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Automated	Analysis	of	Cognitive	Presence	
in	Online	Discussions	Written	in	Portuguese
Valter Neto,	Vitor Rolim,	Rafael	Ferreira,	Vitomir Kovanovic,	Dragan	
Gaševic,	Rafael	Dueire Lins,	and	Rodrigo	Lins
Online	and	BlendedLearning
Garrison,	D.	R.,	Anderson,	T.,	&	Archer,	W.	(1999).	Critical	inquiry	in	a	text-based	environment:	Computer	conferencing	in	higher	
education. The	internet	and	higher	education, 2(2-3),	87-105.
Cognitive	
Presence
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., &
Archer, W. (2001). Critical
thinking, cognitive presence,
and computer conferencing in
distance education. American
Journal of distance
education, 15(1), 7-23.
How	to	automatically	identify
cognitive	presence?
Method
Kovanovic, V., Joksimovic, S., Waters, Z., Gaševic, D., Kitto, K., Hatala, M.,
Siemens, G.: Towards automated content analysis of discussion transcripts:
A cognitive presence case. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International
Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK’16). pp. 15–24. LAK
’16, ACM, New York, NY, USA (2016)
Dataset
• Biology	undergraduate	level	course
• 215	students	
•Discussions	over	four	weeks
• Question-answering	discussion
Dataset
Data	preprocessing
•Step	1:	Divide	the	data	into	training	and	test	datasets	
(75%	and	25%)
Data	preprocessing
•Step	2:	 SMOTE	algorithm
Data	preprocessing
•Step	3:	Feature	extraction
• LIWC	(Linguistic	Inquiry	and	Word	Count)	tool
• Word	counts	which	are	indicative	of	different	psychological	
processes
• Coh-Metrix
• Metrics	of	text	coherence
• Discussion	context	features
• Number	of	replies
• Message	Depth
• Similarity	to	previous/next	message
• Word	embedding	similarity
• Number	of	named	entities
Data	preprocessing
•Step	4:		Random	forest	classifier	
•Step	5:	Optimization	of	the	classifier
Data	preprocessing
•Step	6:	Feature	importance
Discussion
• Higher	levels	of	cognitive	presence	were	related	to	
messages	that	are:
• Longer,	with	more	words	and	sentences;
• Complex,	with	complex	words	(words	bigger	than	6	
letters)	and	longer	sentences
• With	less	lexical	diversity,	lexical	diversity	and	givenness
• Use	more	third-person	singular	pronouns
• Use	fewer	question	marks
Future	directions	of	work
•What	is	the	performance	of	the	classifier	for	different	
cohorts	of	students?
•How	do	social,	cognitive	and	teaching	presences	
interact	with	each	other?
•How	can	we	aid	instructors	to	create	a	environment	
more	productive	discussions?
•How	cognitive	and	social	presences	could	be	used	for	
self-regulated	learning?
Automated	Analysis	of	Cognitive	Presence	in	
Online	Discussions	Written	in	Portuguese
Questions?

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