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Roll# 236 Group: C Assignment of Bacteriology
Submitted to Submitted by
Dr.Khalil Muhammad Mr.Feroz Hanif
1-Styphalococci
 Morphology
Round-shaped ,Gram positive cocci, Irregular clustures or bunches of grapes
Average diameter is 1.0 um,they are facultative anaerobes & non-motile
Micro-capsulated(made up of Lipopolysaccharide)
 Species
St.Albus(white),St.citreus(lemon),St.aureus(gold),St.pyogoneus,St.epidermidis&
St.saprophyticus etc
 Disease causing
Mastitis i.e inflammation of the whole udder
Bumble foot: inflammation of feet of birds and rodents
Tick pyemia: physical injuiry through biting if ticks that results pus formation
Botryomycosis: spermatic cord formation in the teats canal of animal especially equine
 Natural Habitat
Occur worldwide in mammals and colonise the nares(man),intestine,skin,air,soil,water
and feces etc
 Transmission: indirect
 Pathogenesis and Pathogenicity
The staphylococci are pyogenic and are associated with pus formation & suppuration.
Pus(dead leukocyte debris)→phagocytosis→fibrous capsule(around abscess)
Moreover,it produces toxins such as enterotoxins involve in human food
poisoning,exfoliatin produces st.scalded skin in infants and also enzymes
;lipase,proteses,nucleases,collagenase and urease all have a rule in pathogensis.
 Laboratory Diagnosis
Specimen: exudates,pus from abscesses,skin scrapings,urine,milk etc
Direct microscopy: preaparation,isolation and examination of pus smears or exudates
 Culture characteristics
Media: a) selective include staph-110(7.5%Nacl),blood agar,milk agar b) in general,only
nutrient agar
Growth conditions: incubation aerobically at 37◦c temperature for 24 hours with ph 7.2
Biochemical identification:
1-Catalase test
An enzyme produced by staphylococcus bacteria which decomposes hydrogen peroxide
into water and oxygen 2H2O2→ 2H2O+O2
Where 3% Hydrogen peroxide is poured on colony and if bubbles form ,it will indicate that
test is positive.
2-Coagulase test
An enzyme produce by st.pyogoneus .In this procedure 2ml plasma with 2ml culture are
incubated at room temperature overnight and as a result,plasma is solidified;
Prothrombin→thrombin→fibrinogen→fibrin ,ultimately clotting occurs
 Haemolysis
a)α-hemolysis i.e partial or incomplete hemolysis b)β-hemolysis i.e complete & c)γ-
hemolysis that means no hemolysis
2-Streptococci
 Morphology
Round-shaped, Gram negative and occur in pairs or chains
Average diameter is 1.0 um, they are facultative anaerobes & non-motile
Non-capsulated and non-spore forming bacteria
 Species
Str.pyogenes,Str.agalactiae,Str.pneumo
niae,Str.equi,Str.bovi & Str.dysgalactiae etc
 Host/Diseases
In the skin,buccal cavity,vagina,upper respiratory tract,tonsils and mucous membrane
They cause Mastitis,scarlet fever,abscess,strangles,otitis,septicemia and pneumonia
 Natural Habitat
Distribution is worldwide.most of the streptococci live in the mucosa of URT and
lower urinogenital tracts.
 Transmission
indirect
 Pathogenesis
The staphylococci are pyogenic and are associated with pus formation & suppuration.
Exotoxins include haemolysins,streptolysin O&S, streptokinase,DNAse,protease and
phage-coded pyogenic toxin that cause skin rashes in the scarlet fever of man.
Cell wall M protein(str.pyogenes)→Anti-phagocytic→function as adhesin
 Culture characteristics
Media: generally nutrient agar but selectively Milk,serum and chocolate agar is used
for medium
Growth conditions: incubation at 37◦c overnight and PH: 7.2
Identification tests: catalase test is negative and with sugar fermentation test,they
ferment sugar and produce acid with no oxygen.
Presumptive indentifying test:
A)CAMP test:
Objective: to identify group B(β-streptococci) based upon CAMP factor
Principle: it is indicated by the formation of an arrow head where str.agalactiae meets
the st.aureus(vertical streak)
Procedure: a culture of St.aureus is streaked across the center of sheep or ox blood
agar plate and another streak of Str.agalactiae is made at right angle to St.aureus
within 1-1.5mm.
Plate is incubated at 37◦c for 18-24 hours and complet hemolysis indicates that test is
positive.
B)Dick test:
Objective: to diagnose the scarlet fever in children
Indication: if toxin cause redness and swelling 24 hours after the infection it means
that persone is immune to scarlet fever.
C)Ring precipitation test(Lencifield grouping)
Objective: to prepare antigen
Procedure: Grow a culture of bacteria with 10ml serum Ag overnight,centrifuge
it,discard the supernatant and suspend the pellet in 0.4ml of 0.2 normal HCL
Boil in water bath for 10mins
Cool it and mix with 0.2ml phenol red
Further add NaOH(0.2N) to neutralize it and again centrifuge
Result: Debris settle down and c-substance remains on suspended form.
 Diagnosis
Specimen: exudates,pus from abscesses,skin scrapings,CSF,urine,milk etc
Direct microscopy: Smears from pus,exudates or centrifuged deposits of milk or
urine can be fixed or stained by the gram method
3-Bacillus
 Morphology
Gram positive by methylene blue staining, endospore forming Rod-shaped bacteria i.e
oval,central and non-budding
Aerobic,facultatively anaerobic & motile,capsule made of polypeptide.
 Species
a)pathogenic: B.anthracis,B.lichneiformis & B.thurnigiensis
b)non-pathogenic: B.subtilis,B.polymyxa,B.cereus & B.mycoides
 Host/Diseases
They cause Anthrax,abortion,food poisoning,mastitis,septicemia and pyrexia in
cattle,sheep,pigs,horses,carnivores,humans and mice
 Natural Habitat
widely distributed in air,water and soil
 Transmission
Through skin,inhalation and ingestion
 Pathogenesis
Decay of matter
Antibiotics
Lab bugs
 Culture characteristics
Aerobic in nature,grow on non-enriched medium such as nutrient agar but no growth
on MacConkey agar
Incubation at temperature 37◦c with PH:7.2
Biochemical testing:
a)Catalase test: is positive 2H2O2→ 2H2O+O2
b)Oxidase test: H2O2→OH+OH-
Mechanism: It involves Following factors;
Odema factor
Protive factor
Death Mechanism: Death of cells
Macrophages,leuckocytes and endothelial cells
 Diagnosis
History
Sign/symptoms based(PM changes)
No rigor mortis
Blood fluid in spleen.
Morphological
Cathrral
 Treatment
Serological i.e ELISA,CFT,FAT,AGPT
Molecular i.e PCR
Through vaccine:Sterne(glycerol buffer+spore)
Sample collection(Ascoli test):
5ml skin sample→boil→centrifuge→Agglutination by discarding superantant
4-Clostridium
 Morphology
Large(0.3-1.3×3-10µm),rod-shaped,spore forming bacteria
Non-motile,some spirl or curved,anerobic.
 Species
pathogenic: C.perfringens,C.tetani,C.botulinum and C.spiroforme
 Host/Diseases:
Enterotoxins,Tetnaus,botulism,black leg in intestine,CNS,botulin of
horses,ruminants,humans and sheep,cattle
 Natural Habitat
Soil and water
 Transmission
Via ingestion or wound contamination
 Pathogenesis
Through ingestion;
C.perfringens →intestine →absorb in blood →enterotoxaemia
 Culture characteristics
Aerobic in nature
Growth on egg yolk agar or MacConkey agar
Incubation at normal body temperature with PH:7.2
Biochemical testing:
a)Catalse test:negative b)Oxidase test: negative c)Fermentation test: positive
 Diagnosis
Specimens: swab(oxygen-free gas) or contents of intestine
Direct microscopy: smear preparation based upon morphology
 Treatment:
FAT,Animal inoculation test etc
5-Salmonella
 Morphology
Gram –ive, non-spore forming bacteria and usually motile
Sometimes,capsulated by LPS,road-shaped from Enterobacteriaceae family
 Species
S.pullerum,S.Gallinarum,S.Typhinurium(Poultry)
S.abortus bovis,S.dublin(bovine)
S.abortus ovis,S.Dublin(caprine and ovine)
S.equi,S.Typhinourium(equine)
 Host/Diseases
Typhoid fever in humans ,Enterocolitis in colon,food poisoning,Dirrhea,vomiting and
septicemia or blood poisoning
Also cause arthritis in Avian
 Natural Habitat
Intestine of worm-blooded animals
 Transmission
Through ingestion of contaminated food and worldwide occur
 Pathogenesis
Ingestion →stomach →intestine →ruffling from Intestinal wall →Blood
→Septicemia (no phagocytosis)
 Culture characteristics
Aerobic,Temperature 37◦c,PH: 7.2
Media: Enriched media such as Selenite F.broth(for 48 hours),Tetrathionate broth(18-
24 hours)
Selective media:MacConkey agar,Brilliant Green agar,XLD 7 & SS-agar
Biochemical testing:
Via EP20 kit and O,H antigens to detect bacteria e.g Slide agglutination test(SAT)
 Diagnosis
Sample collection of eggs, feces etc
History of bacteria
PM findings
Molecular detection via PCR
6-Escherichia coli
 Morphology
Rod-shaped, motile and non-spore forming
Gram –ive and usually non-capsulated bacteria
0.4-0.6×2-3µm,family enterobacteriacae
 Species
E.aerogenes, E.agglomerans, E.adecarboxylata, E.tarda
 Host/Diseases
a)Intestinal Diarrhea in neonates→dehydartion & loss of appetite
b)Extra-intestinal
urination,reproductive,pyometric metritis
c)Septicemia
hemolysis
 Natural Habitat
Geographically worldwide ,environmentally in soil,water and intestines
 Transmission
Through ingestion
 Pathogenesis
Some factors help in pathogensis:
Endotoxin→inside the micr-organism lipid in nature
Entertoxin→necrotize the intestine
verotoxin→damage the virus
cytotoxic→damage the cell
Necrotizing→cause necrosis
 Culture characteristics
Aerobic
Incubation Temperature 37◦c ,PH: 7.2
Growth on nutrient medium,Congo red,Blood agar,milk and MacConkey
agar,Brilliant green agar and XLD
Catalase test is negative and oxidase is positive
 Diagnosis
Sample collection: fecal sample,cervical/uterine swab,mestitic milk
Microscopic examination
Testing: Inat methyl red,Vogist citrate,H2S & Urease test
Serological: Slide Agglutination test(SAT),ELISA,MAB etc
7-Brucella
 Morphology
Gram –ive, Acid fast+ive, cocco-bacilli
Non-spore forming,non-motile,microcapsule
 Species
B.abortus, B.melitensis,B.suis,B.ovis,B.canis
 Host/Diseases
It cause abortion,orchitis,arthritis,epididymitis and infertility in animals
also cause undulant fever in humans
 Natural Habitat
In milk,semen,placenta,uterine discharge,foetal fluids and testes of bulls,rams and
dogs
 Transmission
By direct or indirect contact with infective excretors and by ingestion
Distribution is worldwide
 Pathogenesis
Through ingestion ,Brucella→B-lymphocytes(binding)→phagocytic
cells(engulfment)→lymph nodes(multiplication)→Thoracic cavity & blood
stream(pass out)
 Culture characteristics
Agar:glucose serum peptone agar
Medium: sometimes grow on CO2 medium
Conditions: incubation at temperature 37◦c for 24hours,PH of the medium 7.2
 Diagnosis
Specimen:serum sample
Rose Bengal plate Agglutination test(positive when outbreaks)
Identification test: via using three dyes 1)Threonin 2)crystal violet 3)basic fuchsin
Colonial morphology
Direct microscopy
 Testing:
SAT,RBPT,CFT,ELISA,FAT,MRT,WAT&PCR
8-Mycobacterium
 Morphology
Gram+ive, cyliderical & long thin rod-shaped
Cell wall is composed of mycolic acid(AFB),
Non-spore forming,non-motile
 Species
M.paratuberculosis, M.tuberculosis, M.bovis, M.avian, M.leprae etc
 Host/Diseases
Chronic diarrhea,tuberculosis,jhones disease and leprosy in Humans, bovine, poultry
etc
 Natural Habitat
Respiratory discharge, milk, semen, feces, urine etc
 Transmission
Fomites, contaminated food and water
 Pathogenesis
Inhalation→ lungs→ macrophages(phagocytosis)→multiply→ lymph→ lymph nodes
↓
blood→body
 Culture characteristics
Aerobic in nature
Incubation Temperature 37◦c & PH: 7.2
Media:Egg yolk agar ,dubris davis(broth),stone brinks medium
Time:3-21 days
Photocromogen of bacteria:yellow
 Diagnosis
Clinical signs/symptoms
PM changes
Isolation & Identification
Morhological or microscopy
In-vitro:x-ray
9-Burkhulderia mallei
 Morphology
Gram –ve,aerobic,non-motile but spore forming
Cocco-bacilli,1.5-3µm length from family: Burkhulderiaceae
Capsule:polysaccharide
 Species
B.pseudomallei
 Host/Diseases
 Cause glanders along withpneumonia,pustules,abscesses in horses(natural
host),mules,donkeys & rarely in humans
 Natural Habitat
soil
 Transmission
Ingestion(mouth),Inhalation(nose) and through injection(cuts)
 Pathogenesis
Ingestion→ intestine(penetrate)→mucosa(spread)→lymph vessels→ lymph nodes→
blood stream→ lungs→ infection
 Culture characteristics
Agar used is MacCokey agar to grow bacteria on medium,to smooth on nutrient agar
wwith grey translucent colonies
Incubation at temperature 37◦c for 18 hours
 Diagnosis
History
Clinical signs
PM changes
Indentifying tests such as serological ,molecular etc
Treatment: Mallein and ophthalmic test
10-Mycoplasma
 Morphology
Smallest bacteria having 0.25-0.30µm length and not have a cell wall
Gram-ive (pink color by gimsa stain)
Elementary,oval,spindle-shaped cocci
 Species
M.mycodes, M.capri, M.synoviae, M.neurolytieum etc
 Host/Diseases
Cause Contagious respiratory diseases in bovine, caprine, poultry
Synovitis in birds and rolling disease in rats
 Natural Habitat
In the mucous membrane, URT, genital tract and mammary glands of bovine
 Transmission
a)Horizontal b)Vertical
 Pathogenesis
Mycoplasma→ Air droplet→ Inhalation→ lungs→ ovules→ chicks→ Respiratory
signs
Immunosupressive
 Culture characteristics
Media:PPLO,M.broth
10-20% serum of horse
Penicillin(+) & threonin(-)
Fried egg appearance colony
 Diagnosis
Signs
PM changes
Cultural charcters
History
Indentifying tests

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Bacteriology

  • 1. Roll# 236 Group: C Assignment of Bacteriology Submitted to Submitted by Dr.Khalil Muhammad Mr.Feroz Hanif 1-Styphalococci  Morphology Round-shaped ,Gram positive cocci, Irregular clustures or bunches of grapes Average diameter is 1.0 um,they are facultative anaerobes & non-motile Micro-capsulated(made up of Lipopolysaccharide)  Species St.Albus(white),St.citreus(lemon),St.aureus(gold),St.pyogoneus,St.epidermidis& St.saprophyticus etc  Disease causing Mastitis i.e inflammation of the whole udder Bumble foot: inflammation of feet of birds and rodents Tick pyemia: physical injuiry through biting if ticks that results pus formation Botryomycosis: spermatic cord formation in the teats canal of animal especially equine  Natural Habitat Occur worldwide in mammals and colonise the nares(man),intestine,skin,air,soil,water and feces etc  Transmission: indirect  Pathogenesis and Pathogenicity The staphylococci are pyogenic and are associated with pus formation & suppuration. Pus(dead leukocyte debris)→phagocytosis→fibrous capsule(around abscess)
  • 2. Moreover,it produces toxins such as enterotoxins involve in human food poisoning,exfoliatin produces st.scalded skin in infants and also enzymes ;lipase,proteses,nucleases,collagenase and urease all have a rule in pathogensis.  Laboratory Diagnosis Specimen: exudates,pus from abscesses,skin scrapings,urine,milk etc Direct microscopy: preaparation,isolation and examination of pus smears or exudates  Culture characteristics Media: a) selective include staph-110(7.5%Nacl),blood agar,milk agar b) in general,only nutrient agar Growth conditions: incubation aerobically at 37◦c temperature for 24 hours with ph 7.2 Biochemical identification: 1-Catalase test An enzyme produced by staphylococcus bacteria which decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen 2H2O2→ 2H2O+O2 Where 3% Hydrogen peroxide is poured on colony and if bubbles form ,it will indicate that test is positive. 2-Coagulase test An enzyme produce by st.pyogoneus .In this procedure 2ml plasma with 2ml culture are incubated at room temperature overnight and as a result,plasma is solidified; Prothrombin→thrombin→fibrinogen→fibrin ,ultimately clotting occurs  Haemolysis a)α-hemolysis i.e partial or incomplete hemolysis b)β-hemolysis i.e complete & c)γ- hemolysis that means no hemolysis 2-Streptococci  Morphology Round-shaped, Gram negative and occur in pairs or chains Average diameter is 1.0 um, they are facultative anaerobes & non-motile Non-capsulated and non-spore forming bacteria  Species
  • 3. Str.pyogenes,Str.agalactiae,Str.pneumo niae,Str.equi,Str.bovi & Str.dysgalactiae etc  Host/Diseases In the skin,buccal cavity,vagina,upper respiratory tract,tonsils and mucous membrane They cause Mastitis,scarlet fever,abscess,strangles,otitis,septicemia and pneumonia  Natural Habitat Distribution is worldwide.most of the streptococci live in the mucosa of URT and lower urinogenital tracts.  Transmission indirect  Pathogenesis The staphylococci are pyogenic and are associated with pus formation & suppuration. Exotoxins include haemolysins,streptolysin O&S, streptokinase,DNAse,protease and phage-coded pyogenic toxin that cause skin rashes in the scarlet fever of man. Cell wall M protein(str.pyogenes)→Anti-phagocytic→function as adhesin  Culture characteristics Media: generally nutrient agar but selectively Milk,serum and chocolate agar is used for medium Growth conditions: incubation at 37◦c overnight and PH: 7.2 Identification tests: catalase test is negative and with sugar fermentation test,they ferment sugar and produce acid with no oxygen. Presumptive indentifying test: A)CAMP test: Objective: to identify group B(β-streptococci) based upon CAMP factor Principle: it is indicated by the formation of an arrow head where str.agalactiae meets the st.aureus(vertical streak) Procedure: a culture of St.aureus is streaked across the center of sheep or ox blood agar plate and another streak of Str.agalactiae is made at right angle to St.aureus within 1-1.5mm. Plate is incubated at 37◦c for 18-24 hours and complet hemolysis indicates that test is positive. B)Dick test: Objective: to diagnose the scarlet fever in children Indication: if toxin cause redness and swelling 24 hours after the infection it means that persone is immune to scarlet fever. C)Ring precipitation test(Lencifield grouping) Objective: to prepare antigen Procedure: Grow a culture of bacteria with 10ml serum Ag overnight,centrifuge it,discard the supernatant and suspend the pellet in 0.4ml of 0.2 normal HCL Boil in water bath for 10mins
  • 4. Cool it and mix with 0.2ml phenol red Further add NaOH(0.2N) to neutralize it and again centrifuge Result: Debris settle down and c-substance remains on suspended form.  Diagnosis Specimen: exudates,pus from abscesses,skin scrapings,CSF,urine,milk etc Direct microscopy: Smears from pus,exudates or centrifuged deposits of milk or urine can be fixed or stained by the gram method 3-Bacillus  Morphology Gram positive by methylene blue staining, endospore forming Rod-shaped bacteria i.e oval,central and non-budding Aerobic,facultatively anaerobic & motile,capsule made of polypeptide.  Species a)pathogenic: B.anthracis,B.lichneiformis & B.thurnigiensis b)non-pathogenic: B.subtilis,B.polymyxa,B.cereus & B.mycoides  Host/Diseases They cause Anthrax,abortion,food poisoning,mastitis,septicemia and pyrexia in cattle,sheep,pigs,horses,carnivores,humans and mice  Natural Habitat widely distributed in air,water and soil  Transmission Through skin,inhalation and ingestion  Pathogenesis Decay of matter Antibiotics Lab bugs  Culture characteristics Aerobic in nature,grow on non-enriched medium such as nutrient agar but no growth on MacConkey agar Incubation at temperature 37◦c with PH:7.2 Biochemical testing: a)Catalase test: is positive 2H2O2→ 2H2O+O2 b)Oxidase test: H2O2→OH+OH- Mechanism: It involves Following factors; Odema factor Protive factor Death Mechanism: Death of cells Macrophages,leuckocytes and endothelial cells  Diagnosis
  • 5. History Sign/symptoms based(PM changes) No rigor mortis Blood fluid in spleen. Morphological Cathrral  Treatment Serological i.e ELISA,CFT,FAT,AGPT Molecular i.e PCR Through vaccine:Sterne(glycerol buffer+spore) Sample collection(Ascoli test): 5ml skin sample→boil→centrifuge→Agglutination by discarding superantant 4-Clostridium  Morphology Large(0.3-1.3×3-10µm),rod-shaped,spore forming bacteria Non-motile,some spirl or curved,anerobic.  Species pathogenic: C.perfringens,C.tetani,C.botulinum and C.spiroforme  Host/Diseases: Enterotoxins,Tetnaus,botulism,black leg in intestine,CNS,botulin of horses,ruminants,humans and sheep,cattle  Natural Habitat Soil and water  Transmission Via ingestion or wound contamination  Pathogenesis Through ingestion; C.perfringens →intestine →absorb in blood →enterotoxaemia  Culture characteristics Aerobic in nature Growth on egg yolk agar or MacConkey agar Incubation at normal body temperature with PH:7.2 Biochemical testing: a)Catalse test:negative b)Oxidase test: negative c)Fermentation test: positive
  • 6.  Diagnosis Specimens: swab(oxygen-free gas) or contents of intestine Direct microscopy: smear preparation based upon morphology  Treatment: FAT,Animal inoculation test etc 5-Salmonella  Morphology Gram –ive, non-spore forming bacteria and usually motile Sometimes,capsulated by LPS,road-shaped from Enterobacteriaceae family  Species S.pullerum,S.Gallinarum,S.Typhinurium(Poultry) S.abortus bovis,S.dublin(bovine) S.abortus ovis,S.Dublin(caprine and ovine) S.equi,S.Typhinourium(equine)  Host/Diseases Typhoid fever in humans ,Enterocolitis in colon,food poisoning,Dirrhea,vomiting and septicemia or blood poisoning Also cause arthritis in Avian  Natural Habitat Intestine of worm-blooded animals  Transmission Through ingestion of contaminated food and worldwide occur  Pathogenesis Ingestion →stomach →intestine →ruffling from Intestinal wall →Blood →Septicemia (no phagocytosis)  Culture characteristics Aerobic,Temperature 37◦c,PH: 7.2 Media: Enriched media such as Selenite F.broth(for 48 hours),Tetrathionate broth(18- 24 hours) Selective media:MacConkey agar,Brilliant Green agar,XLD 7 & SS-agar Biochemical testing: Via EP20 kit and O,H antigens to detect bacteria e.g Slide agglutination test(SAT)  Diagnosis Sample collection of eggs, feces etc History of bacteria PM findings
  • 7. Molecular detection via PCR 6-Escherichia coli  Morphology Rod-shaped, motile and non-spore forming Gram –ive and usually non-capsulated bacteria 0.4-0.6×2-3µm,family enterobacteriacae  Species E.aerogenes, E.agglomerans, E.adecarboxylata, E.tarda  Host/Diseases a)Intestinal Diarrhea in neonates→dehydartion & loss of appetite b)Extra-intestinal urination,reproductive,pyometric metritis c)Septicemia hemolysis  Natural Habitat Geographically worldwide ,environmentally in soil,water and intestines  Transmission Through ingestion  Pathogenesis Some factors help in pathogensis: Endotoxin→inside the micr-organism lipid in nature Entertoxin→necrotize the intestine verotoxin→damage the virus cytotoxic→damage the cell Necrotizing→cause necrosis  Culture characteristics Aerobic Incubation Temperature 37◦c ,PH: 7.2 Growth on nutrient medium,Congo red,Blood agar,milk and MacConkey agar,Brilliant green agar and XLD Catalase test is negative and oxidase is positive  Diagnosis Sample collection: fecal sample,cervical/uterine swab,mestitic milk Microscopic examination Testing: Inat methyl red,Vogist citrate,H2S & Urease test Serological: Slide Agglutination test(SAT),ELISA,MAB etc
  • 8. 7-Brucella  Morphology Gram –ive, Acid fast+ive, cocco-bacilli Non-spore forming,non-motile,microcapsule  Species B.abortus, B.melitensis,B.suis,B.ovis,B.canis  Host/Diseases It cause abortion,orchitis,arthritis,epididymitis and infertility in animals also cause undulant fever in humans  Natural Habitat In milk,semen,placenta,uterine discharge,foetal fluids and testes of bulls,rams and dogs  Transmission By direct or indirect contact with infective excretors and by ingestion Distribution is worldwide  Pathogenesis Through ingestion ,Brucella→B-lymphocytes(binding)→phagocytic cells(engulfment)→lymph nodes(multiplication)→Thoracic cavity & blood stream(pass out)  Culture characteristics Agar:glucose serum peptone agar Medium: sometimes grow on CO2 medium Conditions: incubation at temperature 37◦c for 24hours,PH of the medium 7.2  Diagnosis Specimen:serum sample Rose Bengal plate Agglutination test(positive when outbreaks) Identification test: via using three dyes 1)Threonin 2)crystal violet 3)basic fuchsin Colonial morphology Direct microscopy  Testing: SAT,RBPT,CFT,ELISA,FAT,MRT,WAT&PCR 8-Mycobacterium  Morphology Gram+ive, cyliderical & long thin rod-shaped
  • 9. Cell wall is composed of mycolic acid(AFB), Non-spore forming,non-motile  Species M.paratuberculosis, M.tuberculosis, M.bovis, M.avian, M.leprae etc  Host/Diseases Chronic diarrhea,tuberculosis,jhones disease and leprosy in Humans, bovine, poultry etc  Natural Habitat Respiratory discharge, milk, semen, feces, urine etc  Transmission Fomites, contaminated food and water  Pathogenesis Inhalation→ lungs→ macrophages(phagocytosis)→multiply→ lymph→ lymph nodes ↓ blood→body  Culture characteristics Aerobic in nature Incubation Temperature 37◦c & PH: 7.2 Media:Egg yolk agar ,dubris davis(broth),stone brinks medium Time:3-21 days Photocromogen of bacteria:yellow  Diagnosis Clinical signs/symptoms PM changes Isolation & Identification Morhological or microscopy In-vitro:x-ray 9-Burkhulderia mallei  Morphology Gram –ve,aerobic,non-motile but spore forming Cocco-bacilli,1.5-3µm length from family: Burkhulderiaceae Capsule:polysaccharide  Species B.pseudomallei  Host/Diseases  Cause glanders along withpneumonia,pustules,abscesses in horses(natural host),mules,donkeys & rarely in humans  Natural Habitat soil
  • 10.  Transmission Ingestion(mouth),Inhalation(nose) and through injection(cuts)  Pathogenesis Ingestion→ intestine(penetrate)→mucosa(spread)→lymph vessels→ lymph nodes→ blood stream→ lungs→ infection  Culture characteristics Agar used is MacCokey agar to grow bacteria on medium,to smooth on nutrient agar wwith grey translucent colonies Incubation at temperature 37◦c for 18 hours  Diagnosis History Clinical signs PM changes Indentifying tests such as serological ,molecular etc Treatment: Mallein and ophthalmic test 10-Mycoplasma  Morphology Smallest bacteria having 0.25-0.30µm length and not have a cell wall Gram-ive (pink color by gimsa stain) Elementary,oval,spindle-shaped cocci  Species M.mycodes, M.capri, M.synoviae, M.neurolytieum etc  Host/Diseases Cause Contagious respiratory diseases in bovine, caprine, poultry Synovitis in birds and rolling disease in rats  Natural Habitat In the mucous membrane, URT, genital tract and mammary glands of bovine  Transmission a)Horizontal b)Vertical  Pathogenesis Mycoplasma→ Air droplet→ Inhalation→ lungs→ ovules→ chicks→ Respiratory signs Immunosupressive  Culture characteristics Media:PPLO,M.broth 10-20% serum of horse Penicillin(+) & threonin(-)
  • 11. Fried egg appearance colony  Diagnosis Signs PM changes Cultural charcters History Indentifying tests