SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Assessing the Role of Color Cues and
People’s Beliefs about Color-Flavor
Associations on the Discrimination
of the Flavor of Sugar-Coated
Chocolates
Carmel A. Levitan, Massimiliano
Zampini, Ryan Li and Charles Spence
Chamse.oxfordjournals.org
Norihiro Takeda
1Color-Flavor Associations
INTRODUCTION
Color-Flavor Associations 2
Purpose
Flavor
Color
Olfactory
Gustatory
3Color-Flavor Associations
Experiments with Smarties
• 8 different colors
• 2 flavors (milk chocolates & orange flavored)
• Taste 2 Smarties
• Judge whether their flavor was the same or
different
• Sighted and blindfolded
Color-Flavor Associations 4
Predictions before Two Experiments
1. Discrimination accuracy (whether
same/diff.) should be worse when the
participants are blindfolded
2. The perceived distinctiveness of the orange
flavor should decrease when the participants
are blindfolded
3. The judgment on 2 Smarties should depends
on the participants prior beliefs
Color-Flavor Associations 5
EXPERIMENT 1
Color-Flavor Associations 6
Methods
• Participants
– 16 untrained undergraduates from the University
of Oxford
– 8 men & 8 women
– Mean age = 20 years
Color-Flavor Associations 7
Methods
• Apparatus & Materials
– Questionaire
1. How familiar do you consider yourself with
Smarties?(1-5)
2. Smarties come in 8 different colors. Do you
think you can taste the difference between
them? Please give the details.
– Smarties produced for the UK market
– 3 different colors (orange, red, green)
Color-Flavor Associations 8
Procedure
• 2 experimental sessions (sighted/blind folded)
on separate days
• 5 trials with each of 6 possible color pairings
Color-Flavor Associations 9
x 5 trials
Procedure
eat 1st Smarty
rinse the mouth out
with the water
eat 2nd Smarty
answer
“same”or”different”
rate how confident they
were in their judgment
(1=least confident,
5=most confident)
Color-Flavor Associations 10
Results
• Answers for the questionnaire
– 13/16 (81%) were fairly familiar with S
– 10 were rated as believing that the orange S were
distinctive
– 6 were rated as believing that certain non-orange S
were distinctive
Color-Flavor Associations 11
Results
• Analysis on the
experiment
– Less accurate when
blindfolded
Color-Flavor Associations 12
Results
• Prior beliefs (non-
orange S might have
different flavor)
influenced on the flavor
discrimination
– More accurate in the
blindfolded condition
Color-Flavor Associations 13
Results
• Participants were more confident of their
responses when they could see S than when
blindfolded
Color-Flavor Associations 14
Discussion on Experiment 1
• People’s specific color-flavor associations
significantly affected their flavor
discrimination responses
• A number of the participants incorrectly
believed that certain non-orange S had a
distinctive flavor
• Others were apparently aware that all non-
orange S tasted the same
Color-Flavor Associations 15
EXPERIMENT 2
Color-Flavor Associations 16
Methods
• Participants
– 336 untrained students of Oxford Uni. (not
necessarily UK nationals)
• Apparatus & Materials
– Questionnaire
1. How familiar do you consider yourself to be with
S (1-5)?
2. S come in 8 different colors. Have you ever
noticed any colors tasting different?
Color-Flavor Associations 17
Methods
• Apparatus & Materials
– S produced in the UK
– Distinctive orange flavor
– S produced in Germany
– Same flavor in each
color
Color-Flavor Associations 18
Methods
• Procedure
– red & orange tasted different (N=108)
– red & orange tasted same (N=108)
– 2 oranges tasted different (N=60)
– 2oranges tasted same (N=60)
• Responds
1. The 2 Smarties definitely tasted the same
2. Probably tasted the same
3. Probably tasted different
4. Definitely tasted different
Color-Flavor Associations 19
Results
• 200/336 (60%)
considered to be fairly
familiar with S
• 0 = definitely tasting the
same
• 10 = definitely tasting
different
Color-Flavor Associations 20
GENERAL DISCUSSION
Color-Flavor Associations 21
• Food coloring can exert a powerful influence
over people’s flavor discrimination
performance
Color-Flavor Associations 22

More Related Content

More from Norihiro Takeda

20180811 social salon(rwanda)
20180811 social salon(rwanda)20180811 social salon(rwanda)
20180811 social salon(rwanda)
Norihiro Takeda
 
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 220180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
Norihiro Takeda
 
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
Norihiro Takeda
 
20180206 鏡小学校
20180206 鏡小学校20180206 鏡小学校
20180206 鏡小学校
Norihiro Takeda
 
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
Norihiro Takeda
 
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
Norihiro Takeda
 
Household investigation result
Household investigation resultHousehold investigation result
Household investigation result
Norihiro Takeda
 
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA VolunteerResume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
Norihiro Takeda
 

More from Norihiro Takeda (8)

20180811 social salon(rwanda)
20180811 social salon(rwanda)20180811 social salon(rwanda)
20180811 social salon(rwanda)
 
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 220180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
20180618 ルワンダノオトの勉強会 2
 
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
20180616 ルワンダ・スタディツアー「START」説明会
 
20180206 鏡小学校
20180206 鏡小学校20180206 鏡小学校
20180206 鏡小学校
 
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
20180130 ルワンダってどんな国?
 
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
学校保健テレビ会議 発表資料(ルワンダ竹田)
 
Household investigation result
Household investigation resultHousehold investigation result
Household investigation result
 
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA VolunteerResume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
Resume for Counter Part as a JICA Volunteer
 

Recently uploaded

Small businesses on the rise in Singapore
Small businesses on the rise in SingaporeSmall businesses on the rise in Singapore
Small businesses on the rise in Singapore
rachellekirsten
 
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
parulpk4011
 
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
dimplekumaridk322
 
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptxCrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
MaxineHuang8
 
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo showDomes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
Sc Pattar
 
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
parulpk4011
 
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
miss ekta$A17
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
jealousviolet
 
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offeredSONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
JacobNiederhoffer
 
UoL degree offer diploma Transcript
UoL degree offer diploma TranscriptUoL degree offer diploma Transcript
UoL degree offer diploma Transcript
bybze
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ... Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
sharmaprianka139
 
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayionPsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
wilmer257671
 
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
bhumivarma35300
 
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptxDIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
NoahPaz1
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad AvailableGirls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
ashiklo9823
 
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdfphyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
parareseller1
 
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
connectcontemporary
 
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma TranscriptThe University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
ufozf
 
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
%$A19%
 
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysisCrain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
babulkumar76508
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Small businesses on the rise in Singapore
Small businesses on the rise in SingaporeSmall businesses on the rise in Singapore
Small businesses on the rise in Singapore
 
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
High Profile Girls Call Vadodara 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
 
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptxCrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
CrypticEnclave_technical art project1.pptx
 
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo showDomes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
Domes Of Bijapur A Historical Photo show
 
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Bhubaneswar 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
 
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Verified Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offeredSONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
SONG LIST MSC - Some of the popular songs offered
 
UoL degree offer diploma Transcript
UoL degree offer diploma TranscriptUoL degree offer diploma Transcript
UoL degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ... Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayionPsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
PsR regulations 2024 public srrvice regulayion
 
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptxDIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
DIAPOSITIVAS ENRIQUE IGLESIASbibliografia.pptx
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad AvailableGirls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
Girls Call Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad Available
 
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdfphyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
phyto atomy Satyabhama Shantanu Cucumber Body Butter 250g by Phyto Atomy.pdf
 
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
Why We Love Visiting Art Galleries?
 
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma TranscriptThe University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
The University of Queensland degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Online Girls Call Aero City 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysisCrain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
Crain's Grand Rapids Business | Breaking news and analysis
 

Assessing the role of color cues and people’s

  • 1. Assessing the Role of Color Cues and People’s Beliefs about Color-Flavor Associations on the Discrimination of the Flavor of Sugar-Coated Chocolates Carmel A. Levitan, Massimiliano Zampini, Ryan Li and Charles Spence Chamse.oxfordjournals.org Norihiro Takeda 1Color-Flavor Associations
  • 4. Experiments with Smarties • 8 different colors • 2 flavors (milk chocolates & orange flavored) • Taste 2 Smarties • Judge whether their flavor was the same or different • Sighted and blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 4
  • 5. Predictions before Two Experiments 1. Discrimination accuracy (whether same/diff.) should be worse when the participants are blindfolded 2. The perceived distinctiveness of the orange flavor should decrease when the participants are blindfolded 3. The judgment on 2 Smarties should depends on the participants prior beliefs Color-Flavor Associations 5
  • 7. Methods • Participants – 16 untrained undergraduates from the University of Oxford – 8 men & 8 women – Mean age = 20 years Color-Flavor Associations 7
  • 8. Methods • Apparatus & Materials – Questionaire 1. How familiar do you consider yourself with Smarties?(1-5) 2. Smarties come in 8 different colors. Do you think you can taste the difference between them? Please give the details. – Smarties produced for the UK market – 3 different colors (orange, red, green) Color-Flavor Associations 8
  • 9. Procedure • 2 experimental sessions (sighted/blind folded) on separate days • 5 trials with each of 6 possible color pairings Color-Flavor Associations 9 x 5 trials
  • 10. Procedure eat 1st Smarty rinse the mouth out with the water eat 2nd Smarty answer “same”or”different” rate how confident they were in their judgment (1=least confident, 5=most confident) Color-Flavor Associations 10
  • 11. Results • Answers for the questionnaire – 13/16 (81%) were fairly familiar with S – 10 were rated as believing that the orange S were distinctive – 6 were rated as believing that certain non-orange S were distinctive Color-Flavor Associations 11
  • 12. Results • Analysis on the experiment – Less accurate when blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 12
  • 13. Results • Prior beliefs (non- orange S might have different flavor) influenced on the flavor discrimination – More accurate in the blindfolded condition Color-Flavor Associations 13
  • 14. Results • Participants were more confident of their responses when they could see S than when blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 14
  • 15. Discussion on Experiment 1 • People’s specific color-flavor associations significantly affected their flavor discrimination responses • A number of the participants incorrectly believed that certain non-orange S had a distinctive flavor • Others were apparently aware that all non- orange S tasted the same Color-Flavor Associations 15
  • 17. Methods • Participants – 336 untrained students of Oxford Uni. (not necessarily UK nationals) • Apparatus & Materials – Questionnaire 1. How familiar do you consider yourself to be with S (1-5)? 2. S come in 8 different colors. Have you ever noticed any colors tasting different? Color-Flavor Associations 17
  • 18. Methods • Apparatus & Materials – S produced in the UK – Distinctive orange flavor – S produced in Germany – Same flavor in each color Color-Flavor Associations 18
  • 19. Methods • Procedure – red & orange tasted different (N=108) – red & orange tasted same (N=108) – 2 oranges tasted different (N=60) – 2oranges tasted same (N=60) • Responds 1. The 2 Smarties definitely tasted the same 2. Probably tasted the same 3. Probably tasted different 4. Definitely tasted different Color-Flavor Associations 19
  • 20. Results • 200/336 (60%) considered to be fairly familiar with S • 0 = definitely tasting the same • 10 = definitely tasting different Color-Flavor Associations 20
  • 22. • Food coloring can exert a powerful influence over people’s flavor discrimination performance Color-Flavor Associations 22