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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
ATM MACHINE
Powered By: Chandan Kumar
1
ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Abstract
This paper presents the concept of the Liquidity Management. This paper also
presents the working of ATM. ATM as the liquidity management. The Specifications of
the ATM Machine, its various requirements. The Various services provided by ATM.
The safety guide to use the ATM.
KEY WORDS: ATM, ATM History, ATM Working, Diagrams, ATM Safety Guide,
Customer satisfaction, Fees, Problems, ATM services, Banks.
INTRODUCTION:
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Automated Teller Machine is a
computerised machine that
provides the customers of banks
the facility of accessing their
accounts for dispensing cash
and to carry out other financial
transactions without the need of
actually visiting a bank branch.
ATM means neither “avoids traveling with
money” nor “any time money,” but
certainly implies both. Slim ATM cards are
fast replacing confounding withdrawal forms
as a convenient way of getting your money
from banks. In a way, they are rewriting the
rules of financial transaction. A smart person
no longer needs to carry a wallet-full of
paper money on his person. All he needs to
do is fish out an ATM (automated teller
machine) card, insert it in the slot, punch in a
few details and go home with hard cash.
Automated teller machines (ATMs) were
the first well-known machines to provide
electronic access to customers. With advent of Automatic Teller Machines (ATM), banks
are able to serve customers outside the banking hall. ATM is designed to perform the
most important function of bank. It is operated by plastic card with its special features.
The plastic card is replacing cheque, personal attendance of the customer, banking hour’s
restrictions and paper based verification. ATMs have made hard cash just seconds away
all throughout the day at every corner of the globe. ATMs allow you to do a number of
banking functions – such as withdrawing cash from one’s account, making balance
inquiries and transferring money from one account to another – using a plastic, magnetic-
strip card and personal identification number issued by the financial institution.
HISTORY:
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
The idea of self-service in retail banking developed
through independent and simultaneous efforts in Japan,
Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.
In the USA, Luther George Simjian has been credited with
developing and building the first cash dispenser machine.
There is strong evidence to suggest that Simjian worked
on this device before 1959 while his 132nd patent
(US3079603) was first filed on 30 June 1960
(and granted 26 February 1963). The rollout of this machine
called Bankograph, was delayed a couple of years. This was
due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being
acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental
Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the
City Bank of New York, but removed after 6 months due to
the lack of customer acceptance. The Bankograph was an automated envelope deposit
machine (accepting coins, cash and cheques) and it did not have cash dispensing features.
A first cash dispensing device was used in Tokyo in 1966. Although little is known of
this first device, it seems to have been activated with a credit card rather than accessing
current account balances. It was followed in 1967 by a machine in Uppsala.
Reg Varney, first to use a cash point in the UK
Plaque commemorating installation of world's first bank cash
machineIn simultaneous and independent efforts, engineers in
Sweden and Britain developed their own cash machines during
the early 1960s. The first of these that was put into use was by
Barclays Bank in Enfield Town in North London, United
Kingdom, on 27 June 1967. This machine was the first in
the UK and was used by English comedy actor Reg Varney, at the time so as to ensure
maximum publicity for the machines that were to become mainstream in the UK. This
instance of the invention has been credited to John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De
La Rue, who was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year's Honours List. His design
used special cheques that were matched with a personal identification number, as plastic
bank cards had not yet been invented. The Barclays-De La Rue machine (called De La
Rue Automatic Cash System or DACS) beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company
called Metior's machine (a device called Bankomat) by nine days and Westminster
Bank’s-Smith Industries-Chubb system (called Chubb MD2) by a month. The
collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a third
machine which was marketed after 1969 in Europe and the USA by the Burroughs
Corporation. The patent for this device (GB1329964) was filed on September 1969 (and
granted in 1973) by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter
Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe & Malcom David Roe.
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher which was
retained by the machine while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic strip at the
back. They used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order
to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a
British engineer working on the MD2 named James Goodfellow in 1965 (patent
GB1197183 filed on 2 May 1966 with Anthony Davies). The essence of this system was
that it enabled the verification of the customer with the debited account without human
intervention. This patent is also the earliest instance of a complete “currency dispenser
system” in the patent record. This patent was filed on 5 March 1968 in the USA (US
3543904) and granted on 1 December 1970. It had a profound influence on the industry
as a whole. Not only did future entrants into the cash dispenser market such as NCR
Corporation and IBM licence Goodfellow’s PIN system, but a number of later patents
reference this patent as “Prior Art Device”.
After looking first hand at the experiences in Europe, in 1968 the networked ATM was
pioneered in the US, in Dallas, Texas, by Donald Wetzel, who was a department head at
an automated baggage-handling company called Docutel. On September 2, 1969,
Chemical Bank installed the first ATM in the U.S. at its branch in Rockville Centre, New
York. The first ATMs were designed to dispense a fixed amount of cash when a user
inserted a specially coded card. A Chemical Bank advertisement boasted "On Sept. 2 our
bank will open at 9:00 and never close again. Chemicals' ATM, initially known as a
Docuteller was designed by Donald Wetzel and his company Docutel. Chemical
executives were initially hesitant about the electronic banking transition given the high
cost of the early machines. Additionally, executives were concerned that customers
would resist having machines handling their money. In 1995, the Smithsonian National
Museum of American History recognized Docutel and Wetzel as the inventors of the
networked ATM.
ATMs first came into use in December 1972 in the UK; the IBM 2984 was designed at
the request of Lloyds Bank. The 2984 CIT (Cash Issuing Terminal) was the first true
Cashpoint, similar in function to today's machines; Cashpoint is still a registered
trademark of Lloyds TSB in the UK. All were online and issued a variable amount which
was immediately deducted from the account. A small number of 2984s were supplied to a
US bank. Notable historical models of ATMs include the IBM 3624 and 473x series,
Diebold 10xx and TABS 9000 series, NCR 1780 and earlier NCR 770 series.
Financial networks :
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and
deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or
in the country where their accounts are held (enabling cash withdrawals in local
currency). Some examples of interbank networks include PULSE, PLUS, Cirrus, Interac,
Interswitch, STAR, and LINK.
ATMs rely on authorization of a financial transaction by the card issuer or other
authorizing institution via the communications network. This is often performed through
an ISO 8583 messaging system.
Many banks charge ATM usage fees. In some cases, these fees are charged solely to
users who are not customers of the bank where the ATM is installed; in other cases, they
apply to all users.
In order to allow a more diverse range of devices to attach to their networks, some
interbank networks have passed rules expanding the definition of an ATM to be a
terminal that either has the vault within its footprint or utilizes the vault or cash drawer
within the merchant establishment, which allows for the use of a scrip cash dispenser.
A Diebold 1063ix with a dial-up modem visible at the base
ATMs typically connect directly to their host or ATM Controller via either ADSL or dial-
up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. Leased lines are preferable
to POTS lines because they require less time to establish a connection. Leased lines may
be comparatively expensive to operate versus a POTS line, meaning less-trafficked
machines will usually rely on a dial-up modem. That dilemma may be solved as high-
speed Internet VPN connections become more ubiquitous. Common lower-level layer
communication protocols used by ATMs to communicate back to the bank include SNA
over SDLC, TC500 over Async, X.25, and TCP/IP over Ethernet.
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
In addition to methods employed for transaction security and secrecy, all communications
traffic between the ATM and the Transaction Processor may also be encrypted via
methods such as SSL.
Requirements of an ATM machine:
Hardware Requirements:
 CPU :To control the user interface and transaction devices
 Magnetic and/or Chip card reader: To identify the customer.
 PIN Pad: Similar in layout to a Touch tone or Calculator keypad, often
manufactured as part of a secure enclosure.
 Secure crypto processor, generally within a secure enclosure.
 Display: Used by the customer for performing the transaction.
 Function key buttons: Usually close to the display (or) Touch screen,
used to select the various aspects of the transaction.
 Record Printer: To provide the customer with a record of their transaction.
 Vault: To store the parts of the machinery requiring restricted access.
 Housing: For aesthetics and to attach signage.
SOFTWARE Requirements :
With the migration to commodity PC hardware, standard commercial "off-the-shelf"
operating systems and programming environments can be used inside of ATMs. Typical
platforms previously used in ATM development include RMX or OS/2. Today the vast
majority of ATMs worldwide use a Microsoft OS, primarily Windows XP Professional
or Windows XP Embedded.
A small number of deployments may still be running older versions such as Windows
NT, Windows CE or Windows 2000. Notably, Vista was not widely adopted in ATMs.
There is a computer industry security view or consensus that desktop operating systems
have greater risks as operating systems for cash dispensing machines than other types of
operating systems like (secure) real-time operating systems (RTOS). RISKS Digest has
many articles about cash machine operating system vulnerabilities.
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
A Wincor Nixdorf ATM running Windows 2000.
Linux is also finding some reception in the ATM marketplace.
An example of this is Banrisul, the largest bank in the south of
Brazil, which has replaced the MS-DOS operating systems in
its ATMs with Linux. Banco do Brasil is also migrating
ATMs to Linux. Common application layer transaction protocols, such as Diebold 91x
(911 or 912) and NCR NDC or NDC+ provide emulation of older generations of
hardware on newer platforms with incremental extensions made over time to address new
capabilities, although companies like NCR continuously improve these protocols issuing
newer versions (e.g. NCR's AANDC v3.x.y, where x.y are subversions). Most major
ATM manufacturers provide software packages that implement these protocols. Newer
protocols such as IFX have yet to find wide acceptance by transaction processors.
With the move to a more standardized software base, financial institutions have been
increasingly interested in the ability to pick and choose the application programs that
drive their equipment. WOSA/XFS, now known as CEN XFS (or simply XFS), provides
a common API for accessing and manipulating the various devices of an ATM. J/XFS is
a Java implementation of the CEN XFS API.
While the perceived benefit of XFS is similar to the Java's "Write once, run anywhere"
mantra, often different ATM hardware vendors have different interpretations of the XFS
standard. The result of these differences in interpretation means that ATM applications
typically use a middleware to even out the differences between various platforms.
With the onset of Windows operating systems and XFS on ATM's, the software
applications have the ability to become more intelligent. This has created a new breed of
ATM applications commonly referred to as programmable applications. These types of
applications allows for an entirely new host of applications in which the ATM terminal
can do more than only communicate with the ATM switch. It is now empowered to
connected to other content servers and video banking systems.
Notable ATM software that operates on XFS platforms include Triton PRISM, Diebold
Agilis EmPower, NCR APTRA Edge, Absolute Systems AbsoluteINTERACT, KAL
Kalignite, Phoenix Interactive VISTAatm, and Wincor Nixdorf ProTopas.
With the move of ATMs to industry-standard computing environments, concern has risen
about the integrity of the ATM's software stack.
ATM as Liquidity Management :
Although ATMs were originally developed as just cash dispensers, they have evolved to
include many other bank-related functions. In some countries, especially those which
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank ATM network (e.g.: Multibanco in Portugal),
ATMs include many functions which are not directly related to the management of one's
own bank account, such as:
• Deposit currency recognition, acceptance, and recycling[
• Paying routine bills, fees, and taxes (utilities, phone bills, social security, legal
fees, taxes, etc.)
• Printing bank statements
• Updating passbooks
• Loading monetary value into stored value cards
• Purchasing
o Postage stamps.
o Lottery tickets
o Train tickets
o Concert tickets
o Movie tickets
o Shopping mall gift certificates.
• Games and promotional features
• Fastloans
• CRM at the ATM
• Donating to charities
• Cheque Processing Module
• Adding pre-paid cell phone / mobile phone credit.
• Paying (in full or partially) the credit balance on a card linked to a specific current
account.
• Transferring money between linked accounts (such as transferring between
checking and savings accounts)
• Gold - "In London last week [in 2011] some smart businessmen launched the
country’s first gold ATM. Stick in your credit card or some cash, and the machine
will swap your plastic or paper money for a small bar of the real stuff.
Increasingly banks are seeking to use the ATM as a sales device to deliver pre approved
loans and targeted advertising using products such as ITM (the Intelligent Teller
Machine) from Aptra Relate from NCR. ATMs can also act as an advertising channel for
companies to advertise their own products or third-party products and services.
ATM Working DIAGRMS:
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
WORKING:
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Identification and providing access to its products through the various electronic
channels. In order to provide access to these products, cards with magnetic bands are
normally associated to a personal identification number (PIN) which is initially
assigned by the entity issuing the card and, in some cases, the client can then change it
at his/her convenience. The card and the PIN are directly related to the user
identification and allow for the utilization of electronic channels just like as is the case
with the ATMs.
Typical ATMs have two input devices (a card reader and keypad) and
four output devices (display screen, cash dispenser, receipt printer,
and speaker). Not visible to the client is a communications mechanism
that links the ATM directly to an ATM host network. The ATM functions
much like a PC; it comes with an operating system and specific
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
application software for the user interface and communications.
Whereas most ATMs use magnetic strip cards and personal
identification numbers (PINs) to identify account holders, other
systems may use smart cards with fingerprint validation. The ATM
forwards information read from the client’s card and the details of the
client’s request to a host processor, which then routes the request to
the client’s financial institution. If the cardholder is requesting cash,
the host processor signals for an electronic funds transfer (EFT) from
the customer’s bank account to the host processor’s account. Once the
funds have been transferred, the ATM receives an approval code
authorizing it to dispense the cash. This communication, verification,
and authorization can be delivered several ways. Leased line, dialup, or
wireless data links may be used to connect to the host system,
depending on the cost and reliability of infrastructure. The host
systems can reside at the client’s institution or be part of an EFT
network. The EFT network may support debit card transactions using
PINs, or credit card transactions using a signature. Point-of-sale
services that use PINs are also possible. EFTs often has a national or
regional scope.
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Sept. 18, 2011
PITFALLS:
• Technology on its own will not solve problems of inefficiency or poor management.
On its own, technology will never solve the problems of an inefficient and poorly
managed institution. At such an institution, technology may just automate problems and
highlight inefficiencies. Even in cases in which technology can solve problems,
sometimes it is impossible to do so cost-effectively. Technology works best as a tool to
facilitate systems in a properly functioning MFI.1
• Lack of adequate controls can open the door to theft and/or fraud.
ATMs require a high degree of additional control beyond those traditionally employed by
rural and agricultural financial service providers. Institutions need to make sure they are
able to track funds that have been deposited into the ATMs but not yet accounted for in
central accounts as fraud or errors may be involved with the deposit. MFIs should ensure
that they have a precise understanding of the necessary controls to safeguard ATM
operations before they launch the product. Many technology service providers can supply
institutional support to fully integrate controls.
• Lack of understanding of client demand for and willingness to adopt ATMs can
lead to failed implementation.
When initiating new technologies such as offering financial services through ATMs,
institutions must be prepared to educate clients on the benefits and train them in the use
of the new technology. Failing to do so can reduce adoption rates and/or lead to a
rejection of the technology by the targeted clients.
• Failure to adequately consider the implications of ATMs on the business financial
and operational performance.
If financial service providers do not fully calculate the cost of the ATMs on the
institution (purchase, installation, maintenance, staff and client training, new controls) it
will be unable to understand the cost-benefit of using the new machines and could end up
with a poor investment.
• Depersonalizing services can alienate clients.
Clients are often relationship oriented and enjoy person-to-person transactions. These
transactions build trust and familiarity while automating processes can depersonalize
services and alienate clients. This must be considered and adequately planned for when
switching from highly personalized services to automated transactions.
13
ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
ATM SAFETY GUIDE:
BE ALERT
Use common sense
Trust your eyes, ears and feelings.
Only use ATMs where you feel safe.
Stop, look and watch
If you think someone is following you when you use your ATM card,
move quickly to a safe, crowded area. Don’t stay at the machine.
Know the ATM
Do not use the ATM if:
• the ATM looks different or
• the ATM has any unusual signs.
• Contact the bank and report the problem
immediately.
Guard your card
Tell your bank immediately if:
• your ATM card is lost or stolen or
• any unauthorized ATM transactions appear on your account statements.
You should be fully reimbursed if you notify your bank promptly.
Treat your ATM card like cash. Guard your ATM/debit card as carefully as cash, checks
and credit cards.
BE CAUTIOUS
Keep your personal identification number (PIN) a secret
• Memorize your PIN.
• Stand between the machine and anyone behind you.
• NEVER tell your PIN to anyone.
• NEVER write it on your card or keep it with the card.
• NEVER let someone else enter it for you.
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ATM MACHINE
Sept. 18, 2011
Practice safety
1. At your walk-up ATM:
a. Minimize time spent at the ATM.
b. Have your card ready to use.
c. While using your card, if anyone or anything seems suspicious, press
cancel and leave immediately.
d. NEVER let a stranger help you at an ATM.
2. At your drive-up ATM:
a. Keep your car engine running.
b. Make sure your doors are locked.
c. Only open the driver’s window.
d. If something seems unusual, drive away at once.
Don’t flash cash
Put away your money, receipt, card and wallet right away.
• Never walk around with cash in your hand.
BE CAREFUL
• Protect your purchases
When using an ATM, place your bags and purchases between you and
the machine where you can easily see them.
• Play it safe at night
Choose an ATM that is well lit. There is safety in numbers, so bring
along a friend if you can.
15

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ATM MACHINE

  • 1. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 ATM MACHINE Powered By: Chandan Kumar 1
  • 2. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Abstract This paper presents the concept of the Liquidity Management. This paper also presents the working of ATM. ATM as the liquidity management. The Specifications of the ATM Machine, its various requirements. The Various services provided by ATM. The safety guide to use the ATM. KEY WORDS: ATM, ATM History, ATM Working, Diagrams, ATM Safety Guide, Customer satisfaction, Fees, Problems, ATM services, Banks. INTRODUCTION: 2
  • 3. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Automated Teller Machine is a computerised machine that provides the customers of banks the facility of accessing their accounts for dispensing cash and to carry out other financial transactions without the need of actually visiting a bank branch. ATM means neither “avoids traveling with money” nor “any time money,” but certainly implies both. Slim ATM cards are fast replacing confounding withdrawal forms as a convenient way of getting your money from banks. In a way, they are rewriting the rules of financial transaction. A smart person no longer needs to carry a wallet-full of paper money on his person. All he needs to do is fish out an ATM (automated teller machine) card, insert it in the slot, punch in a few details and go home with hard cash. Automated teller machines (ATMs) were the first well-known machines to provide electronic access to customers. With advent of Automatic Teller Machines (ATM), banks are able to serve customers outside the banking hall. ATM is designed to perform the most important function of bank. It is operated by plastic card with its special features. The plastic card is replacing cheque, personal attendance of the customer, banking hour’s restrictions and paper based verification. ATMs have made hard cash just seconds away all throughout the day at every corner of the globe. ATMs allow you to do a number of banking functions – such as withdrawing cash from one’s account, making balance inquiries and transferring money from one account to another – using a plastic, magnetic- strip card and personal identification number issued by the financial institution. HISTORY: 3
  • 4. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 The idea of self-service in retail banking developed through independent and simultaneous efforts in Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the USA, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing and building the first cash dispenser machine. There is strong evidence to suggest that Simjian worked on this device before 1959 while his 132nd patent (US3079603) was first filed on 30 June 1960 (and granted 26 February 1963). The rollout of this machine called Bankograph, was delayed a couple of years. This was due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after 6 months due to the lack of customer acceptance. The Bankograph was an automated envelope deposit machine (accepting coins, cash and cheques) and it did not have cash dispensing features. A first cash dispensing device was used in Tokyo in 1966. Although little is known of this first device, it seems to have been activated with a credit card rather than accessing current account balances. It was followed in 1967 by a machine in Uppsala. Reg Varney, first to use a cash point in the UK Plaque commemorating installation of world's first bank cash machineIn simultaneous and independent efforts, engineers in Sweden and Britain developed their own cash machines during the early 1960s. The first of these that was put into use was by Barclays Bank in Enfield Town in North London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967. This machine was the first in the UK and was used by English comedy actor Reg Varney, at the time so as to ensure maximum publicity for the machines that were to become mainstream in the UK. This instance of the invention has been credited to John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, who was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year's Honours List. His design used special cheques that were matched with a personal identification number, as plastic bank cards had not yet been invented. The Barclays-De La Rue machine (called De La Rue Automatic Cash System or DACS) beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company called Metior's machine (a device called Bankomat) by nine days and Westminster Bank’s-Smith Industries-Chubb system (called Chubb MD2) by a month. The collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a third machine which was marketed after 1969 in Europe and the USA by the Burroughs Corporation. The patent for this device (GB1329964) was filed on September 1969 (and granted in 1973) by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe & Malcom David Roe. 4
  • 5. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher which was retained by the machine while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic strip at the back. They used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a British engineer working on the MD2 named James Goodfellow in 1965 (patent GB1197183 filed on 2 May 1966 with Anthony Davies). The essence of this system was that it enabled the verification of the customer with the debited account without human intervention. This patent is also the earliest instance of a complete “currency dispenser system” in the patent record. This patent was filed on 5 March 1968 in the USA (US 3543904) and granted on 1 December 1970. It had a profound influence on the industry as a whole. Not only did future entrants into the cash dispenser market such as NCR Corporation and IBM licence Goodfellow’s PIN system, but a number of later patents reference this patent as “Prior Art Device”. After looking first hand at the experiences in Europe, in 1968 the networked ATM was pioneered in the US, in Dallas, Texas, by Donald Wetzel, who was a department head at an automated baggage-handling company called Docutel. On September 2, 1969, Chemical Bank installed the first ATM in the U.S. at its branch in Rockville Centre, New York. The first ATMs were designed to dispense a fixed amount of cash when a user inserted a specially coded card. A Chemical Bank advertisement boasted "On Sept. 2 our bank will open at 9:00 and never close again. Chemicals' ATM, initially known as a Docuteller was designed by Donald Wetzel and his company Docutel. Chemical executives were initially hesitant about the electronic banking transition given the high cost of the early machines. Additionally, executives were concerned that customers would resist having machines handling their money. In 1995, the Smithsonian National Museum of American History recognized Docutel and Wetzel as the inventors of the networked ATM. ATMs first came into use in December 1972 in the UK; the IBM 2984 was designed at the request of Lloyds Bank. The 2984 CIT (Cash Issuing Terminal) was the first true Cashpoint, similar in function to today's machines; Cashpoint is still a registered trademark of Lloyds TSB in the UK. All were online and issued a variable amount which was immediately deducted from the account. A small number of 2984s were supplied to a US bank. Notable historical models of ATMs include the IBM 3624 and 473x series, Diebold 10xx and TABS 9000 series, NCR 1780 and earlier NCR 770 series. Financial networks : 5
  • 6. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or in the country where their accounts are held (enabling cash withdrawals in local currency). Some examples of interbank networks include PULSE, PLUS, Cirrus, Interac, Interswitch, STAR, and LINK. ATMs rely on authorization of a financial transaction by the card issuer or other authorizing institution via the communications network. This is often performed through an ISO 8583 messaging system. Many banks charge ATM usage fees. In some cases, these fees are charged solely to users who are not customers of the bank where the ATM is installed; in other cases, they apply to all users. In order to allow a more diverse range of devices to attach to their networks, some interbank networks have passed rules expanding the definition of an ATM to be a terminal that either has the vault within its footprint or utilizes the vault or cash drawer within the merchant establishment, which allows for the use of a scrip cash dispenser. A Diebold 1063ix with a dial-up modem visible at the base ATMs typically connect directly to their host or ATM Controller via either ADSL or dial- up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. Leased lines are preferable to POTS lines because they require less time to establish a connection. Leased lines may be comparatively expensive to operate versus a POTS line, meaning less-trafficked machines will usually rely on a dial-up modem. That dilemma may be solved as high- speed Internet VPN connections become more ubiquitous. Common lower-level layer communication protocols used by ATMs to communicate back to the bank include SNA over SDLC, TC500 over Async, X.25, and TCP/IP over Ethernet. 6
  • 7. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 In addition to methods employed for transaction security and secrecy, all communications traffic between the ATM and the Transaction Processor may also be encrypted via methods such as SSL. Requirements of an ATM machine: Hardware Requirements:  CPU :To control the user interface and transaction devices  Magnetic and/or Chip card reader: To identify the customer.  PIN Pad: Similar in layout to a Touch tone or Calculator keypad, often manufactured as part of a secure enclosure.  Secure crypto processor, generally within a secure enclosure.  Display: Used by the customer for performing the transaction.  Function key buttons: Usually close to the display (or) Touch screen, used to select the various aspects of the transaction.  Record Printer: To provide the customer with a record of their transaction.  Vault: To store the parts of the machinery requiring restricted access.  Housing: For aesthetics and to attach signage. SOFTWARE Requirements : With the migration to commodity PC hardware, standard commercial "off-the-shelf" operating systems and programming environments can be used inside of ATMs. Typical platforms previously used in ATM development include RMX or OS/2. Today the vast majority of ATMs worldwide use a Microsoft OS, primarily Windows XP Professional or Windows XP Embedded. A small number of deployments may still be running older versions such as Windows NT, Windows CE or Windows 2000. Notably, Vista was not widely adopted in ATMs. There is a computer industry security view or consensus that desktop operating systems have greater risks as operating systems for cash dispensing machines than other types of operating systems like (secure) real-time operating systems (RTOS). RISKS Digest has many articles about cash machine operating system vulnerabilities. 7
  • 8. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 A Wincor Nixdorf ATM running Windows 2000. Linux is also finding some reception in the ATM marketplace. An example of this is Banrisul, the largest bank in the south of Brazil, which has replaced the MS-DOS operating systems in its ATMs with Linux. Banco do Brasil is also migrating ATMs to Linux. Common application layer transaction protocols, such as Diebold 91x (911 or 912) and NCR NDC or NDC+ provide emulation of older generations of hardware on newer platforms with incremental extensions made over time to address new capabilities, although companies like NCR continuously improve these protocols issuing newer versions (e.g. NCR's AANDC v3.x.y, where x.y are subversions). Most major ATM manufacturers provide software packages that implement these protocols. Newer protocols such as IFX have yet to find wide acceptance by transaction processors. With the move to a more standardized software base, financial institutions have been increasingly interested in the ability to pick and choose the application programs that drive their equipment. WOSA/XFS, now known as CEN XFS (or simply XFS), provides a common API for accessing and manipulating the various devices of an ATM. J/XFS is a Java implementation of the CEN XFS API. While the perceived benefit of XFS is similar to the Java's "Write once, run anywhere" mantra, often different ATM hardware vendors have different interpretations of the XFS standard. The result of these differences in interpretation means that ATM applications typically use a middleware to even out the differences between various platforms. With the onset of Windows operating systems and XFS on ATM's, the software applications have the ability to become more intelligent. This has created a new breed of ATM applications commonly referred to as programmable applications. These types of applications allows for an entirely new host of applications in which the ATM terminal can do more than only communicate with the ATM switch. It is now empowered to connected to other content servers and video banking systems. Notable ATM software that operates on XFS platforms include Triton PRISM, Diebold Agilis EmPower, NCR APTRA Edge, Absolute Systems AbsoluteINTERACT, KAL Kalignite, Phoenix Interactive VISTAatm, and Wincor Nixdorf ProTopas. With the move of ATMs to industry-standard computing environments, concern has risen about the integrity of the ATM's software stack. ATM as Liquidity Management : Although ATMs were originally developed as just cash dispensers, they have evolved to include many other bank-related functions. In some countries, especially those which 8
  • 9. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank ATM network (e.g.: Multibanco in Portugal), ATMs include many functions which are not directly related to the management of one's own bank account, such as: • Deposit currency recognition, acceptance, and recycling[ • Paying routine bills, fees, and taxes (utilities, phone bills, social security, legal fees, taxes, etc.) • Printing bank statements • Updating passbooks • Loading monetary value into stored value cards • Purchasing o Postage stamps. o Lottery tickets o Train tickets o Concert tickets o Movie tickets o Shopping mall gift certificates. • Games and promotional features • Fastloans • CRM at the ATM • Donating to charities • Cheque Processing Module • Adding pre-paid cell phone / mobile phone credit. • Paying (in full or partially) the credit balance on a card linked to a specific current account. • Transferring money between linked accounts (such as transferring between checking and savings accounts) • Gold - "In London last week [in 2011] some smart businessmen launched the country’s first gold ATM. Stick in your credit card or some cash, and the machine will swap your plastic or paper money for a small bar of the real stuff. Increasingly banks are seeking to use the ATM as a sales device to deliver pre approved loans and targeted advertising using products such as ITM (the Intelligent Teller Machine) from Aptra Relate from NCR. ATMs can also act as an advertising channel for companies to advertise their own products or third-party products and services. ATM Working DIAGRMS: 9
  • 10. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 WORKING: 10
  • 11. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Identification and providing access to its products through the various electronic channels. In order to provide access to these products, cards with magnetic bands are normally associated to a personal identification number (PIN) which is initially assigned by the entity issuing the card and, in some cases, the client can then change it at his/her convenience. The card and the PIN are directly related to the user identification and allow for the utilization of electronic channels just like as is the case with the ATMs. Typical ATMs have two input devices (a card reader and keypad) and four output devices (display screen, cash dispenser, receipt printer, and speaker). Not visible to the client is a communications mechanism that links the ATM directly to an ATM host network. The ATM functions much like a PC; it comes with an operating system and specific 11
  • 12. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 application software for the user interface and communications. Whereas most ATMs use magnetic strip cards and personal identification numbers (PINs) to identify account holders, other systems may use smart cards with fingerprint validation. The ATM forwards information read from the client’s card and the details of the client’s request to a host processor, which then routes the request to the client’s financial institution. If the cardholder is requesting cash, the host processor signals for an electronic funds transfer (EFT) from the customer’s bank account to the host processor’s account. Once the funds have been transferred, the ATM receives an approval code authorizing it to dispense the cash. This communication, verification, and authorization can be delivered several ways. Leased line, dialup, or wireless data links may be used to connect to the host system, depending on the cost and reliability of infrastructure. The host systems can reside at the client’s institution or be part of an EFT network. The EFT network may support debit card transactions using PINs, or credit card transactions using a signature. Point-of-sale services that use PINs are also possible. EFTs often has a national or regional scope. 12
  • 13. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 PITFALLS: • Technology on its own will not solve problems of inefficiency or poor management. On its own, technology will never solve the problems of an inefficient and poorly managed institution. At such an institution, technology may just automate problems and highlight inefficiencies. Even in cases in which technology can solve problems, sometimes it is impossible to do so cost-effectively. Technology works best as a tool to facilitate systems in a properly functioning MFI.1 • Lack of adequate controls can open the door to theft and/or fraud. ATMs require a high degree of additional control beyond those traditionally employed by rural and agricultural financial service providers. Institutions need to make sure they are able to track funds that have been deposited into the ATMs but not yet accounted for in central accounts as fraud or errors may be involved with the deposit. MFIs should ensure that they have a precise understanding of the necessary controls to safeguard ATM operations before they launch the product. Many technology service providers can supply institutional support to fully integrate controls. • Lack of understanding of client demand for and willingness to adopt ATMs can lead to failed implementation. When initiating new technologies such as offering financial services through ATMs, institutions must be prepared to educate clients on the benefits and train them in the use of the new technology. Failing to do so can reduce adoption rates and/or lead to a rejection of the technology by the targeted clients. • Failure to adequately consider the implications of ATMs on the business financial and operational performance. If financial service providers do not fully calculate the cost of the ATMs on the institution (purchase, installation, maintenance, staff and client training, new controls) it will be unable to understand the cost-benefit of using the new machines and could end up with a poor investment. • Depersonalizing services can alienate clients. Clients are often relationship oriented and enjoy person-to-person transactions. These transactions build trust and familiarity while automating processes can depersonalize services and alienate clients. This must be considered and adequately planned for when switching from highly personalized services to automated transactions. 13
  • 14. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 ATM SAFETY GUIDE: BE ALERT Use common sense Trust your eyes, ears and feelings. Only use ATMs where you feel safe. Stop, look and watch If you think someone is following you when you use your ATM card, move quickly to a safe, crowded area. Don’t stay at the machine. Know the ATM Do not use the ATM if: • the ATM looks different or • the ATM has any unusual signs. • Contact the bank and report the problem immediately. Guard your card Tell your bank immediately if: • your ATM card is lost or stolen or • any unauthorized ATM transactions appear on your account statements. You should be fully reimbursed if you notify your bank promptly. Treat your ATM card like cash. Guard your ATM/debit card as carefully as cash, checks and credit cards. BE CAUTIOUS Keep your personal identification number (PIN) a secret • Memorize your PIN. • Stand between the machine and anyone behind you. • NEVER tell your PIN to anyone. • NEVER write it on your card or keep it with the card. • NEVER let someone else enter it for you. 14
  • 15. ATM MACHINE Sept. 18, 2011 Practice safety 1. At your walk-up ATM: a. Minimize time spent at the ATM. b. Have your card ready to use. c. While using your card, if anyone or anything seems suspicious, press cancel and leave immediately. d. NEVER let a stranger help you at an ATM. 2. At your drive-up ATM: a. Keep your car engine running. b. Make sure your doors are locked. c. Only open the driver’s window. d. If something seems unusual, drive away at once. Don’t flash cash Put away your money, receipt, card and wallet right away. • Never walk around with cash in your hand. BE CAREFUL • Protect your purchases When using an ATM, place your bags and purchases between you and the machine where you can easily see them. • Play it safe at night Choose an ATM that is well lit. There is safety in numbers, so bring along a friend if you can. 15