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 1939 – Emergence of English as a Foreign
Language
 1942 – world war II – Army Specialized Training
Program (ASTP)
 Audio-lingual method – combination of structural
linguistic theory, contrastive analysis, aural-oral
procedures and behaviourist psychology
 Professor Nelson Brooks – art of teaching into a
science
 Language is speech, not writingLanguage is speech, not writing
 A language is what its native speakers speak, notA language is what its native speakers speak, not
what someone thinks they ought to speak.what someone thinks they ought to speak.
 Languages are different; they have similarities andLanguages are different; they have similarities and
differences which can systematically studieddifferences which can systematically studied
 Language is behaviour and behaviour is matter of
habit. Language learning is a mechanical skill and
no intellectual process in involved in it; since
language learning is mechanical linguistic
behaviour is conditioned. So, in the teaching of a
language, the teacher should follow the stimulus-
response-reinforcement pattern.
 Language teaching begins with the spoken
language; the material is taught orally before it is
presented in the written form.
 The target language is the only language of the
class room; the mother tongue is not used
 New language items are introduced and practiced
situationally, through contextualized dialogues.
 Vocabulary selection
 Items of grammar are called as structures and
graded following the principle that simple forms
are taught before complex ones. Grammar is
induced from examples given and no explicit
grammar rules are to be provided
 Reading and writing are introduced once a
sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is
established.
 Dialogues-key structures in context and cultural
aspects of TL
 Drills – pattern practice - Brooks
1.Repetition – without looking at the printed text
Example: I used to know him – I used to know him
2. Inflection – one word in an utterance appears in
another form when repeated
Example: He bought the ticket – I bought the tickets
Replacement – one word
in an utterance is replaced by another
Example: He bought this house cheap – He bought
it cheap
Restatement – the student rephrases an utterance
and addresses it to someone else
Example: Tell him to wait for you – Wait for me
Completion –
Example: I’ll go my way and you go…
Transposition – change in word order
Example: I’m hungry – So am I
Expansion –
Example: I know him (well) – I know him well
Contraction – a single word for a clause or phrase
Example: Put your hand on the table – Put your
hand there
Transformation – a sentence into negative,
interrogative, voice, tense, etc
Example: He knows my address – He does not
know my address, Does he know my address?,
etc.
Integration –
Example: I know that man. He is looking for you. –
I know the man who is looking for you.
Rejoinder – appropriate responses
Example: Thank you. – You’re welcome
Restoration –
Example: students/waiting/bus
 Organisms responding to
the stimulus
 A reactive role
 Similar to SLT – active
and passive
 Similar to SLT
 Teacher dominated method
 Teacher is expected to work hard and to be
more creative
 Assist teacher
 Texts of dialogues and
cues for drills and
exercises
 Tape recorders,
audiovisual equipments,
etc.
 Language laboratory
 Oral instructions, Use of TL, Maximum
ten students
1. Students hear a model dialogue,
repeat and memorize
2. Dialogue is adapted to students’
interest and situation
3. Certain key structures are chosen and
used for drills
4. Reading text books and enriching
other skills
5. Follow-up at laboratory

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Audio lingual method

  • 1.
  • 2.  1939 – Emergence of English as a Foreign Language  1942 – world war II – Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP)  Audio-lingual method – combination of structural linguistic theory, contrastive analysis, aural-oral procedures and behaviourist psychology  Professor Nelson Brooks – art of teaching into a science
  • 3.  Language is speech, not writingLanguage is speech, not writing  A language is what its native speakers speak, notA language is what its native speakers speak, not what someone thinks they ought to speak.what someone thinks they ought to speak.  Languages are different; they have similarities andLanguages are different; they have similarities and differences which can systematically studieddifferences which can systematically studied
  • 4.  Language is behaviour and behaviour is matter of habit. Language learning is a mechanical skill and no intellectual process in involved in it; since language learning is mechanical linguistic behaviour is conditioned. So, in the teaching of a language, the teacher should follow the stimulus- response-reinforcement pattern.
  • 5.
  • 6.  Language teaching begins with the spoken language; the material is taught orally before it is presented in the written form.  The target language is the only language of the class room; the mother tongue is not used  New language items are introduced and practiced situationally, through contextualized dialogues.
  • 7.  Vocabulary selection  Items of grammar are called as structures and graded following the principle that simple forms are taught before complex ones. Grammar is induced from examples given and no explicit grammar rules are to be provided  Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.
  • 8.  Dialogues-key structures in context and cultural aspects of TL  Drills – pattern practice - Brooks
  • 9. 1.Repetition – without looking at the printed text Example: I used to know him – I used to know him 2. Inflection – one word in an utterance appears in another form when repeated Example: He bought the ticket – I bought the tickets
  • 10. Replacement – one word in an utterance is replaced by another Example: He bought this house cheap – He bought it cheap Restatement – the student rephrases an utterance and addresses it to someone else Example: Tell him to wait for you – Wait for me
  • 11. Completion – Example: I’ll go my way and you go… Transposition – change in word order Example: I’m hungry – So am I Expansion – Example: I know him (well) – I know him well
  • 12. Contraction – a single word for a clause or phrase Example: Put your hand on the table – Put your hand there Transformation – a sentence into negative, interrogative, voice, tense, etc Example: He knows my address – He does not know my address, Does he know my address?, etc.
  • 13. Integration – Example: I know that man. He is looking for you. – I know the man who is looking for you. Rejoinder – appropriate responses Example: Thank you. – You’re welcome Restoration – Example: students/waiting/bus
  • 14.  Organisms responding to the stimulus  A reactive role  Similar to SLT – active and passive
  • 15.  Similar to SLT  Teacher dominated method  Teacher is expected to work hard and to be more creative
  • 16.  Assist teacher  Texts of dialogues and cues for drills and exercises  Tape recorders, audiovisual equipments, etc.  Language laboratory
  • 17.  Oral instructions, Use of TL, Maximum ten students 1. Students hear a model dialogue, repeat and memorize 2. Dialogue is adapted to students’ interest and situation 3. Certain key structures are chosen and used for drills 4. Reading text books and enriching other skills 5. Follow-up at laboratory