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BAROQUE MUSIC
Baroque
 DATES:
 BAROQUE:
The Baroque period stretches roughly
from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the
death of J.S. Bach.)
From the Portuguese word “barroco”
meaning an ornamented piece of jewellery.
First used to describe the highly decorative
style of architecture at the time.
Fingerprints of musical style
 Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic
musical texture – melody plus simple chordal
accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to
polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures.
 The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the
musical foundation for most types of piece – providing a
purposeful bass-line (sometimes a “walking bass”)
making the music move steadily onwards.
 The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an
entire piece.
 The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra
begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm
basis – always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or
organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass
and decorating the musical texture.
Fingerprints 2
 The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17th century;
music is now based on major and minor scales.
 Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including
the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass,
chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue.
 Main types of Baroque music:
vocal – chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata;
instrumental – Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude,
chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata
da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto.
 Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are
frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg
appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of
instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud
contrasted against soft (“terraced dynamics”, sometimes echo
effects), and “blocks” of sound of different timbres (eg strings and
wind alternately, then together).
Instruments-Harpsichord
 A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European
keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays
called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet.
 All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather
than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family
is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the
end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings.
Baroque Orchestra
 Typical features include:
 Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2
flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps
horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums.
 Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up
chords on a bass line (figured bass),
 Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures.
 Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against
strings, or
 Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings
then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced
dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo.
Baroque Orchestra
 The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example
of a true orchestra which came into existence in
the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France
where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes
(hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt-
quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and
woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have
still contained continuo instruments such as the
harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled
instrumentation and orchestration soon spread
to the rest of Europe and soon became the
standard solo instrumental grouping.
Typical forms used by Baroque
composers
 Binary (AB)
 Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA)
 Rondo (ABACADA)
 Variations (including the ground bass,
chaconne, passacaglia)
 Ritornello form
 Fugue
Main types of Baroque music
 VOCAL – OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale,
recitative and aria, cantata;
 INSTRUMENTAL – CONCERTO GROSSO,
SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian
overture, French overture, toccata,
prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio
sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da
chiesa),
OPERA
 Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy,
in which the emotional content or primary entertainment
is conveyed to the audience as much through music,
both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics.
From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has
been contention whether the music is paramount, or the
words
 The drama is presented using the primary elements of
theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However,
the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung
rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a
musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental
ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.
ORATORIO
 An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra,
vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that
it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio
closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and
form, except that choruses were more prominent in
oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition
of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries.
 Most oratorios from the common practice period to the
present day have biblical themes, but a number of
composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote
secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and
Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the
theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can
include such topics as the creation of the world, the life
of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical
prophet.
CONCERTO GROSSO
 The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for
big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using
an ensemble and usually having four to six movements
in which the musical material is passed between a small
group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and
full orchestra (the ripieno- filling).
 Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg
Friedrich Händel, who expanded the ripieno to include
wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti
of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the
concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which
has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo
violin.
SOLO CONCERTO
 In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or
concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means
concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical
group and a large musical group are given distinct roles,
with the smaller group to the fore.
 The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo
instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies
the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called
"concerto" have three movements, of which the first is
typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo.
 The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th
century, and came to describe chiefly compositions
which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into
opposition.
Ritornello form
 In both types of concerto, movements are
built up in ritornello form.
 The music starts off with the ritornello
(little return) played by the ripieno group
(tutti meaning “all”) with the soloist(s)
joining in. This is the main theme and it
returns at various points throughout the
movement. It may reappear in full or in
shortened form.
Ritornello structure
 Between appearances of the ritornello there are
contrasting sections of music called episodes.
Ritornello
Tutti
Episode1
Soloist(s)
Ritornello
Tutti
Episode2
Soloist(s)
Ritornello
Tutti
FUGUE
 In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal composition.
It begins with a theme stated by one of the voices
playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the
same theme, while the first voice continues on with a
contrapuntal accompaniment. The remaining voices
enter one by one, each beginning by stating the same
theme. The remainder of the fugue develops the
material further using all of the voices and, usually,
multiple statements of the theme.
 Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dieterich
Buxtehude (1637–1707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653–
1706) contributed greatly to the development of the
fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the
works of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
IDENTIFY THE FORM
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
CONCERTO GROSSO
ORATORIO
FUGUE
OPERA
SOLO CONCERTO
What is ornamentation?
 In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that
are not necessary to the overall melodic (or
harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or
"ornament" that line. They are performed as
"fast notes" around a central note. The amount
of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary
from quite extensive to relatively little or even
none.
 In the baroque period, it was common for
performers to improvise ornamentation on a
given melodic line. A singer performing a da
capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody
relatively unornamented the first time, but
decorate it with additional flourishes the second
time.
Trill
 The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a
rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a
scale (compare tremolo).
 In modern musical notation a trill is generally
indicated with the letters tr above the trilled note.
This has sometimes been followed by a squiggly
line, and sometimes in the past, the squiggly line
on its own was used. The following two notations
are equivalent:
Trill
 The usual way of executing a trill is
to rapidly alternate between the note
indicated and the note directly above
it in the given scale
Acciaccatura
From the Italian word acciaccare, "to crush";
The acciaccatura, is perhaps best
thought of as a shorter, less melodically
significant type of ornament. It is written
using a grace note (often a quaver, or
eighth note), with an oblique stroke
through the stem:
The exact interpretation of this will vary according to
the tempo of the piece, but the following is possible:
Acciaccatura
A short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note
itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is
indicated by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff. An
inverted turn (the note below the one indicated, the note itself, the
note above it, and the note itself again) is usually indicated by
putting a short vertical line through the normal turn sign, though
sometimes the sign itself is turned upside down.
If the turn symbol is placed directly above a note, it is performed
exactly as outlined above. If it is placed between two notes, however,
the note before the symbol is played, then the turn, and then the
following note. So the following turns:
might be played like this:
The mordent is thought of as a rapid single alternation
between an indicated note, the note above (called the
upper mordent) or below (called the lower mordent or
mordent) the indicated note, and the indicated note
again.
The upper mordent is indicated by a short squiggle; the
lower mordent is the same with a short vertical line
through it:
As with the trill, the exact speed with which the
mordent is performed will vary according to the
tempo of the piece, but at moderate tempi the above
might be executed as follows:
From the Italian word appoggiare, "to lean upon"; The
appoggiatura is important melodically and often
suspend the principal note by taking away the time-
value of the appoggiatura prefixed to it The added note
(the unessential note) is one degree higher or lower than
the principal note. The appoggiatura is written as a
grace note prefixed to a principal note and printed in
small character, usually without the oblique stroke:
This would be played as follows:
Baroque composers
Corelli
A.Scarlatti
D. Scarlatti
Telemann
Monteverdi
Vivaldi
Purcell
J.S. Bach
Handel
Couperin
Lully
Rameau
J.S. Bach 1685-1750
J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He
came from a long family history of
professional musicians including church
organists and composers.
Johann Sebastian Bach was a prolific German
composer and organist whose sacred and
secular works for choir, orchestra and solo
instruments drew together the strands of the
baroque genre and brought it to its ultimate
maturity.
Although he introduced no new forms, he
enriched the prevailing German style with a
robust contrapuntal technique, a control of
harmonic and motivic organisation from the
smallest to the largest scales, and the
adaptation of rhythms and textures from
abroad, particularly Italy and France.
Many people consider him to be the greatest
Baroque composer, and one of the greatest
composers of all time. He was one of the
leading figures, along with the likes of
George Frideric Handel, in the transition from
baroque to Classical music
Mass in B minor
Brandenburg Concertos
St Matthew Passion
St John Passion
Suites (English, French)
48 Preludes and Fugues
Christmas Oratorio
Solo Concertos
Organ Works
Cantatas
G.F. Handel 1685-1759
He was a German/British Baroque
composer who was a leading composer
of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios.
Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich
Händel he lived most of his adult life in
England, becoming a subject of the
British crown in 1727.
His most famous piece is Messiah, an
oratorio set to texts from the King
James Bible; other well-known works
are Water Music and Music for the Royal
Fireworks. He deeply influenced many
of the composers who came after him,
including Haydn, Mozart, and
Beethoven, and his work helped lead
the transition from the Baroque to the
Classical era.
Oratorios- Messiah
Acis and Galatea
14 Operas-incl.
Lotario
Ariodante, Alcina and
Rodelinda.
Water Music
Royal Fireworks
18 Organ Concertos
12 Concerto Grossi
Sonatas and Suites.
Monteverdi 1567-1643
 His work marks the transition
from Renaissance to Baroque
music. During his long life he
produced work that can be
classified in both categories,
and he was one of the most
significant revolutionaries that
brought about the change in
style. Monteverdi wrote the
earliest dramatically viable
opera, Orfeo, and was
fortunate enough to enjoy
fame during his lifetime.
Operas- Orfeo,
Arianna
Motets
Madrigals
Vespers
Alessandro Scarlatti 1659-1725
 Italian composer who had written his
first opera by the age of 12.
 He was especially famous for his operas
and chamber cantatas. He is considered
the founder of the Neapolitan school of
opera. He was the father of two other
Baroque composers, Domenico Scarlatti
and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti.
 The first composer to strongly
differentiate between the singing styles
of aria and recitative and used
advanced harmonic procedures for the
time.
 Credited with popularising the Da Capo
Aria form.
Opera- Pompeo
Cantatas- over 600
6 Concerto Grossi
Oratorios
Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757
 He was an Italian composer and
harpsichordist. He was extremely
influential in the development of
keyboard music, especially in Spain,
Portugal and England, through his
individual style.
 A harpsichord virtuoso from a young
age, he revolutionised keyboard
technique. First to use rapid
arpeggios, repetition of the same
note and the crossing of hands.
 He wrote a lot of works with a
Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result
of living in Portugal and Spain for
long periods of his life.
Over 500 harpsichord
sonatas.
14 Sinfonias
Harpsichord
Concerto
Telemann 1681-1767
 He was a German composer, and organist.
Self-taught in music, he studied law at the
University of Leipzig. The most prolific
composer of his era, he was a contemporary
of Johann Sebastian Bach and a friend of
George Frideric Handel. While in the present
day Bach is generally thought of as the
greater composer, Telemann was widely
renowned for his musical abilities during his
lifetime.
 Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various
musical styles and incorporating them into
his own compositions. He is known for
writing concertos for unusual combinations
of instruments, such as multiple violas or
trumpets.
 He held a series of important musical
positions, culminating in that of music
director of the five largest churches in
Hamburg, from 1720 until his death in 1767.
He was succeeded by his godson Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach.
Opera- Pimpone
(46) St Luke Passion
St Mark Passion
St Matthew Passion
1043 Cantatas
Over 25 Solo Concertos
Over 600 Suites
Corelli 1653- 1713
 Italian composer, teacher and
violinist.
 His playing and composing were
an influence on Bach and he
taught Vivaldi.
 He is known as “The father of
Concerto Grosso” for his work in
defining the style.
 Despite being influential he was
not a prolific composer.
12 Concerto Grossi
5 sets (of 12) Trio
Sonatas
Purcell 1659-1695
 English composer and organist.
 He is generally considered to be one
of England's greatest composers —
indeed, he has often been called
England's finest native composer.
Purcell incorporated Italian and
French stylistic elements but devised
a peculiarly English style of Baroque
music
 Composed an enormous amount of
theatrical music for plays including
The Fairy Queen, a masque for A
Midsummer's Night Dream, King
Arthur and Indian Queen.
 One of his favourite styles of writing
was the Ground Bass.
Opera- Dido and
Aeneas
15 Fantasies
Trio Sonatas
Anthems- My heart is
inditing for James 2
Coronation
Vivaldi 1678-1741
 Italian priest, composer and
violinist.
 He is one of the composers credited
with helping the Baroque style
evolve into the Classical style by his
use of harmonic contrasts and
innovative melodies and themes.
 Bach was deeply influenced by his
concertos and arias and transcribed
many of Vivaldi's works for
harpsichord.
 He was an extremely prolific
composer.
Over 500 Concertos
46 Operas
73 Sonatas
Oratorios and sacred
music
The Four Seasons
Lully 1632-1687
 Italian born French composer,
guitarist, violinist and dancer.
 Spent most of his working life in
the service of Louis 14th where he
composed ballets and later
operas. He transformed the often
stately court dances into lively,
rhythmic affairs and added many
instruments to the orchestra of
the time.
 He favoured variation forms such
as Passacaglias and Chaconnes.
Opera- Atys
Ballets
Dance Suites
Rameau 1683-1764
 Composer, organist and
harpsichordist
 He was one of the most
important French
composers and music
theorists of the Baroque
era. He replaced Jean-
Baptiste Lully as the
dominant composer of
French opera, and was
attacked by those who
preferred Lully's style.
Operas
Ballet Music
Pieces de Clavecin
(for harpsichord)
Francois Couperin
 François Couperin (born in Paris
November 10, 1668 – died September
12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed
French Baroque composer, organist
and harpsichordist. François Couperin
was known as "Couperin le Grand"
(Couperin the Great) to distinguish him
from the other members of the
musically talented Couperin family
because of his immense virtuosity on
the organ and the harpsichord.
 He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio
Sonata form he introduced to France.
 J.S. Bach was an admirer of his
harpsichord technique and
compositions.
Harpsichord
and organ
works
Suites
QUIZ
 TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE
WITH THIS INTERACTIVE QUIZ.
 JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND
OUT IF YOU ARE RIGHT.
 Italian composer, teacher and
violinist. 1653- 1713
 He is known as “The father of
Concerto Grosso” for his work in
defining the style.
12 Concerto Grossi
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1688- 1733
Baroque composer, organist and
harpsichordist.
Harpsichord and organ works
Suites
He was an Italian
composer and
harpsichordist.
1685- 1757
•He wrote a lot of works
with a Moorish/ Arabic
flavour as the result of
living in Portugal and
Spain for long periods of
his life.
Over 500 harpsichord
sonatas.
14 Sinfonias
Harpsichord Concerto
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
Opera- Pimpone
(46) St Luke Passion
St Mark Passion
St Matthew Passion
1043 Cantatas
Over 25 Solo Concertos
Over 600 Suites
1681- 1767
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1659-1695
 Composer and
organist.
 One of his favourite
styles of writing was
the Ground Bass.
Opera- Dido and Aeneas
15 Fantasies
Trio Sonatas
Anthems- My heart is inditing
for James 2 Coronation
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1567-1643
Operas- Orfeo,
Motets
Madrigals
Vespers
His work marks the transition
from Renaissance to Baroque
music.
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1659-1725
 Italian composer
who had written his
first opera by the
age of 12.
 Credited with
popularising the Da
Capo Aria form.
Opera- Pompeo
Cantatas- over 600
6 Concerto Grossi
Oratorios
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1632-1687
 Spent most of his working life in the service of
Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later
operas. He transformed the often stately court
dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added
many instruments to the orchestra of the time.
 He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias
and Chaconnes.
Opera- Atys
Ballets
Dance Suites
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1685-1750
Mass in B minor
Brandenburg Concertos
St Matthew Passion
St John Passion
Suites (English, French)
48 Preludes and Fugues
Christmas Oratorio
Solo Concertos
Organ Works
Cantatas
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1683-1764
 Composer, organist and
harpsichordist
Operas
Ballet Music
Pieces de Clavecin
(for harpsichord)
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1685-1759
Oratorios- Messiah
Acis and Galatea
14 Operas-incl.
Lotario
Ariodante, Alcina and
Rodelinda.
Water Music
Royal Fireworks
18 Organ Concertos
12 Concerto Grossi
Sonatas and Suites.
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
1678-1741
Over 500 Concertos
46 Operas
73 Sonatas
Oratorios and sacred
music
The Four Seasons
TELEMANN
HANDEL
COUPERIN
PURCELL
VIVALDI
LULLY
J.S.BACH
A.SCARLATTI
RAMEAU
MONTEVERDI
D.SCARLATTI
CORELLI
Quiz
 What is a concerto grosso?
 What is a solo concerto?
 What is an oratorio?
 What is an opera?
 What is a fugue?

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baroque_music_yr10.ppt

  • 2. Baroque  DATES:  BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.) From the Portuguese word “barroco” meaning an ornamented piece of jewellery. First used to describe the highly decorative style of architecture at the time.
  • 3. Fingerprints of musical style  Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture – melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures.  The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece – providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a “walking bass”) making the music move steadily onwards.  The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece.  The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis – always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture.
  • 4. Fingerprints 2  The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17th century; music is now based on major and minor scales.  Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue.  Main types of Baroque music: vocal – chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; instrumental – Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto.  Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (“terraced dynamics”, sometimes echo effects), and “blocks” of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together).
  • 5. Instruments-Harpsichord  A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet.  All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings.
  • 6. Baroque Orchestra  Typical features include:  Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums.  Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass),  Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures.  Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or  Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo.
  • 7. Baroque Orchestra  The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt- quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping.
  • 8.
  • 9. Typical forms used by Baroque composers  Binary (AB)  Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA)  Rondo (ABACADA)  Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia)  Ritornello form  Fugue
  • 10. Main types of Baroque music  VOCAL – OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata;  INSTRUMENTAL – CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa),
  • 11. OPERA  Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the words  The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.
  • 12. ORATORIO  An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries.  Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet.
  • 13. CONCERTO GROSSO  The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling).  Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Händel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin.
  • 14. SOLO CONCERTO  In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore.  The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo.  The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition.
  • 15. Ritornello form  In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form.  The music starts off with the ritornello (little return) played by the ripieno group (tutti meaning “all”) with the soloist(s) joining in. This is the main theme and it returns at various points throughout the movement. It may reappear in full or in shortened form.
  • 16. Ritornello structure  Between appearances of the ritornello there are contrasting sections of music called episodes. Ritornello Tutti Episode1 Soloist(s) Ritornello Tutti Episode2 Soloist(s) Ritornello Tutti
  • 17. FUGUE  In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal composition. It begins with a theme stated by one of the voices playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the same theme, while the first voice continues on with a contrapuntal accompaniment. The remaining voices enter one by one, each beginning by stating the same theme. The remainder of the fugue develops the material further using all of the voices and, usually, multiple statements of the theme.  Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (1637–1707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653– 1706) contributed greatly to the development of the fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
  • 18. IDENTIFY THE FORM 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CONCERTO GROSSO ORATORIO FUGUE OPERA SOLO CONCERTO
  • 19. What is ornamentation?  In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or "ornament" that line. They are performed as "fast notes" around a central note. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to relatively little or even none.  In the baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody relatively unornamented the first time, but decorate it with additional flourishes the second time.
  • 20. Trill  The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare tremolo).  In modern musical notation a trill is generally indicated with the letters tr above the trilled note. This has sometimes been followed by a squiggly line, and sometimes in the past, the squiggly line on its own was used. The following two notations are equivalent:
  • 21. Trill  The usual way of executing a trill is to rapidly alternate between the note indicated and the note directly above it in the given scale
  • 22. Acciaccatura From the Italian word acciaccare, "to crush"; The acciaccatura, is perhaps best thought of as a shorter, less melodically significant type of ornament. It is written using a grace note (often a quaver, or eighth note), with an oblique stroke through the stem:
  • 23. The exact interpretation of this will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but the following is possible: Acciaccatura
  • 24. A short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is indicated by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff. An inverted turn (the note below the one indicated, the note itself, the note above it, and the note itself again) is usually indicated by putting a short vertical line through the normal turn sign, though sometimes the sign itself is turned upside down. If the turn symbol is placed directly above a note, it is performed exactly as outlined above. If it is placed between two notes, however, the note before the symbol is played, then the turn, and then the following note. So the following turns:
  • 25. might be played like this:
  • 26. The mordent is thought of as a rapid single alternation between an indicated note, the note above (called the upper mordent) or below (called the lower mordent or mordent) the indicated note, and the indicated note again. The upper mordent is indicated by a short squiggle; the lower mordent is the same with a short vertical line through it:
  • 27. As with the trill, the exact speed with which the mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but at moderate tempi the above might be executed as follows:
  • 28. From the Italian word appoggiare, "to lean upon"; The appoggiatura is important melodically and often suspend the principal note by taking away the time- value of the appoggiatura prefixed to it The added note (the unessential note) is one degree higher or lower than the principal note. The appoggiatura is written as a grace note prefixed to a principal note and printed in small character, usually without the oblique stroke:
  • 29. This would be played as follows:
  • 31. J.S. Bach 1685-1750 J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He came from a long family history of professional musicians including church organists and composers. Johann Sebastian Bach was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the baroque genre and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Although he introduced no new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust contrapuntal technique, a control of harmonic and motivic organisation from the smallest to the largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France. Many people consider him to be the greatest Baroque composer, and one of the greatest composers of all time. He was one of the leading figures, along with the likes of George Frideric Handel, in the transition from baroque to Classical music Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas
  • 32. G.F. Handel 1685-1759 He was a German/British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich Händel he lived most of his adult life in England, becoming a subject of the British crown in 1727. His most famous piece is Messiah, an oratorio set to texts from the King James Bible; other well-known works are Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. He deeply influenced many of the composers who came after him, including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and his work helped lead the transition from the Baroque to the Classical era. Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites.
  • 33. Monteverdi 1567-1643  His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. During his long life he produced work that can be classified in both categories, and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime. Operas- Orfeo, Arianna Motets Madrigals Vespers
  • 34. Alessandro Scarlatti 1659-1725  Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12.  He was especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father of two other Baroque composers, Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti.  The first composer to strongly differentiate between the singing styles of aria and recitative and used advanced harmonic procedures for the time.  Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto Grossi Oratorios
  • 35. Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757  He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. He was extremely influential in the development of keyboard music, especially in Spain, Portugal and England, through his individual style.  A harpsichord virtuoso from a young age, he revolutionised keyboard technique. First to use rapid arpeggios, repetition of the same note and the crossing of hands.  He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto
  • 36. Telemann 1681-1767  He was a German composer, and organist. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. The most prolific composer of his era, he was a contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach and a friend of George Frideric Handel. While in the present day Bach is generally thought of as the greater composer, Telemann was widely renowned for his musical abilities during his lifetime.  Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various musical styles and incorporating them into his own compositions. He is known for writing concertos for unusual combinations of instruments, such as multiple violas or trumpets.  He held a series of important musical positions, culminating in that of music director of the five largest churches in Hamburg, from 1720 until his death in 1767. He was succeeded by his godson Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites
  • 37. Corelli 1653- 1713  Italian composer, teacher and violinist.  His playing and composing were an influence on Bach and he taught Vivaldi.  He is known as “The father of Concerto Grosso” for his work in defining the style.  Despite being influential he was not a prolific composer. 12 Concerto Grossi 5 sets (of 12) Trio Sonatas
  • 38. Purcell 1659-1695  English composer and organist.  He is generally considered to be one of England's greatest composers — indeed, he has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music  Composed an enormous amount of theatrical music for plays including The Fairy Queen, a masque for A Midsummer's Night Dream, King Arthur and Indian Queen.  One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation
  • 39. Vivaldi 1678-1741  Italian priest, composer and violinist.  He is one of the composers credited with helping the Baroque style evolve into the Classical style by his use of harmonic contrasts and innovative melodies and themes.  Bach was deeply influenced by his concertos and arias and transcribed many of Vivaldi's works for harpsichord.  He was an extremely prolific composer. Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons
  • 40. Lully 1632-1687  Italian born French composer, guitarist, violinist and dancer.  Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time.  He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites
  • 41. Rameau 1683-1764  Composer, organist and harpsichordist  He was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean- Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera, and was attacked by those who preferred Lully's style. Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord)
  • 42. Francois Couperin  François Couperin (born in Paris November 10, 1668 – died September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. François Couperin was known as "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of the musically talented Couperin family because of his immense virtuosity on the organ and the harpsichord.  He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio Sonata form he introduced to France.  J.S. Bach was an admirer of his harpsichord technique and compositions. Harpsichord and organ works Suites
  • 43. QUIZ  TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS INTERACTIVE QUIZ.  JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND OUT IF YOU ARE RIGHT.
  • 44.  Italian composer, teacher and violinist. 1653- 1713  He is known as “The father of Concerto Grosso” for his work in defining the style. 12 Concerto Grossi TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 46. He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. 1685- 1757 •He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 47. Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites 1681- 1767 TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 48. 1659-1695  Composer and organist.  One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 49. 1567-1643 Operas- Orfeo, Motets Madrigals Vespers His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 50. 1659-1725  Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12.  Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto Grossi Oratorios TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 51. 1632-1687  Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time.  He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 52. 1685-1750 Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 53. 1683-1764  Composer, organist and harpsichordist Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord) TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 54. 1685-1759 Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 55. 1678-1741 Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI
  • 56. Quiz  What is a concerto grosso?  What is a solo concerto?  What is an oratorio?  What is an opera?  What is a fugue?