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VGEC EC (I) Presents
Introduction of Basic Electronic
Components
What about we’re going to introduce today:
1. Bread board
2. Resistors
3. Capacitors
4. Diode
5. Triode
6. Transistors
7. LED
8. Coil
9. IC
10.Relays
What is a circuit?
Combination of electronic parts, wires connected
between power sources. It's like a physical program.
It's also like setting up dominoes in sequence.
What is a breadboard?
What are they good for?
Creatings, organizing, and prototyping a circuit.
Literally started out as a bread board with
nails.
RESISTOR
• Passive two-
terminal electrical
component
• Implements
electrical
resistance
RESISTOR
TYPES OF RESISTORS
Symbol Of Resistor In Circuit
Diagram
• Current through a resistor is in direct
proportion to the voltage across the
resistor’s terminals.
• The Relationship is represented by Ohm’s
law:
I=V/R
• The ratio of the voltage applied across a
resistor's terminals to the intensity of current
in the circuit is called its resistance.
• This can be assumed to be a constant , which
is independent of the voltage for ordinary
resistors working within their ratings.
PRINCIPLE OF RESISTOR
• Resistors provide a specific amount of
resistance to a path in a circuit or wire.
Resistor Color Code
Resistor Color Code Wheel Calculator
Resistor Color Code
CAPACITOR
• originally known as
a condenser
•used to store
energy
electrostatically in
an electric field
• all contain at least
two electrical
conductors
separated by a
dielectric (insulator)
Capacitor
Symbol Of Capacitor In Circuit
Diagram
• Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical
circuits in many common electrical devices.
• When there is a potential difference (voltage) across
the conductors, a static electric field develops across
the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one
plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is
stored in the electrostatic field.
C=Q/V
• This is the ratio of the electric charge on each
conductor to the potential difference between them. The
SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one
coulomb per volt.
• The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal
to one coulomb per volt.
DIODE
• a two-terminal
electronic
component with
asymmetric
conductance
• a semiconductor
diode
Symbol Of Diode In Circuit
Diagram
• A diode has low (ideally zero) resistance to
current flow in one direction, and high (ideally
infinite) resistance in the other.
• A diode is a semiconductor diode, the most
common type today, is a crystalline piece of
semiconductor material with a p–n junction
connected to two electrical terminals.
• A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate
(anode) and a heated cathode.
• The most common function of a diode is to allow an
electric current to pass in one direction (called the
diode's forward direction), while blocking current in
the opposite direction (the reverse direction).
• Thus, the diode can be viewed as an electronic
version of a check valve.
This is the close up of a diode, which is showing the
square shaped the semiconductor crystal.
TRIODE
• An electronic
amplifying vacuum
tube
• consists of three
electrodes inside
an evacuated glass
envelope: a heated
filament or
cathode, a grid,
and a plate or
anode.
Symbol Of Triode In Circuit
Diagram
• The triode is Invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest.
• The triode was the first electronic amplification
device, and the ancestor of other types of vacuum
tubes such as the tetrode and pentode.
• Its invention founded the electronics age, making
possible amplified radio technology and long-distance
telephony.
• Triodes were widely used in Consumer
Electronics devices such as radios and televisions
until the 1970s, when transistors replaced them.
Today their main remaining use is in high power RF
amplifiers in radio transmitters and industrial RF
heating devices.
This is the Lee De Forest Audion tube from 1908,
the first triode. The flat plate is visible at top,
with the zigzag wire grid under it. The filament
was originally under the grid but has burned out.
The Audion was incompletely evacuated and
ionization of residual gas in it caused it to function
somewhat differently from the later thermionic
"hard vacuum" triodes.
This is the 3XC1500A7 triode. It is a modern 1.5
kW power triode which used in radio transmitters.
The cylindrical structure is a heat sink attached to
the plate, through which air is blown during
operation.
TRANSISTOR
•a semiconductor
device used to
amplify and switch
electronic signals
and electrical
power
Symbol Of Transistor In Circuit
Diagram
Symbol Of Transistor In Circuit
Diagram(2)
• A Transistor is composed of semiconductor material
with at least three terminals for connection to an
external circuit.
• A voltage or current applied to one pair of the
transistor's terminals changes the current through
another pair of terminals. Because the controlled
(output) power can be higher than the controlling
(input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal.
• Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but
many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
• The transistor is the fundamental building block of
modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern
electronic systems.
• Following its development in the early 1950s, the
transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and
paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators,
and computers, among other things.
LED (Light Emitting Diodes)
•A light-emitting
diode (LED) is a
semiconductor
light source.
Symbol Of LED In Circuit Diagram
LED
•Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962
early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern
versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet,
and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
•When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons
are able to recombine with holes within the device,
releasing energy in the form of photons.
•This effect is called electroluminescence and the
color of the light (corresponding to the energy of
the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of
the semiconductor.
•LEDs present many advantages over incandescent
light sources including lower energy consumption,
longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller
size, and faster switching.
•An LED is often small in area and integrated optical
components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.
•LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively
expensive and require more precise current and heat
management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of
•comparable output.
•LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors
to be developed, while their high switching rates are also
useful in advanced communications technology.
•Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units
of many commercial products including televisions, DVD
players and other domestic appliances.
COIL
An
electromagnetic
device
Symbol Of Coil In Circuit Diagram
• Coil is formed when a conductor which is usually an
insulated solid copper wire is wound around a core
or form to create an inductor or electromagnet.
• When electricity is passed through a coil, it
generates a magnetic field. One loop of wire is
usually referred to as a turn or a winding, and a coil
consists of one or more turns.
• For use in an electronic circuit, electrical connection
terminals called taps are often connected to a coil. Coils
are often coated with varnish or wrapped with insulating
tape to provide additional insulation and secure them in
place.
• A completed coil assembly with one or more set of coils
and taps is often called the windings.
• Windings are used in transformers, electric motors,
inductors, solenoids loudspeakers, and many other
applications.
SOLENOID
• A Solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly
packed helix. The term was invented by Andre
Marie Ampere to designate a helical coil.
• In Physics, the term refers specifically to a
long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around
a metallic core, which produces a
uniform magnetic field in a volume of space
(where some experiment might be carried out) when
an electric current is passed through it.
• Solenoids are important because they can create controlled
magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets.
• In engineering, the term may also refer to a variety
of transducer devices that convert energy into linear
motion.
• The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve,
which is an integrated device containing an
electromechanical solenoid which actuates either
a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which
is a specific type of relay that internally uses an
electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch;
for example, an automobile starter solenoid , or a linear
solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid.
TRANSFORMERS
A transformer is an electromagnetic device that has
a primary winding and a secondary winding that transfers
energy from one electrical circuit to another by inductive
coupling without moving parts.
Symbol Of Transformer In Circuit
Diagram
SWITCHES
a switch is
an electrical
component that
can break
an electrical circuit,
interrupting
the current or
diverting it from
one conductor to
another
Symbol Of Switch In Circuit
Diagram
• The most familiar form of switch is a manually
operated electromechanical device with one or more
sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to
external circuits.
• Each set of contacts can be in one of two states:
either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching
and electricity can flow between them, or "open",
meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is
no conducting.
• The mechanism actuating the transition between
these two states (open or closed) can be either a
"toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or
"momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
• A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as
a control signal to a system, such as a computer
keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit,
such as a light switch.
• Automatically operated switches can be used to
control the motions of machines, for example, to
indicate that a garage door has reached its full open
position or that a machine tool is in a position to
accept another work piece.
• Switches may be operated by process variables such
as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and
force, acting assessors in a process and used to
automatically control a system.
• For example, a thermostat is a temperature-
operated switch used to control a heating process.
RELAY
A relay is an
electrically
operated switch
Symbol Of Relay In Circuit Diagram
• Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching
mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles
are also used.
Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit
by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation
between control and controlled circuits), or where several
circuits must be controlled by one signal.
INTEGRATED
CIRCUIT
• Known as
monolithic
integrated circuit
• Also known as a
chip or a
microchip
• An integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits
on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material,
normally silicon.
• This can be made much smaller than a discrete
circuit made from independent components.
• Integrated circuits are used in virtually all
electronic equipment today and have revolutionized
the world of electronics.
• Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home
appliances are now inextricable parts of the
structure of modern societies, made possible by the
low cost of producing integrated circuits.
REFERENCES:-
WIKIPEDIA
THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA
Credits
Content & Images Set Up
Khush Kansara
Nisarg Thakar
Formation, Transition & Finishing
Poorn Mehta
Other Help Providers
Vijendra Rathor
Lalit Kumbhar
Basic electronics final presentation

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Basic electronics final presentation

  • 1. VGEC EC (I) Presents Introduction of Basic Electronic Components
  • 2. What about we’re going to introduce today: 1. Bread board 2. Resistors 3. Capacitors 4. Diode 5. Triode 6. Transistors 7. LED 8. Coil 9. IC 10.Relays
  • 3. What is a circuit? Combination of electronic parts, wires connected between power sources. It's like a physical program. It's also like setting up dominoes in sequence.
  • 4. What is a breadboard? What are they good for? Creatings, organizing, and prototyping a circuit. Literally started out as a bread board with nails.
  • 5. RESISTOR • Passive two- terminal electrical component • Implements electrical resistance
  • 8. Symbol Of Resistor In Circuit Diagram
  • 9. • Current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor’s terminals. • The Relationship is represented by Ohm’s law: I=V/R • The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance. • This can be assumed to be a constant , which is independent of the voltage for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.
  • 10. PRINCIPLE OF RESISTOR • Resistors provide a specific amount of resistance to a path in a circuit or wire.
  • 12. Resistor Color Code Wheel Calculator Resistor Color Code
  • 13. CAPACITOR • originally known as a condenser •used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field • all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator)
  • 15. Symbol Of Capacitor In Circuit Diagram
  • 16. • Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. • When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. C=Q/V • This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt. • The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt.
  • 17. DIODE • a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance • a semiconductor diode
  • 18. Symbol Of Diode In Circuit Diagram
  • 19. • A diode has low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. • A diode is a semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. • A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a heated cathode. • The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). • Thus, the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of a check valve.
  • 20. This is the close up of a diode, which is showing the square shaped the semiconductor crystal.
  • 21. TRIODE • An electronic amplifying vacuum tube • consists of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate or anode.
  • 22. Symbol Of Triode In Circuit Diagram
  • 23. • The triode is Invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest. • The triode was the first electronic amplification device, and the ancestor of other types of vacuum tubes such as the tetrode and pentode. • Its invention founded the electronics age, making possible amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony. • Triodes were widely used in Consumer Electronics devices such as radios and televisions until the 1970s, when transistors replaced them. Today their main remaining use is in high power RF amplifiers in radio transmitters and industrial RF heating devices.
  • 24. This is the Lee De Forest Audion tube from 1908, the first triode. The flat plate is visible at top, with the zigzag wire grid under it. The filament was originally under the grid but has burned out. The Audion was incompletely evacuated and ionization of residual gas in it caused it to function somewhat differently from the later thermionic "hard vacuum" triodes.
  • 25. This is the 3XC1500A7 triode. It is a modern 1.5 kW power triode which used in radio transmitters. The cylindrical structure is a heat sink attached to the plate, through which air is blown during operation.
  • 26. TRANSISTOR •a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power
  • 27. Symbol Of Transistor In Circuit Diagram
  • 28. Symbol Of Transistor In Circuit Diagram(2)
  • 29. • A Transistor is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. • A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. • Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. • The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. • Following its development in the early 1950s, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.
  • 30. LED (Light Emitting Diodes) •A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.
  • 31. Symbol Of LED In Circuit Diagram
  • 32. LED
  • 33. •Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962 early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. •When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. •This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. •LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.
  • 34. •An LED is often small in area and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. •LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of •comparable output. •LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. •Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players and other domestic appliances.
  • 36. Symbol Of Coil In Circuit Diagram
  • 37. • Coil is formed when a conductor which is usually an insulated solid copper wire is wound around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet. • When electricity is passed through a coil, it generates a magnetic field. One loop of wire is usually referred to as a turn or a winding, and a coil consists of one or more turns. • For use in an electronic circuit, electrical connection terminals called taps are often connected to a coil. Coils are often coated with varnish or wrapped with insulating tape to provide additional insulation and secure them in place. • A completed coil assembly with one or more set of coils and taps is often called the windings. • Windings are used in transformers, electric motors, inductors, solenoids loudspeakers, and many other applications.
  • 38. SOLENOID • A Solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. The term was invented by Andre Marie Ampere to designate a helical coil. • In Physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out) when an electric current is passed through it.
  • 39. • Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets. • In engineering, the term may also refer to a variety of transducer devices that convert energy into linear motion. • The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve, which is an integrated device containing an electromechanical solenoid which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which is a specific type of relay that internally uses an electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch; for example, an automobile starter solenoid , or a linear solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid.
  • 40. TRANSFORMERS A transformer is an electromagnetic device that has a primary winding and a secondary winding that transfers energy from one electrical circuit to another by inductive coupling without moving parts.
  • 41. Symbol Of Transformer In Circuit Diagram
  • 42. SWITCHES a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another
  • 43. Symbol Of Switch In Circuit Diagram
  • 44. • The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. • Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is no conducting. • The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
  • 45. • A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. • Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another work piece. • Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting assessors in a process and used to automatically control a system. • For example, a thermostat is a temperature- operated switch used to control a heating process.
  • 46. RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch
  • 47. Symbol Of Relay In Circuit Diagram
  • 48. • Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
  • 49. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT • Known as monolithic integrated circuit • Also known as a chip or a microchip
  • 50. • An integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. • This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent components. • Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. • Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of producing integrated circuits.
  • 52. Credits Content & Images Set Up Khush Kansara Nisarg Thakar Formation, Transition & Finishing Poorn Mehta Other Help Providers Vijendra Rathor Lalit Kumbhar