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DALTON'S ATOMIC
THEORY
● All elements are made up of small invisible
particles called atoms.
● All atoms have same size,mass and chemical
properties.
● Two or more than elements combine to make
compounds.
● During chemical reaction,atoms are neither
created nor destroyed but there is
rearrangement of particles.
DISCOVERY OF
ELECTRONS
Introduction: In 1897,J.J. Thomson discovered electrons.
EXPERIMENT: When the tube is evacuated & a current of
high potential is passed between the electrodes.Thomson
showed that these rays were deflected towards the positive
plate.
RESULT: The name electron was given to these units of
negatively charged particles.
PROPERTIES OF CATHODE
RAYS
● THEY TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES.
● THEY ARE MATERIAL PARTICLES.
● THEY ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED
PARTICLES.
● THEY HAVE KINETIC ENERGY.
PROPERTIES OF POSITIVE
RAYS
● THEY TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINE.
● THEY CARRY POSITIVE CHARGE
PARTICLES.
● THE E/M RATIO OF POSITIVE
PARTICLES IS SMALLER THAN
ELECTRON.
NATURE OF
RADIOACTIVITY
INTRODUCTION: In 1902,Rutherford determined the nature of radioactive
rays.
EXPERIMENT:A radioactive substance was placed in a lead block between
two oppositely charged particles.
OBSERVATION:The radiations were resolved in three components.
RESULT:First component was deflected toward towards negative plate.These
were named a-particles.Second component was deflected towards positive
plate.These were named B-rays.Third component were not deflected in the
electric field.These were named gamma-rays.
RUTHERFORD
EXPERIMENT
In 1911,Rutherford carried out this experiment.
He passed the beam of a-particles through a
very thin gold foil.Most of particles passed
through it without any deflection.Some of them
deflected at large angle.Very few of them
bounced back.
ATOMIC NUMBER
ATOMIC NUMBER=NUMBER OF PROTONS
AND ELECTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS.
ATOMIC MASS
ATOMIC MASS=NUMBER OF
PROTONS+NUMBER OF NEUTRON
ISOTOPES
Atoms of same element
having same atomic number
number but different atomic
masses.
THANK YOU

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE

  • 1.
  • 2. DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY ● All elements are made up of small invisible particles called atoms. ● All atoms have same size,mass and chemical properties. ● Two or more than elements combine to make compounds. ● During chemical reaction,atoms are neither created nor destroyed but there is rearrangement of particles.
  • 3. DISCOVERY OF ELECTRONS Introduction: In 1897,J.J. Thomson discovered electrons. EXPERIMENT: When the tube is evacuated & a current of high potential is passed between the electrodes.Thomson showed that these rays were deflected towards the positive plate. RESULT: The name electron was given to these units of negatively charged particles.
  • 4.
  • 5. PROPERTIES OF CATHODE RAYS ● THEY TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES. ● THEY ARE MATERIAL PARTICLES. ● THEY ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES. ● THEY HAVE KINETIC ENERGY.
  • 6.
  • 7. PROPERTIES OF POSITIVE RAYS ● THEY TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINE. ● THEY CARRY POSITIVE CHARGE PARTICLES. ● THE E/M RATIO OF POSITIVE PARTICLES IS SMALLER THAN ELECTRON.
  • 8. NATURE OF RADIOACTIVITY INTRODUCTION: In 1902,Rutherford determined the nature of radioactive rays. EXPERIMENT:A radioactive substance was placed in a lead block between two oppositely charged particles. OBSERVATION:The radiations were resolved in three components. RESULT:First component was deflected toward towards negative plate.These were named a-particles.Second component was deflected towards positive plate.These were named B-rays.Third component were not deflected in the electric field.These were named gamma-rays.
  • 9.
  • 10. RUTHERFORD EXPERIMENT In 1911,Rutherford carried out this experiment. He passed the beam of a-particles through a very thin gold foil.Most of particles passed through it without any deflection.Some of them deflected at large angle.Very few of them bounced back.
  • 11.
  • 12. ATOMIC NUMBER ATOMIC NUMBER=NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS.
  • 13. ATOMIC MASS ATOMIC MASS=NUMBER OF PROTONS+NUMBER OF NEUTRON
  • 14. ISOTOPES Atoms of same element having same atomic number number but different atomic masses.
  • 15.