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    Atoms and Change
Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century

Health and Medicine
  • Sanitation systems
  • Surgery with anesthesia
  • Vaccines and antibiotics


                      Energy and the Environment
                         • Fossil fuels
                         • Solar energy
                         • Nuclear energy
Chemistry
    - is the study of matter and the changes it
undergoes

Matter is anything that occupies space
 and has mass.


A substance is a form of matter that has a
  definite composition and distinct
  properties.
     water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in
which the substances retain their distinct identities.

  1. Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture
     is the same throughout.


              soft drink, milk, solder


 2. Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not
    uniform throughout.


                             cement,
                             iron filings in sand
Physical means can be used to separate a
mixture into its pure components.




                              magnet
     distillation
An element is a substance that cannot be
separated into simpler substances by chemical
means.
    • 113 elements have been identified
       • 82 elements occur naturally on Earth
          gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon
       • 31 elements have been created by scientists
          technetium, americium, seaborgium
A compound is a substance composed of atoms
of two or more elements chemically united in
fixed proportions.

• can only be separated into their pure
components (elements) by chemical means.

        Water (H2O)       Glucose (C6H12O6)


                 Ammonia (NH3)
gas




liquid         solid
A physical change does not alter the
composition or identity of a substance.
                           sugar dissolving
    ice melting
                              in water
A chemical change alters the composition or
identity of the substance(s) involved.



    hydrogen burns
    in air to form
    water
An extensive property of a material depends
upon how much matter is is being considered.
       • mass
       • length
       • volume

An intensive property of a material does not
depend upon how much matter is is being
considered.
       • density
       • temperature
       • color
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)
Elements are composed of extremely small
   particles called atoms. All atoms of a given
   element are identical, having the same size,
   mass and chemical properties. The atoms of
   one element are different from the atoms of all
   other elements.
         elements

Compounds are composed of atoms of more
  than one element.
           element
2
16 X   +   8Y   8 X2Y


                        2.1
J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e-
      (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics)   2.2
Cathode Ray Tube




                   2.2
Measured mass of e-
                           (1923 Nobel Prize in Physics)




                   e- charge = -1.60 x 10-19 C
Thomson’s charge/mass of e- = -1.76 x 108 C/g
                     e- mass = 9.10 x 10-28 g
                                                    2.2
(Uranium compound)
                 2.2
2.2
(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)




                                 α particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s
                                 (~5% speed of light)

1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus
2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-)
3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g)
                                                               2.2
Rutherford’s Model of
                                the Atom




            atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m
        nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m


“If the atom is the Houston Astrodome, then
the nucleus is a marble on the 50-yard line.”
                                                     2.2
Chadwick’s Experiment (1932)
               H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p
               mass He/mass H should = 2
               measured mass He/mass H = 4



        α + 9Be         1
                         n + 12C + energy
neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0)
n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10-24 g
                                               2.2
mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e-

                                   2.2
Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus
 Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
                   = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
   Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different
              numbers of neutrons in their nuclei

             Mass Number      A
                              ZX
                                       Element Symbol
            Atomic Number


                1           2            3
                1H          1H   (D)     1H   (T)
                    235            238
                     92   U         92   U

                                                               2.3
2.3
Do You Understand Isotopes?

                                                  14
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are   in 6 C ?

      6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons

                                                  11
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are   in 6 C ?

      6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons


                                                      2.3
Noble Gas
                     2.4




         Halogen
          Group
          Period
Alkali Earth Metal
     Alkali Metal
Chemistry In Action
Natural abundance of elements in Earth’s crust




                             Natural abundance of elements in human body




                                                                     2.4
A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a
definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds




          H2       H2O          NH3         CH4

  A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms
                 H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO

A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms
                   O3, H2O, NH3, CH4

                                                   2.5
An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
cation – ion with a positive charge
     If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
     it becomes a cation.

              11 protons                    11 protons
      Na      11 electrons         Na   +
                                            10 electrons


anion – ion with a negative charge
     If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
     it becomes an anion.
              17 protons                    17 protons
       Cl     17 electrons         Cl   -
                                            18 electrons
                                                           2.5
A monatomic ion contains only one atom
            Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-




A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom
               OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-




                                               2.5
Do You Understand Ions?


                                        27 3+
How many protons and electrons are in   13 Al   ?

         13 protons, 10 (13 – 3) electrons

                                        78 2-
How many protons and electrons are in   34 Al   ?

         34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons


                                                    2.5
2.5
2.6
A molecular formula shows the exact number of
atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a
substance

An empirical formula shows the simplest
whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance

         molecular          empirical
            H2O                H2O
          C6H12O6             CH2O

             O3                 O
            N2H4               NH2
                                                  2.6
ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations
and an anions
• the formula is always the same as the empirical formula
• the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each
       formula unit must equal zero
                The ionic compound NaCl




                                                             2.6
Formula of Ionic Compounds
   2 x +3 = +6           3 x -2 = -6

                 Al2O3
       Al3+               O2-

   1 x +2 = +2           2 x -1 = -2

                 CaBr2
       Ca2+               Br-

   1 x +2 = +2           1 x -2 = -2

              Na2CO3
       Na+                 CO32-
                                       2.6
2.6
2.7
Chemical Nomenclature
• Ionic Compounds
  – often a metal + nonmetal
  – anion (nonmetal), add “ide” to element name


          BaCl2              barium chloride
          K2O                potassium oxide
          Mg(OH)2            magnesium hydroxide

          KNO3               potassium nitrate


                                                   2.7
• Transition metal ionic compounds
    – indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals



FeCl2   2 Cl- -2 so Fe is +2       iron(II) chloride

FeCl3   3 Cl- -3 so Fe is +3       iron(III) chloride

Cr2S3   3 S-2 -6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide




                                                        2.7
• Molecular compounds
      • nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
      • common names
         • H2O, NH3, CH4, C60
      • element further left in periodic table
        is 1st
      • element closest to bottom of group is
        1st
      • if more than one compound can be
        formed from the same elements, use
        prefixes to indicate number of each
        kind of atom
      • last element ends in ide


2.7
Molecular Compounds

HI      hydrogen iodide

NF3     nitrogen trifluoride

SO2     sulfur dioxide

N2Cl4   dinitrogen tetrachloride

NO2     nitrogen dioxide       TOXIC!

N2O     dinitrogen monoxide        Laughing Gas

                                              2.7
2.7
An acid can be defined as a substance that yields
hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
  HCl
    •Pure substance, hydrogen chloride
    •Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid

An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen,
oxygen, and another element.

  HNO3          nitric acid
  H2CO3         carbonic acid
  H2SO4         sulfuric acid
                                         HNO3         2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
A base can be defined as a substance that yields
hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.


            NaOH          sodium hydroxide
            KOH           potassium hydroxide
            Ba(OH)2       barium hydroxide




                                                   2.7
2.7

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Atoms and Charge

  • 1.   Atoms and Change
  • 2. Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century Health and Medicine • Sanitation systems • Surgery with anesthesia • Vaccines and antibiotics Energy and the Environment • Fossil fuels • Solar energy • Nuclear energy
  • 3. Chemistry - is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties. water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen
  • 4.
  • 5. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. 1. Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture is the same throughout. soft drink, milk, solder 2. Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout. cement, iron filings in sand
  • 6. Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components. magnet distillation
  • 7. An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. • 113 elements have been identified • 82 elements occur naturally on Earth gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon • 31 elements have been created by scientists technetium, americium, seaborgium
  • 8.
  • 9. A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. • can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means. Water (H2O) Glucose (C6H12O6) Ammonia (NH3)
  • 10. gas liquid solid
  • 11. A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance. sugar dissolving ice melting in water A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved. hydrogen burns in air to form water
  • 12. An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is is being considered. • mass • length • volume An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is is being considered. • density • temperature • color
  • 13. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. elements Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. element
  • 14. 2
  • 15. 16 X + 8Y 8 X2Y 2.1
  • 16. J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e- (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics) 2.2
  • 18. Measured mass of e- (1923 Nobel Prize in Physics) e- charge = -1.60 x 10-19 C Thomson’s charge/mass of e- = -1.76 x 108 C/g e- mass = 9.10 x 10-28 g 2.2
  • 20. 2.2
  • 21. (1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) α particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light) 1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-) 3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g) 2.2
  • 22. Rutherford’s Model of the Atom atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m “If the atom is the Houston Astrodome, then the nucleus is a marble on the 50-yard line.” 2.2
  • 23. Chadwick’s Experiment (1932) H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4 α + 9Be 1 n + 12C + energy neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0) n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10-24 g 2.2
  • 24. mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e- 2.2
  • 25. Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei Mass Number A ZX Element Symbol Atomic Number 1 2 3 1H 1H (D) 1H (T) 235 238 92 U 92 U 2.3
  • 26. 2.3
  • 27. Do You Understand Isotopes? 14 How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 6 C ? 6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons 11 How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 6 C ? 6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons 2.3
  • 28. Noble Gas 2.4 Halogen Group Period Alkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal
  • 29. Chemistry In Action Natural abundance of elements in Earth’s crust Natural abundance of elements in human body 2.4
  • 30. A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds H2 H2O NH3 CH4 A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms O3, H2O, NH3, CH4 2.5
  • 31. An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge. cation – ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation. 11 protons 11 protons Na 11 electrons Na + 10 electrons anion – ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. 17 protons 17 protons Cl 17 electrons Cl - 18 electrons 2.5
  • 32. A monatomic ion contains only one atom Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3- A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3- 2.5
  • 33. Do You Understand Ions? 27 3+ How many protons and electrons are in 13 Al ? 13 protons, 10 (13 – 3) electrons 78 2- How many protons and electrons are in 34 Al ? 34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons 2.5
  • 34. 2.5
  • 35. 2.6
  • 36. A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance molecular empirical H2O H2O C6H12O6 CH2O O3 O N2H4 NH2 2.6
  • 37. ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions • the formula is always the same as the empirical formula • the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero The ionic compound NaCl 2.6
  • 38. Formula of Ionic Compounds 2 x +3 = +6 3 x -2 = -6 Al2O3 Al3+ O2- 1 x +2 = +2 2 x -1 = -2 CaBr2 Ca2+ Br- 1 x +2 = +2 1 x -2 = -2 Na2CO3 Na+ CO32- 2.6
  • 39. 2.6
  • 40. 2.7
  • 41. Chemical Nomenclature • Ionic Compounds – often a metal + nonmetal – anion (nonmetal), add “ide” to element name BaCl2 barium chloride K2O potassium oxide Mg(OH)2 magnesium hydroxide KNO3 potassium nitrate 2.7
  • 42. • Transition metal ionic compounds – indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals FeCl2 2 Cl- -2 so Fe is +2 iron(II) chloride FeCl3 3 Cl- -3 so Fe is +3 iron(III) chloride Cr2S3 3 S-2 -6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide 2.7
  • 43. • Molecular compounds • nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids • common names • H2O, NH3, CH4, C60 • element further left in periodic table is 1st • element closest to bottom of group is 1st • if more than one compound can be formed from the same elements, use prefixes to indicate number of each kind of atom • last element ends in ide 2.7
  • 44. Molecular Compounds HI hydrogen iodide NF3 nitrogen trifluoride SO2 sulfur dioxide N2Cl4 dinitrogen tetrachloride NO2 nitrogen dioxide TOXIC! N2O dinitrogen monoxide Laughing Gas 2.7
  • 45. 2.7
  • 46. An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. HCl •Pure substance, hydrogen chloride •Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. HNO3 nitric acid H2CO3 carbonic acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HNO3 2.7
  • 47. 2.7
  • 48. 2.7
  • 49. 2.7
  • 50. A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide 2.7
  • 51. 2.7