
 1925
 Suspicions develop
around watch dial
painters’ jaw lesions
 Dentists diagnose lesions
as jaw necrosis due to
radium deposits in jaw
bone
 Doctor notes bone
changes and anemia in
dial painters
What is Radiation?
Radiation: energy in motion
Radioactivity: spontaneous emission of radiation from the
nucleus of an unstable atom
Isotope: atoms with the same number of protons, but different
number of neutrons
Radioisotope: unstable isotope of an element that decays or
disintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation. Approximately
5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified
Types of Radiation
Non-Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that does not have sufficient
energy to dislodge orbital electrons.
Examples of non-ionizing radiation: microwaves, ultraviolet
light, lasers, radio waves, infrared light, and radar.
Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that has sufficient energy to
dislodge orbital electrons.
Examples of ionizing radiation: alpha particles, beta particles,
neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays.
Radiation Spectrum
Radioactive
Waste
Radon
X-Rays
Consumer
Products
Nuclear
Power
Nuclear
Medicine
Solar Radiation
Cosmic Rays
Terrestrial
Radiation
Food &
Drink
Each
Other


RADIOACTIVE SOURCES
Terrestrial Radiation
Common radionuclides created during formation of earth:
–Radioactive Potassium (K-40) found in bananas,
throughout the human body, in plant fertilizer and
anywhere else stable potassium exists.
–Radioactive Rubidium (Rb-87) is found in brazil nuts
among other things.
Terrestrial radiation comes from radioactivity emitting from
Primordial radio nuclides - these are radio nuclides left over
from when the earth was created.
Terrestrial Radiation
 Greatest contributor is 226Ra (Radium) with
significant levels also from 238U, 232Th, and 40K.
 Igneous rock contains the highest concentration
followed by sedimentary, sandstone and limestone.
 Fly ash from coal burning plants contains more
radiation than that of nuclear or oil-fired plants.


Let’s Compare Backgrounds
 Sea level - 30 mrem/year
from cosmic radiation
 10,000 ft. altitude - 140 mrem/year
from cosmic radiation
Consumer Products and
Radioactive Material
 There are more sources of radiation in the
consumer product category than in any other.
 Television sets - low energy x-rays.
 Smoke detectors
 Some more products or services:
treatment of agricultural products; long
lasting light bulbs; building materials;
static eliminators in manufacturing; and
luminous dials of watches, clocks and
compasses
Annual Dose from
Background Radiation
Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year
Total exposure Man-made sources
Radon
Internal 11%
Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 6%
Man-Made 18%
55.0%
Medical X-Rays
Nuclear
Medicine 4%
Consumer
Products 3%
Other 1%
11%
The Anatomy of the Atom
Ionizing radiation
 Occurs from the addition or removal of
electrons from neutral atoms
 Four main types of ionizing radiation
 alpha, beta, gamma and neutrons
 Alpha
 Beta
 Gamma (X-ray)
n Neutron
Linear Energy Transfer
ALARA
 As Low As Reasonably Achievable
 How?
 Time
 Distance
 Shielding
 Why?
 Minimize Dose
Time
 Less time = Less radiation exposure
 Use RAM only when necessary
 Dry runs (without radioactive material)
 Identify portions of the experiment that can be altered in order to
decrease exposure times
 Shorten time when near RAM
 Obtaining higher doses in order to get an
experiment done quicker is NOT “reasonable”!
Distance
 Effective & Easy
 Inverse Square Law
 Doubling distance from source,
decreases dose by factor of four
 Tripling it decreases dose nine-fold
 More Distance = Less Radiation
Exposure
 Tongs, Tweezers, Pipettes, Pliers
Shielding
 Materials “absorb” radiation
 Proper shielding = Less
Radiation Exposure
 Plexiglass vs. Lead
Shielding Examples
•
 Shielding used where
appropriate
 Significantly reduces
radiation effects
Lead
Plexiglas
Radiation Shielding
 Radiation use will be labeled on door, work area & storage area
 Research laboratories work with very low levels of radioactive materials
 Safety can check for potential contamination prior to work in a lab that
uses radioactive materials
 As a precaution: wear gloves, safety glasses and wash hands
Radiation Postings
Inappropriate Lab Attire
Appropriate Lab Attire
 Lab coat
 Eye protection
 Closed toe shoes
 Personnel monitoring
 Gloves
Route of Entry for Exposure
Laboratory Wipe Tests
 Fill out form RS-8
 Draw map of laboratory
 Take wipes of surfaces (10 cm2) throughout lab
 Run wipes monthly for possible contamination
 Document all information on form and place in
Radiation Safety Binder
Common Units
 Radioactivity
 Exposure
 Absorbed Dose
 Dose Equivalent
Units are Cool
Radioactivity
 Rate of Decay / Potential to Decay
 “Strength”
 Curie (Ci) - 1 gram of radium
disintegrates
 3.7 X 1010 disintegration/
second (dps)
 Becquerel (Bq)
= 1 disintegration/second (dps)
 1 mCi = 37 MBq
Exposure
 Radioactivity is measured in Roentgens (R)
 Charge produced in air from ionization by
gamma and x-rays
 ONLY for photons in air
 Rather infrequently used unit
 A measure of what is emitted
Absorbed Dose
 Energy deposited by any form of ionizing
radiation in a unit mass of material
 Roentgen Absorbed Dose (rad)
 Gray (Gy)
 1 Gy = 100 rad
Dose Equivalent
 Scale for equating relative hazards of
various types of ionization in terms of
equivalent risk
 Damage in tissue measured in rem
 (Roentgen Equivalent Man)
 Q:risk of biological injury
 rem = Q * rad
 Sievert (Sv)
 1 Sv = 100 rem
What do we really need to
know?
 1 R  1 rad = 1 rem
 For gammas & betas*
 1 rad  1 rem
 For alphas, neutrons & protons
 1 rem = 1 rad * Q
And why do we want to know
it?
 Dosage and dosimetry are measured and
reported in rems.
 All the Federal and State regulations are
written in rems.
 The regulators must be placated with
reports in rems.
Annual Radiation Exposure
Limits
Occupationally Exposed Worker:
rem mrem
Whole body 5 5000
Eye 15 15,000
Shallow 50 50,000
Minor 0.5 500
Pregnant Worker 0.5* 500*
_____________*9 months_
General Public: 100 mrem/year or 2mrem/hour
Why Establish Occupational
Exposure Limits?
 We want to eliminate ability of
non-stochastic effects (Acute) to
occur
 Example: Skin Reddening
 We want to reduce the
probability of the occurrence of
stochastic effects (Chronic)
to same level as other
occupations
 Example: Leukemia
 Established from
Accident Data
Whole Body
 Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)
 TEDE = Internal + External
 Assume Internal Contribution Zero
 Unless Ingestion, Absorption or Inhalation
Suspected
 Limit = 5 rem / yr
Ensuring Compliance to Radiation
Exposure Limits
 Use the established activity limit for each isotope
 Compare with similar situations
 Estimate with meter
 Calculate
 Time, Distance, Shielding, Type, Energy, Geometry
 Measure
 TLD Chip, Luxel
 Bioassay
Who should wear radiation
dosimeters or badges?
 Those “likely” to exceed 10% of their
annual limit are required
 Those who would like a badge
 Minors & Declared Pregnant Workers*
Types of Badges Available
Rules, Rights & Responsibilities as a
Radiation Worker
 Department of State Health Services
 Radiation Control
 Texas Regulations for Control of Radiation
 In Accordance with Texas Radiation
Control Act, Health & Safety Code, Ch
401
 25 TAC (Texas Administrative Code) 289
Detection of Radiation
Radiation Detectors
 General Classes of
Detectors
 Gas-Filled Detectors
 Solid Detectors
 Liquid Detectors
Gas-Filled Detectors
 Proportional Counter
 Ion Chambers
 Geiger-Mueller
Counters
 Main Difference -
Charge
Multiplication
 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC)
More Radiation Misconceptions
 Radiation does not
give you super human
powers
 Radiation will not
make you glow in
the dark
Summary of Biological Effects of
Radiation
 Radiation may…
 Deposit Energy in Body
 Cause DNA Damage
 Create Ionizations in Body
 Leading to Free Radicals
 Which may lead to biological damage
Radiation Effects on Cells
 Radio sensitivity Theory of Bergonie &
Tribondeau.
 Cell are radiosensitive if they :
 Have a high division rate
 Have a long dividing future
 Are of an unspecialized type
 These are the underlying premise for ALARA
Response to radiation depends on:
 Total dose
 Dose rate
 Radiation quality
 Stage of development at the time of
exposure
Whole Body Effects
 Acute or Nonstochastic
 Occur when the radiation dose is large enough to
cause extensive biological damage to cells so that
large numbers of cells die off.
 Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early).
 Late or Stochastic (Delayed)
 Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure.
 Genetic
 Somatic
 Teratogenic
Most and Least Radiosensitive Cells
Low Sensitivity Mature red blood cells
Muscle cells
Ganglion cells
Mature connective tissues
High Sensitivity Gastric mucosa
Mucous membranes
Esophageal epithelium
Urinary bladder epithelium
Very High Sensitivity Primitive blood cells
Intestinal epithelium
Spermatogonia
Ovarian follicular cells
Lymphocytes
Comparison of Administrative, Regulatory and Biological
Effect Doses
100% of People Die,
CNS Syndrome
Permanent Infertility
Whole Body Regulatory Limit (5 rem/yr)
Eye Regulatory Limit (15 rem/yr)
50% of People Die (450 – 500 rad)
Nausea & Vomiting (10% of People)
Whole Body UTHSCH Administrative
Limit (0.125 rem/month)
Whole Body Exposure
Partial Body Exposure
Extremities Regulatory Limit (50 rem/yr)
Eye UTHSCH Administrative
Limit (0.375 rem/month)
Rad or Rem
Extremities UTHSCH Administrative
Limit (1.275 rem/month)
General Public Whole Body Regulatory
Limit (0.100 rem/yr)
No Clinical Symptoms Seen Below 10 rem
Cataract Formation
Loss of Hair
Skin Reddening
Decreased White Blood Cell Count
Ulcers on the Skin
Molecular Death (> 100,000 rad)
Gastrointestinal Syndrome
Medical Treatment
 External Decontamination
 Mild cleaning solution applied to
intact skin
 Betadine, Soap, Rad-Con for hands
 Never use harsh abrasive or steel
wool
 Internal Decontamination
 Treatment which enhances excretion
of radionuclides
<5 rem
82%
10-25 rem
5%
25-100 rem
3%
5-10 rem
8%
>100 rem
2%
How Often Does This Happen?
Results of reported exposure-related incidents in Texas
1956 – 2000
Source: Emery, et. al.
Only 2% at the
Level that Clinical
Effects From
Radiation Can be
Seen
(n=3,148)
Where to Find More Radiation
Safety Information….
 Basic Radiation Safety Training (6-hr) Required
for All Individuals Working with Radiation
 July 11 & 12th – 9 a.m. to Noon (both days)
 Call at 713-500-5840
 Website www.uth.tmc.edu/safety
 Radiation Safety Manual
 Important Safety Information Posted in Every
Laboratory (Yellow)
BasicRadiationSafetyTrainingAwareness5-23-06.ppt

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BasicRadiationSafetyTrainingAwareness5-23-06.ppt

  • 1. Basic Radiation Safety Awareness Training Radiation Safety Program 713-500-5840 Environmental Health and Safety
  • 2. Outline  History of Radiation  Natural & Man-Made Background Sources of Radiation  Fundamentals  Exposure Limits & Regulations  Detection of Radiation  Safe Practices with Radiation  Biological Effects of Radiation  Where to Find Further Information
  • 3. First Known Human Use of Uranium  79 A D  Roman artisans produce yellow colored glass in mosaic mural near Naples, Italy
  • 4. Radium Effects Confirmed  1925  Suspicions develop around watch dial painters’ jaw lesions  Dentists diagnose lesions as jaw necrosis due to radium deposits in jaw bone  Doctor notes bone changes and anemia in dial painters
  • 5. What is Radiation? Radiation: energy in motion Radioactivity: spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable atom Isotope: atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons Radioisotope: unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation. Approximately 5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified
  • 6. Types of Radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. Examples of non-ionizing radiation: microwaves, ultraviolet light, lasers, radio waves, infrared light, and radar. Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that has sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. Examples of ionizing radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays.
  • 9. Terrestrial Radiation Common radionuclides created during formation of earth: –Radioactive Potassium (K-40) found in bananas, throughout the human body, in plant fertilizer and anywhere else stable potassium exists. –Radioactive Rubidium (Rb-87) is found in brazil nuts among other things. Terrestrial radiation comes from radioactivity emitting from Primordial radio nuclides - these are radio nuclides left over from when the earth was created.
  • 10. Terrestrial Radiation  Greatest contributor is 226Ra (Radium) with significant levels also from 238U, 232Th, and 40K.  Igneous rock contains the highest concentration followed by sedimentary, sandstone and limestone.  Fly ash from coal burning plants contains more radiation than that of nuclear or oil-fired plants.  
  • 11. Let’s Compare Backgrounds  Sea level - 30 mrem/year from cosmic radiation  10,000 ft. altitude - 140 mrem/year from cosmic radiation
  • 12. Consumer Products and Radioactive Material  There are more sources of radiation in the consumer product category than in any other.  Television sets - low energy x-rays.  Smoke detectors  Some more products or services: treatment of agricultural products; long lasting light bulbs; building materials; static eliminators in manufacturing; and luminous dials of watches, clocks and compasses
  • 13. Annual Dose from Background Radiation Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year Total exposure Man-made sources Radon Internal 11% Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 6% Man-Made 18% 55.0% Medical X-Rays Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products 3% Other 1% 11%
  • 14. The Anatomy of the Atom
  • 15. Ionizing radiation  Occurs from the addition or removal of electrons from neutral atoms  Four main types of ionizing radiation  alpha, beta, gamma and neutrons  Alpha  Beta  Gamma (X-ray) n Neutron
  • 17. ALARA  As Low As Reasonably Achievable  How?  Time  Distance  Shielding  Why?  Minimize Dose
  • 18. Time  Less time = Less radiation exposure  Use RAM only when necessary  Dry runs (without radioactive material)  Identify portions of the experiment that can be altered in order to decrease exposure times  Shorten time when near RAM  Obtaining higher doses in order to get an experiment done quicker is NOT “reasonable”!
  • 19. Distance  Effective & Easy  Inverse Square Law  Doubling distance from source, decreases dose by factor of four  Tripling it decreases dose nine-fold  More Distance = Less Radiation Exposure  Tongs, Tweezers, Pipettes, Pliers
  • 20. Shielding  Materials “absorb” radiation  Proper shielding = Less Radiation Exposure  Plexiglass vs. Lead
  • 22. •  Shielding used where appropriate  Significantly reduces radiation effects Lead Plexiglas Radiation Shielding
  • 23.  Radiation use will be labeled on door, work area & storage area  Research laboratories work with very low levels of radioactive materials  Safety can check for potential contamination prior to work in a lab that uses radioactive materials  As a precaution: wear gloves, safety glasses and wash hands Radiation Postings
  • 25. Appropriate Lab Attire  Lab coat  Eye protection  Closed toe shoes  Personnel monitoring  Gloves
  • 26. Route of Entry for Exposure
  • 27. Laboratory Wipe Tests  Fill out form RS-8  Draw map of laboratory  Take wipes of surfaces (10 cm2) throughout lab  Run wipes monthly for possible contamination  Document all information on form and place in Radiation Safety Binder
  • 28. Common Units  Radioactivity  Exposure  Absorbed Dose  Dose Equivalent Units are Cool
  • 29. Radioactivity  Rate of Decay / Potential to Decay  “Strength”  Curie (Ci) - 1 gram of radium disintegrates  3.7 X 1010 disintegration/ second (dps)  Becquerel (Bq) = 1 disintegration/second (dps)  1 mCi = 37 MBq
  • 30. Exposure  Radioactivity is measured in Roentgens (R)  Charge produced in air from ionization by gamma and x-rays  ONLY for photons in air  Rather infrequently used unit  A measure of what is emitted
  • 31. Absorbed Dose  Energy deposited by any form of ionizing radiation in a unit mass of material  Roentgen Absorbed Dose (rad)  Gray (Gy)  1 Gy = 100 rad
  • 32. Dose Equivalent  Scale for equating relative hazards of various types of ionization in terms of equivalent risk  Damage in tissue measured in rem  (Roentgen Equivalent Man)  Q:risk of biological injury  rem = Q * rad  Sievert (Sv)  1 Sv = 100 rem
  • 33. What do we really need to know?  1 R  1 rad = 1 rem  For gammas & betas*  1 rad  1 rem  For alphas, neutrons & protons  1 rem = 1 rad * Q
  • 34. And why do we want to know it?  Dosage and dosimetry are measured and reported in rems.  All the Federal and State regulations are written in rems.  The regulators must be placated with reports in rems.
  • 35. Annual Radiation Exposure Limits Occupationally Exposed Worker: rem mrem Whole body 5 5000 Eye 15 15,000 Shallow 50 50,000 Minor 0.5 500 Pregnant Worker 0.5* 500* _____________*9 months_ General Public: 100 mrem/year or 2mrem/hour
  • 36. Why Establish Occupational Exposure Limits?  We want to eliminate ability of non-stochastic effects (Acute) to occur  Example: Skin Reddening  We want to reduce the probability of the occurrence of stochastic effects (Chronic) to same level as other occupations  Example: Leukemia  Established from Accident Data
  • 37. Whole Body  Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)  TEDE = Internal + External  Assume Internal Contribution Zero  Unless Ingestion, Absorption or Inhalation Suspected  Limit = 5 rem / yr
  • 38. Ensuring Compliance to Radiation Exposure Limits  Use the established activity limit for each isotope  Compare with similar situations  Estimate with meter  Calculate  Time, Distance, Shielding, Type, Energy, Geometry  Measure  TLD Chip, Luxel  Bioassay
  • 39. Who should wear radiation dosimeters or badges?  Those “likely” to exceed 10% of their annual limit are required  Those who would like a badge  Minors & Declared Pregnant Workers*
  • 40. Types of Badges Available
  • 41. Rules, Rights & Responsibilities as a Radiation Worker  Department of State Health Services  Radiation Control  Texas Regulations for Control of Radiation  In Accordance with Texas Radiation Control Act, Health & Safety Code, Ch 401  25 TAC (Texas Administrative Code) 289
  • 43. Radiation Detectors  General Classes of Detectors  Gas-Filled Detectors  Solid Detectors  Liquid Detectors
  • 44. Gas-Filled Detectors  Proportional Counter  Ion Chambers  Geiger-Mueller Counters  Main Difference - Charge Multiplication
  • 45.  Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC)
  • 46.
  • 47. More Radiation Misconceptions  Radiation does not give you super human powers  Radiation will not make you glow in the dark
  • 48. Summary of Biological Effects of Radiation  Radiation may…  Deposit Energy in Body  Cause DNA Damage  Create Ionizations in Body  Leading to Free Radicals  Which may lead to biological damage
  • 49. Radiation Effects on Cells  Radio sensitivity Theory of Bergonie & Tribondeau.  Cell are radiosensitive if they :  Have a high division rate  Have a long dividing future  Are of an unspecialized type  These are the underlying premise for ALARA
  • 50. Response to radiation depends on:  Total dose  Dose rate  Radiation quality  Stage of development at the time of exposure
  • 51. Whole Body Effects  Acute or Nonstochastic  Occur when the radiation dose is large enough to cause extensive biological damage to cells so that large numbers of cells die off.  Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early).  Late or Stochastic (Delayed)  Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure.  Genetic  Somatic  Teratogenic
  • 52. Most and Least Radiosensitive Cells Low Sensitivity Mature red blood cells Muscle cells Ganglion cells Mature connective tissues High Sensitivity Gastric mucosa Mucous membranes Esophageal epithelium Urinary bladder epithelium Very High Sensitivity Primitive blood cells Intestinal epithelium Spermatogonia Ovarian follicular cells Lymphocytes
  • 53. Comparison of Administrative, Regulatory and Biological Effect Doses 100% of People Die, CNS Syndrome Permanent Infertility Whole Body Regulatory Limit (5 rem/yr) Eye Regulatory Limit (15 rem/yr) 50% of People Die (450 – 500 rad) Nausea & Vomiting (10% of People) Whole Body UTHSCH Administrative Limit (0.125 rem/month) Whole Body Exposure Partial Body Exposure Extremities Regulatory Limit (50 rem/yr) Eye UTHSCH Administrative Limit (0.375 rem/month) Rad or Rem Extremities UTHSCH Administrative Limit (1.275 rem/month) General Public Whole Body Regulatory Limit (0.100 rem/yr) No Clinical Symptoms Seen Below 10 rem Cataract Formation Loss of Hair Skin Reddening Decreased White Blood Cell Count Ulcers on the Skin Molecular Death (> 100,000 rad) Gastrointestinal Syndrome
  • 54. Medical Treatment  External Decontamination  Mild cleaning solution applied to intact skin  Betadine, Soap, Rad-Con for hands  Never use harsh abrasive or steel wool  Internal Decontamination  Treatment which enhances excretion of radionuclides
  • 55. <5 rem 82% 10-25 rem 5% 25-100 rem 3% 5-10 rem 8% >100 rem 2% How Often Does This Happen? Results of reported exposure-related incidents in Texas 1956 – 2000 Source: Emery, et. al. Only 2% at the Level that Clinical Effects From Radiation Can be Seen (n=3,148)
  • 56. Where to Find More Radiation Safety Information….  Basic Radiation Safety Training (6-hr) Required for All Individuals Working with Radiation  July 11 & 12th – 9 a.m. to Noon (both days)  Call at 713-500-5840  Website www.uth.tmc.edu/safety  Radiation Safety Manual  Important Safety Information Posted in Every Laboratory (Yellow)