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University of Pennsylvania
Basic Electronics
Things to be covered:
• What is electricity
• Voltage, Current, Resistance
• Ohm’s Law
• Capacitors, Inductors
• Semiconductors
• Mechanical Components
• Digital Electronics
University of Pennsylvania
What is Electricity
• Everything is made of atoms
• There are 118 elements, an atom is a single part of an
element
• Atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons
University of Pennsylvania
• Electrons (- charge) are attracted to protons (+ charge), this
holds the atom together
• Some materials have strong attraction and refuse to loss
electrons, these are called insulators (air, glass, rubber, most
plastics)
• Some materials have weak attractions and allow electrons to be
lost, these are called conductors (copper, silver, gold,
aluminum)
• Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another, this
is called a current of electricity.
University of Pennsylvania
• Surplus of electrons is called a
negative charge (-). A shortage
of electrons is called a positive
charge (+).
• A battery provides a surplus of
electrons by chemical reaction.
• By connecting a conductor
from the positive terminal to
negative terminal electrons will
flow.
University of Pennsylvania
Voltage
• A battery positive terminal (+) and a negative terminal (-). The
difference in charge between each terminal is the potential
energy the battery can provide. This is labeled in units of volts.
Water Analogy
University of Pennsylvania
Voltage Sources:
University of Pennsylvania
• Voltage is like differential pressure,
always measure between two points.
• Measure voltage between two points
or across a component in a circuit.
• When measuring DC voltage make
sure polarity of meter is correct,
positive (+) red, negative (-) black.
University of Pennsylvania
Ground
University of Pennsylvania
Exercise
• Measure DC voltage from power supply using multimeter
• Measure DC voltage from power supply using oscilloscope
• Measure DC voltage from battery using multimeter
• Measure AC voltage from wall outlet using a multimeter
• Measure AC voltage from wall outlet using an oscilloscope
Effective or Root Mean Square Voltage
(Measured with multimeter)
ERMS=0.707xEA
E
University of Pennsylvania
Current
• Uniform flow of electrons thru a circuit is called current.
WILL USE CONVENTIONAL FLOW NOTATION ON
ALL SCHEMATICS
University of Pennsylvania
• To measure current, must break circuit and install meter in line.
• Measurement is imperfect because of voltage drop created by meter.
University of Pennsylvania
Resistance
• All materials have a resistance that is dependent on cross-
sectional area, material type and temperature.
• A resistor dissipates power in the form of heat
University of Pennsylvania
Various resistors types
University of Pennsylvania
When measuring resistance, remove
component from the circuit.
University of Pennsylvania
Resistor Color Code
University of Pennsylvania
• Determine the resistance of various resistors of unknown
value using the resistor color code
• Using the multimeter, compare the specified resistance and
measured resistance
• Using the multimeter to examine the characteristics of various
potentiometers
Exercise
University of Pennsylvania
Ohm’s Law
University of Pennsylvania
Prototyping Board
Example of how components are
Inserted in the protoboard
University of Pennsylvania
Exercise
• Calculate the total current and voltage drop across each resistor shown in Figure 1
• Build the circuit in Figure 1 on the prototype board
• Measure the total circuit current and voltage drops across each resistor and compare
the calculated and measured values
University of Pennsylvania
Capacitance
Battery
Capacitor
Unit = Farad
Pico Farad - pF = 10-12F
Micro Farad - uF = 10-6F
A capacitor is used to store charge for a short amount of time
University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
Capacitor Charging
University of Pennsylvania
Capacitor Discharge
University of Pennsylvania
Inductance
University of Pennsylvania

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Basic Electronics presentation v2.ppt