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Essay ( BAQ,SAQ, LAQ)type
 structured Questions their
   need advantages and
       disadvantages

         DR .Swanand S. Pathak
         MBBS MD DACM IDCR
           Associate Professor
          Dept. of Pharmacology
                 JNMC
         drswanandp@yahoo.co.in
At the end of the session the learner should be able to

Define what is an essay type of question

Identify the features of different types of essay questions

Elaborate on their proper applications and utilization.

Construct and critically review examples of various types
of essay questions
Supply type

• BAQs/SAQs    - restricted response

• LAQs   OR    Essay Type – extended response

         Simple essay

         Structured or modified essay

         PMP ( patient management problem )

         MEQ ( modified essay questions )
“A test item which requires a response composed by the
examinee, usually in the form of one or more sentences,
of a nature that no single response or pattern of
responses can be listed as correct, and the accuracy
and quality of which can be judged subjectively only by
one skilled or informed in the subject”


John M. Stalnaker 1951
(A psychologist, educator and former president of the corporation that
selects high school students as National Merit Scholars.)
1.   Requires examinees to compose rather than select
     their response.


2.   Elicits student responses that must consist of more
     than one sentence.


3.   Allows different or original responses or pattern of
     responses.


4.   Requires subjective judgment by a competent
     specialist to judge the accuracy and quality of
     responses.
• What does it assess ?
  Knowledge        attitude       skill

• The level of knowledge
  Knows       knows how shows how         does

• Utility in summative assessment
  Yes

• Validity ( content )        medium

• Reliability                 medium
Advantages

• Assessment of higher cognitive function

• Promotion of critical thinking

• Presentation of ideas in organized and logical manner

• Ease of construction
Domain

     Cognitive

         Parenteral route
MCQ

  Which of the following is a parenteral route of drug
  administration?

A. Oral
B. Sublingual
C. Topical
D. Intramuscular
Shortcomings
• By chance

• Cancellation of other alternatives

• Very restricted knowledge is tested

• Copied very very easily
BAQ
• Enumerate four routes of parenteral drug administration
Advantages

• Answer in the form of key words.

• There is a specificity in the answer

• The objectivity is same as that of MCQ type questions

• Students need not show any skills in answering the
  question


• Marking system can be validated easily
Disadvantages
• Student may not know the subject in depth.

• Does not test the reasoning ability.

• Can be copied by the students easily
SAQ

Define what is parenteral roure . Enumerate four
parenteral routes of drug administration.
Advantages

• Answer in the form of key words (partly)

• There is a specificity in the answer

• Students need not show any skills in answering the
  question


• Marking system can be validated easily
Disadvantages
• Student may not know the subject in depth.

• The objectivity is less than the MCQ/BAQ type questions

• Does not test the reasoning ability.

• Can be copied by the students easily
Forming a better SAQ
• Clear regarding what you want to test.

• Whether SAQ is really required?

• Framing of the question should be precise.

• The expected answer should be to the point consisting of
  key words.

• Prepare a model answer and the distribution of marks
SAQ

Define what is parenteral roure . Enumerate four
parenteral routes of drug administration.
LAQ
Parenteral route of drug administration – 10 m

Vague
Tying the cow to coconut tree phenomenon
No objectivity in evaluation
STRUCTURED LAQ

What are the various routes of drug administration?
 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
parenteral route. What precautions are to be taken while
administering the drug through the parenteral route?
Advantages
• In depth knowledge of the subject is required to answer
  the question.

• Evaluates thinking and reasoning.

• Student has to apply the skill to answer the question.

• The answer can not be copied easily.

• Even if copied one can make out easily.
Disadvantages
• Least objectivity

• More subjective

• Knowledgeable expert required for evaluation

• A halo and anti halo effect.

• Time consuming scoring system.
Patient Management Problem
                (PMP)

A 32 yrs old male unconscious patient was brought to
the ward with the history of consumption of an organo
phosphorus poison. You want to administer the drug
Pralidoxime.

What route of drug administration will be preferred in this
case ? What general precautions are to be taken while
administering the drugs by this route? In what dose
Pralidoxime is administered ? What are the adverse drug
reactions you suspect with Pralidoxime?
Modified Essay Question
               (MEQ)
A 3yr old boy was given inj. tetanus toxoid by a
paramedical worker at PHC.
What are the advantages of parenteral route of drug
administration over the oral route?
By which parenteral route inj tetanus toxoid is given?
What is the commonest site of administration of tetanus
toxoid ?
Three days later the patient presented in the OPD with
the abscess at the injection site.
What are the probable causes of the abscess?
What precautions should be taken to prevent the
condition?
How to form a better LAQ
• Clarity about the knowledge area to be tested.

• Whether to use simple essay questions or patient

  management problem or modified essay type questions.

• Number of small questions rather than only one phrase.

• Question should have a proper flow ,time limit

• Prepare the model marking system with prior discussions
  with other experts.

• No choice should be given as difficult to construct
  questions with equal difficulty.
• Avoid the restricted response words like what , when ,
  how instead use compare and contrast , provide
  argument for

• Let the students know the meaning of the words
  propose, validate, evaluate , compare
At the end of the session the learner should be able to

Define what is an essay type of question

Identify the features of different types of essay questions

Elaborate on their proper applications and utilization.

Construct and critically review examples of various types
of essay questions
summary
• Well written essay questions are good for assessing the
  higher cognitive functions

• Low reliability

• SAQ provide better content coverage

• Structured LAQ are more valid than the non structured
  ones.
It requires more skill to design a question ….

than answering it …
THANK YOU….
Presented on
•   10-01-2012/ basic workshop met/jnmc
•   31-03-2012/basic workshop met/jnmc
•   31-03-2012/basic workshop met/ jnmc/nursing college
•   7-07-2012 met basic workshop adilabad

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BAQ LAQ SAQ

  • 1. Essay ( BAQ,SAQ, LAQ)type structured Questions their need advantages and disadvantages DR .Swanand S. Pathak MBBS MD DACM IDCR Associate Professor Dept. of Pharmacology JNMC drswanandp@yahoo.co.in
  • 2. At the end of the session the learner should be able to Define what is an essay type of question Identify the features of different types of essay questions Elaborate on their proper applications and utilization. Construct and critically review examples of various types of essay questions
  • 3. Supply type • BAQs/SAQs - restricted response • LAQs OR Essay Type – extended response Simple essay Structured or modified essay PMP ( patient management problem ) MEQ ( modified essay questions )
  • 4. “A test item which requires a response composed by the examinee, usually in the form of one or more sentences, of a nature that no single response or pattern of responses can be listed as correct, and the accuracy and quality of which can be judged subjectively only by one skilled or informed in the subject” John M. Stalnaker 1951 (A psychologist, educator and former president of the corporation that selects high school students as National Merit Scholars.)
  • 5. 1. Requires examinees to compose rather than select their response. 2. Elicits student responses that must consist of more than one sentence. 3. Allows different or original responses or pattern of responses. 4. Requires subjective judgment by a competent specialist to judge the accuracy and quality of responses.
  • 6. • What does it assess ? Knowledge attitude skill • The level of knowledge Knows knows how shows how does • Utility in summative assessment Yes • Validity ( content ) medium • Reliability medium
  • 7. Advantages • Assessment of higher cognitive function • Promotion of critical thinking • Presentation of ideas in organized and logical manner • Ease of construction
  • 8. Domain Cognitive Parenteral route
  • 9. MCQ Which of the following is a parenteral route of drug administration? A. Oral B. Sublingual C. Topical D. Intramuscular
  • 10. Shortcomings • By chance • Cancellation of other alternatives • Very restricted knowledge is tested • Copied very very easily
  • 11. BAQ • Enumerate four routes of parenteral drug administration
  • 12. Advantages • Answer in the form of key words. • There is a specificity in the answer • The objectivity is same as that of MCQ type questions • Students need not show any skills in answering the question • Marking system can be validated easily
  • 13. Disadvantages • Student may not know the subject in depth. • Does not test the reasoning ability. • Can be copied by the students easily
  • 14. SAQ Define what is parenteral roure . Enumerate four parenteral routes of drug administration.
  • 15. Advantages • Answer in the form of key words (partly) • There is a specificity in the answer • Students need not show any skills in answering the question • Marking system can be validated easily
  • 16. Disadvantages • Student may not know the subject in depth. • The objectivity is less than the MCQ/BAQ type questions • Does not test the reasoning ability. • Can be copied by the students easily
  • 17. Forming a better SAQ • Clear regarding what you want to test. • Whether SAQ is really required? • Framing of the question should be precise. • The expected answer should be to the point consisting of key words. • Prepare a model answer and the distribution of marks
  • 18. SAQ Define what is parenteral roure . Enumerate four parenteral routes of drug administration.
  • 19. LAQ Parenteral route of drug administration – 10 m Vague Tying the cow to coconut tree phenomenon No objectivity in evaluation
  • 20. STRUCTURED LAQ What are the various routes of drug administration? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of parenteral route. What precautions are to be taken while administering the drug through the parenteral route?
  • 21. Advantages • In depth knowledge of the subject is required to answer the question. • Evaluates thinking and reasoning. • Student has to apply the skill to answer the question. • The answer can not be copied easily. • Even if copied one can make out easily.
  • 22. Disadvantages • Least objectivity • More subjective • Knowledgeable expert required for evaluation • A halo and anti halo effect. • Time consuming scoring system.
  • 23. Patient Management Problem (PMP) A 32 yrs old male unconscious patient was brought to the ward with the history of consumption of an organo phosphorus poison. You want to administer the drug Pralidoxime. What route of drug administration will be preferred in this case ? What general precautions are to be taken while administering the drugs by this route? In what dose Pralidoxime is administered ? What are the adverse drug reactions you suspect with Pralidoxime?
  • 24. Modified Essay Question (MEQ) A 3yr old boy was given inj. tetanus toxoid by a paramedical worker at PHC. What are the advantages of parenteral route of drug administration over the oral route? By which parenteral route inj tetanus toxoid is given? What is the commonest site of administration of tetanus toxoid ? Three days later the patient presented in the OPD with the abscess at the injection site. What are the probable causes of the abscess? What precautions should be taken to prevent the condition?
  • 25. How to form a better LAQ • Clarity about the knowledge area to be tested. • Whether to use simple essay questions or patient management problem or modified essay type questions. • Number of small questions rather than only one phrase. • Question should have a proper flow ,time limit • Prepare the model marking system with prior discussions with other experts. • No choice should be given as difficult to construct questions with equal difficulty.
  • 26. • Avoid the restricted response words like what , when , how instead use compare and contrast , provide argument for • Let the students know the meaning of the words propose, validate, evaluate , compare
  • 27. At the end of the session the learner should be able to Define what is an essay type of question Identify the features of different types of essay questions Elaborate on their proper applications and utilization. Construct and critically review examples of various types of essay questions
  • 28. summary • Well written essay questions are good for assessing the higher cognitive functions • Low reliability • SAQ provide better content coverage • Structured LAQ are more valid than the non structured ones.
  • 29. It requires more skill to design a question …. than answering it …
  • 31. Presented on • 10-01-2012/ basic workshop met/jnmc • 31-03-2012/basic workshop met/jnmc • 31-03-2012/basic workshop met/ jnmc/nursing college • 7-07-2012 met basic workshop adilabad